Remediation of Tetrachloroethylene DNAPL Contaminated Soils on

Report
Remediation of
Tetrachloroethylene DNAPL
Contaminated Soils on Parris
Island, South Carolina
Randall Martin
SWS 6262: Soil Contamination and Remediation
Introduction
• What is TetrachloroethyleneDNAPL
• Contaminated Site
• Previous Remediation
• Pilot Studies
• Suggested Remediation
Technique
• Conclusion
Parris Island, South Carolina (Source: Vroblesky et.al., 2009)
Tetrachloroethylene
• Known as PCE
• Chemical Formula C2Cl4
• Drying cleaning and degreasing
• Medical concerns
• Liver failure
• Renal Cancer
• Lympathic and hematopoitic
cancer
• Ocular deterioration
• Dense Non-Aqueous Phase
Liquid
•
•
•
•
•
DNAPL
Immobile
Concentrated
Spread
Elusive
• Drinking water
• 3 PPB (FL)
Tetrachloroethylene, (Source: Wikimedia)
Parris Island
• History
• Purchased 1883 - Navy Base
• Marines 1915 – Recruit
Training
• Geology
• Barrier-island sand, silt, clay,
organic layer
• Surficial Aquifer
• Hawthorne formation and
Floridan aquifer
• Land use
• Buildings
• Ranges and training areas
• Population
• Military
• Civilian
Contaminated Site
• Site-45
• Contamination 1994, dry cleaning
facility
• Unknown Volume
• Krug et.al. (2010) – 1294.6 kg
• Concerns
• Areas of exposure
• Source of drinking water
• Class GB groundwater
• < 10000 PPM TDS
• MCL organic/inorganic contaminants
Site 45, (Source: Vroblesky et.al., 2009)
Spread of Contaminants
• Orientation
• Northern plume
• Facility relocation
• Investigation and second
plume
• Movement
• Storm sewers
• Sanitary sewers
• Tidal Influence
Sewer system around Site 45, (Source: Vroblesky et.al., 2009)
Source: Vroblesky et.al., 2011
DNAPL Remediation Strategies
• Natural Attenuation
• Bioaugmentation
• Biostimulation
• Pump and treat
• In situ chemical oxidation
• Excavation
• Steam injection
• Pyrolysis
• Combustion
• Emulsion injection
• Air sparging
• Flushing
• Thermal volatilization
Pump and Treat
• Initial Remediation 1998
• Lateral spread
• Reduce concentration
• Intercept down gradient
• 1.056 million gallons
• Discontinued 2000
• Remove NAPL FIRST!
• McKinney & Lin (1996)
• Time vs. cost, 7 years
• Fewer larger flow rate wells
• Tailings
Source: Mercer et.al., 1990
Area of EZVI pilot study,
(Source: Su et.al. (2012))
Pilot Studies
• Emulsified Zero Valent
Nanoscale Iron
• Aids in reduction
• Nanoscale potential
• DNAPL movement
• Emulsion=electron source
• Dehalocodcoides
• Dehalobacter
• Secondary contamination
• Results Su et.al.
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•
•
•
•
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Direct injection & pneumatic injection
DI – 85% reduction in PCE, mass flux
Movement of contaminant
Reduction in concentrations
Ignorance of DNAPL
Additional treatments
Steam and Air Co-Injection
• Process
• Co-injection of air
• Efficiencies
• Mobilize DNAPL
• Oxidation of solvents
• Permeability
• Volatilization of CVOC
• Health and Life
Illustration of remediation process, (Source: Kaslusky & Udell, 2002)
Bioremediation
• Bioaugmentation
• Not necessary
• Dechlorinating microbes
• Biostimulation
• Organic layer
• Ethanol/vegetable oil
• Anaerobic conditions
• Mobilization of DNAPL
Reduction in concentrations of CVOCs at 26 different sites
(Source: McGuire et.al., 2006)
Comparison
Initial Remediation and Pilot Study
Suggested Remedial Strategy
• Pump and treat
• Steam and air co-injection
• Time frame
• Decades
• Emulsified nanoscale zero valent
iron
• Indefinite quantities required
• Preferential flow
• Surface breakthrough
• Time frame
• Application
• Mechanism of remediation
• Bioremediation
• Microbes presents
• Indestructability
Conclusions
• Steam and air co-injection
• Reduce environmental
impact
• Increase rate of DNAPL
removal
• Minimal process residue
• Bioremediation
• Natural presence
• Minimally affected by
injections
• Low environmental impact
Visual Aid References
• Kaslusky, S. F., & Udell, K. S. (2002). A Theoretical Model of Air and Steam Co-Injection to Prevent the
Downward Migration of DNAPLs During Steam-Enhanced Extraction. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology,
55(3), 213-232. doi:10.1016/S0169-7722(01)00191-7
• McGuire, T. M., McDade, J. M., & Newell, C. J. (2006). Performance of DNAPL Source Depletion Technologies
at 59 Chlorinated Solvent‐Impacted Sites. Ground Water Monitoring & Remediation, 26(1), 73-84.
doi:10.1111/j.1745-6592.2006.00054.x
• Mercer, J., D. Skipp, AND D. Griffin. Basic of Pump-and-Treat Groundwater Remediation Technology. U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C., EPA/600/8-90/003.
• Su, C., Puls, R. W., Krug, T. A., Watling, M. T., O'Hara, S.,K., Quinn, J. W., & Ruiz, N. E. (2012). A Two and HalfYear-Performance Evaluation of a Field Test on Treatment of Source Zone Tetrachloroethene and its
Chlorinated Daughter Products Using Emulsified Zero Valent Iron Nanoparticles. Water Research, 46(16),
5071-5084. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2012.06.051
• Vroblesky, D. A., Geological Survey (U.S.), United States, Southeast, & Naval Facilities Engineering Command.
(2009). Source, Transport, and Fate of Groundwater Contamination at Site 45, Marine Corps Recruit Depot,
Parris Island, South Carolina. (). Reston, VA: U.S. Geological Survey.
• Vroblesky, D. A., Petkewich, M. D., Lowery, M. A., & Landmeyer, J. E. (2011). Sewers as a Source and Sink of
Chlorinated‐Solvent Groundwater Contamination, Marine Corps Recruit Depot, Parris Island, South Carolina.
Ground Water Monitoring & Remediation, 31(4), 63-69. doi:10.1111/j.1745-6592.2011.01349.x
Questions?

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