Kingdon’s Policy Windows: Three Case Studies Lauren Siegel and Rachel Bjorhus Overview: Kingdon’s Policy Windows Kingdon’s policy windows model is easily applied to a variety of policies and assists in understanding how policy action unfolds. Will apply to three case studies: ◦ Immigration reform ◦ Gun control ◦ Reauthorization of VAWA Answering the questions: how did the windows open and how long were/will they stay open? Kingdon’s Framework Policy windows ◦ Problem Windows ◦ Political Windows ◦ Predictable Windows Solutions drawn from the policy stream Coupling and joining of the streams Role of entrepreneurs in coupling process Comprehensive Immigration Reform Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 last comprehensive action Most recent attempt in 2007 Impact of recession; anti-immigrant sentiment Variety of interest groups: business, labor, social advocates, state governments When did the window open and how long will it be open? ◦ Very recently ◦ Not very long The Policy Window and Joining the Streams Problem Stream-Growing number of undocumented immigrants -Labor needs of a struggling economy -Social welfare system constraints -Increasing number of state-level actions Political Stream-Obama’s reelection -Growing importance of Latino vote -Recent cooperation/action in the House -Increasing pressure from business/labor community and DREAMers Policy Stream-Obama’s inclusion in second term agenda - “Gang of Eight” bipartisan Senators’ policy proposals -Previous proposals from labor and education advocates When Will the Window Close? Congressional action appears imminent ◦ “Gang of Eight’s proposal expected in coming weeks Current political context plays important role, both in Presidential agenda setting and in bipartisan consensus building (due to electoral politics implications) Gun Control: Before the Policy Window Societal Predisposition The second amendment: “A well regulated militia, being necessary to the security of the free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed”. Regulation versus Rights The Founding Fathers instituted intrusive control laws. (Winkler, 2011) Confusion Over Indicators Opening the Current Policy Window Shooting at Sandy Hook Elementary School Mass shootings reportedly not on the rise (O’Neill, 2012) On the heels of shootings in: ◦ Aurora, CO at the premier of Dark Knight Rises ◦ Oak Creek, WI at a Sikh Temple ◦ Tucson, AZ- Rep. Gabrielle Gifford The Policy Window and Joining the Streams Problem Stream-Newtown as the focusing event -Mental illness -Enforcing current laws -Not enough laws Political Stream-Obama appointed Biden as head of task force -Democratic Senate and Republican House -continued media coverage -state-level successes only Policy Stream-23 executive actions for reforms -Current bi-partisan legislation Keeping the Window Open (Hayes, 2013) When Will the Window Close? Very soon- April 6th report says Democratic Leaders will be meeting today May have to scale back measures to gain more bi-partisan support Will likely pass as the most comprehensive federal gun control legislation A Predictable Policy Window: The Violence Against Women Reauthorization Act Funds the investigation and prosecution of violent crimes against women, as well as DOJ’s Office on Violence Against Women Originally passed in 1994 with a 235-195 vote with bipartisan support In 2000 and 2005 it was reauthorized with amendment that extended protections from gendered violence The window opened in 2011 when it was due for reauthorization However, Maybe Not So Predictable… VAWA was expired for over a year before the 2012 renewal was making progress The reauthorization was not fully resolved until February 2013-passed 286138 This reauthorization by far took the longest How does this fit into Kingdon’s model? Violence Against Women Act Reauthorization 2011-2013 Problem Stream-Reauthorization needed -Continued need for services and programming related to gender-based violence Political Stream-Democratic Executive and Senate, Republican House -Pressure from Women’s Reproductive Rights Interest Groups -The role of states Policy Stream-The Senateprotections for same-sex couples, undocumented individuals, as well as grants to tribal communities. -The House amendments excluded all of this. The Policy Window Closed February 2013 This reauthorization decreased appropriations for all of its programming Has all of the Senate’s intended protections for undocumented individuals, those that identify as LGBT and Native American women Continues all programming, including education-based, non-direct services related Discussion How do you think Kingdon’s model of “riding a policy wave” fits with principles taught in our policy analysis courses? Do you agree or disagree with our analyses of these three issues? References Briggs,V.M. (2012). The Elusive Goal: The Quest for a Credible Immigration Policy. Policy Analysis and Management, 31(4), p. 956 963. Follman, M., Aronson, G. & Pan, D. (2013). A Guide to Mass Shootings in America. Mother Jones. Hayes, D. (2013). Why This Gun Control Debate Has Been Different. The Washington Post. Kingdon, J. W. (2011). Agenda, Alternative, and Public Policies. National Task Force To End Sexual and Domestic Violence Against Women. (2013). Summary of Changes from VAWA Reauthorization 2013. O’Neill, H. (2012). Mass Shootings Not on the Rise, but Their Impact is Huge. Associated Press. Overview of Kingdon’s Theory. [Flow Chart]. (n.d.). Squire & Moncreif (2010). State Legislatures Today: Politics Under the Domes, Chapter 6. This Time, It's different. (2012). The Economist, 405 (8812), p. 30 -31 Winkler, A. (2011). The Secret History of Guns. The Atlantic.