DP Education launch

Report
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BEYOND BASICS
The growth of post-primary education in Kenya
Okwach Abagi
Director, OWN & Associates, Kenya
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Outline
1.
Kenya context
2.
The growth of post-primary education in Kenya
3.
Factors enabled enrollment improvements
4.
Challenges ahead
5.
Lessons learnt
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Kenya Context
• Kenya, an East African country:
Development, Business, ICT
and Education Hub
• Three enemies at Independence
in 1963:
– Poverty
– Ignorance
– Disease
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Kenya experienced a significant rise in school life expectancy
– from 8.4 years in 2000 to 11 years in 2009
School life
expectancy,
primary to
tertiary (years)
Source: UNESCO
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The secondary enrolment rates increased by 50% in 10 years –
from 40% in early 2000s up to 60% in 2009
Gross
enrolment
ratio,
secondary
Source: UNESCO
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Access to higher education has increased, though still well
below the sub-Saharan
Gross
enrolment ratio,
tertiary
Source: UNESCO
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Increase in gender parity in enrolment rates since the 1970s
with more recent setbacks
Gender
parity index
Source: UNESCO
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What are the factors driving progress?
• Increasing call and demand for higher levels of education
by the public: education →job→ investment→ quality of
life→ development
• Strong political will and commitment to education beyond
only the basic levels: responsive policies, strategies,
leadership, mobilization, and resources, (Education as a
platform for election campaigns e.g. 2002, 2007and 2013
General Elections)
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What are the factors driving progress?
• Significant domestic and international resources targeted
at education programme (e.g. Kenya Education Sector
Support Programme (KESSP) 2005/06-2009/10) with
elements of these supporting post-primary levels
• Communities and the private sector: aggressive and
proactive in investing and increasing education
opportunities at the secondary and tertiary level
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What are the remaining challenges?
• Addressing entrenched inequality (regional, economic, and
gender) across the system
• Maintaining and sustaining the gains in access and
participation in post-primary education, under increased
poverty, depressed economic growth and increased insecurity
(e.g. in ASAL and Coastal Counties).
• Mobilizing additional resources for education (e.g. County
government making investment in quality education a priority).
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What are the remaining challenges?
• Quality (and even relevance) at all levels of Kenya’s education
system is a major challenge (limited resources, teachers,
commitment, poor pedagogy etc.)
• Unemployment of schooled graduates, influencing young
people’s attitudes towards education
• Financial constraints and sustainability: huge resources needed
for infrastructure, teaching-learning materials, teachers, quality
assurance, capitation grants, university students loans,
equipment's etc. → But limited resources exist
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Critical issues in education progress in Kenya
• Commissions and task forces in education: involving the public but also
shifting the public attention from challenges in education.
• Enabling environment for investment and resource mobilization: increase
in the number of schools and classrooms (Public, Community, Private,
and Religious based investing): Primary to Universities.
• Research for policy: informing the public and creating pressure on the
Government (the role of researchers, policy analysts & the media);
• Public interest, demand and push for education: competition in the job
market. But not in ASAL regions.
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Lessons to learn from Kenya
• Political will and commitment being a great driving force
• Lowering households’ burden for education to increase access to
secondary and university education
• Community (and household) action, demanding and investing in postprimary education.
• Balancing expansion to access to education (educational
opportunities) with quality and relevance programmes. GoK and other
stakeholders have just realized that this issue is important (core focus
of researchers and MoE Sector Plan)
But above all:
Focus! Target! Focus! And Target.
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Thank you for your attention
Okwach Abagi (PhD)
Director, Policy, Capacity Building & M& E Specialist
OWN & Associates Ltd, Nairobi KENYA.
Email: [email protected]
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Development Progress
exploring what works and why
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