Cultural Dimensions Levels of Culture Manifest Expressed values Basic assumptions Frameworks Kluckhohn & Strodtbeck- Variation in Values Orientation Bigoness & Blakely’s Dimensions Hofstede’s Dimensions Hall’s Culture Context Trompenaars’ Seven Dimensions Kluckhohn & Strodtbeck Values orientation Relation to nature Time orientation Basic human nature Activity orientation Variations Subjugation Past Evil Being Harmony Mastery Present Future Neutral/Mixed Good Containing/ Doing controlling Relationships among Individualistic Group Hierarchical people Space orientation Private Mixed Public Bigoness & Blakely Pleasantness Good Citizen Competent (Cheerful,loving, (Responsible, (Capable, helpful) polite, obedient) courageous) Good Thinker (Imaginative, intellectual) Australia (n=36) 12.7 Brazil (n=30) 11.7 Denmark (n=37) 11.9 France (n=32) 13.1* Great Britain (n=89) 12.5 Germany (n=106)13.0* Italy (n=31) 12.2 Japan (n=20) 10.0* Holland (n=31) 12.2 Norway (n=46) 11.5 Sweden (n=69) 12.8 USA (n=42) 12.1 10.9 10.1* 11.5 11.3 5.6 4.7* 5.2 5.6 8.3 6.8* 8.6 7.8 11.7 10.8 11.7 9.8* 11.8 11.4 12.0 11.5 6.2 5.5 5.2 6.2 5.4 5.2 4.5* 6.7* 7.7 8.0 6.7* 7.5 7.5 8.0 8.1 7.7 Overall 11.3 5.6 7.9 12.3 Hofstede’s Dimensions of Cultural Differences: Individualism versus collectivism -concern for self vs. others Power distance -acceptance of unequal power distribution Uncertainty avoidance -preference for structure Materialism versus concern for others (Masculinity/Femininity) -tough vs. tender Long-run versus short-run orientation (Bond) -future vs. past/present Collective PAK COL TAI PER THA VEN SIN HOK GRE JAP PHI IND IC NZL CAN NET GBR USA AUL Individual Low Power Distance High Hofstede Dimension Scores for 10 Countries USA Germany Japan France Netherlands Hong Kong Indonesia West Africa Russia China PD IC MF UA LT 40L 35L 54M 68H 38L 68H 78H 77H 95H 80H 91H 67H 46M 71H 80H 25L 14L 20L 50M 20L 62H 66H 95H 43M 14L 57H 46M 46M 40L 50M 46L 65M 92H 86H 53M 29L 48L 54M 90H 60M 29L 31M 80H 30L 44M 96H 25L 16L 10L 118H From Hostede, 1993 Academy of Management Executive Hall’s Culture Context High-context – China, Egypt, France, Italy Low-context – Australia, Canada, England, United States Trompenaar’s Seven Dimensions of Culture Universalism vs. Particularism Individualism vs. Collectivism Neutral vs. Affective Relationships Specific vs. Diffuse Relationships Achievement vs. Ascription Relationship to Time Culturally Based Differences in Management Style Culture provides values that guide acceptable managerial behavior and leadership styles. Transplanted managers may need to adopt some of the characteristics of the national stereotype of an effective leader in the local culture. Culturally Based Differences in Management Style: Stereotypes United States Emotional, egalitarians China Low-profile, tough negotiators Japan Formal, consensus seekers Germany Technically expert, authoritarians France Elitist, authoritarians Multicultural Managers and Organizations The Multicultural Manager – Has the skills and attitudes to relate effectively to and – – – – motivate people across race, gender, age, social attitudes, and lifestyles. Respects and values the cultural differences. Has the ability (e.g., is bilingual) to conduct business in a diverse, international environment. Has a cultural sensitivity in being aware and interested in why people of other culture act as they do. Is not parochial in assuming that the ways of one’s culture are the only ways things should be done. Is not ethnocentric in assuming that the superiority of one’s culture over that of another culture. Protocol Do’s and Don’t’s in Several Countries Great Britain DO say please and thank you often. DO arrive promptly. DON’T ask personal questions because the British protect their privacy. DON’T gossip about British royalty France DO shake hands when greeting. Only close friends give light, brushing kisses on cheeks. DO dress more formally than in the United States. Elegant dress is highly valued. DON’T expect to complete any work during the French two hour lunch DON’T chew gum in a work setting. Italy DO write business correspondence in Italian for priority attention. DO make appointments between 10:00 and 11:00 or after 3:00. DON’T eat too much pasta, as it is not the main course. DON’T handout business cards too freely. Italians use them infrequently. Protocol Do’s and Don’t’s in Several Countries Greece DO distribute business cards freely so people will know how to spell your name. DO be prompt even if your hosts are not. DON’T expect to meet deadlines. A project takes as long as theGreeks think is necessary. DON’T address people by formal or professional titles. The Greeks want more informality. Japan DO present your business cards with both hands and a slight bow as a gesture of respect. DO present gifts, American-made and wrapped. DON’T knock competitors. DON’T present the same gift to everyone, unless all members are the same organizational rank. Multicultural Managers and Organizations The Multicultural Organization – Values cultural diversity and is willing to encourage and even capitalize on such diversity. Benefits of a Multicultural Organization – Achieves the benefits of valuing diversity. – Avoids the problems of not managing for diversity: increased turnover interpersonal conflict communication breakdowns Developmental Stages for the Multicultural Organization Monocultural Nondiscrimination Multicultural Exclusion of minorities and women from power Unfair advantage of majority group removed, but no culture change Shares power and influence with all; major culture change Barriers to Good Cross-Cultural Relations Perceptual expectations – Predispositions about the appropriate appearance and physical characteristics of individuals. Ethnocentrism – A belief that one’s culture is the best and judging other cultures by how closely they resemble one’s own culture. Intergroup rather than interpersonal relations – Stereotyping individuals based on their group membership Stereotypes in intergroup relations – Assuming an individual’s personal characteristics based on their group membership. Cross-Cultural Processes: Motivation In order to use motivational concepts across cultures, managers must know two key factors: – Which needs the people are seeking to satisfy. – Which rewards will satisfy those needs. Research findings: – A motivational concept that has a good cultural fit with a culture can be successfully applied to that culture. Cross-Cultural Processes: Ethics Global business practices and behaviors create ethical and legal dilemmas for managers: – The choice of which culture’s code of ethics to follow. – Conflicts between individual and organizational responsibilities for ethical behavior. – The ethics of outsourcing when doing so may create a human health or environmental safety hazard in another culture. Cross-Cultural Processes: Negotiations Suggestions for negotiating abroad: Use a team approach. Do not push for informality. Be patient. Learn to tolerate less than full disclosure of information. Accept silence as part of negotiating. Take no for an answer sometimes. Be adaptable. Cross-Cultural Processes: Conflict Resolution National cultures influence which method of conflict resolution a manager will choose. Tinsley’s models of conflict resolution: Conflict Resolution Model Cultural Group Membership Deferring to status power Japanese Applying regulations Germans Integrating interests Americans Diversity Training and Cultural Training Diversity Training – Attempts to bring about workplace harmony by teaching people how to get along better with diverse coworkers. – Objectives of diversity training: Fostering awareness and acceptance of individual differences. Helping participants understand their own feelings and attitudes about people who are different. Exploring how differences might be tapped as assets in the workplace. Enhancing work relations between people who are different from each other. Diversity Training and Cultural Training Training in Cross-Cultural Relations – Cultural training A set of learning experiences (e.g., mastering a foreign language) designed to help employees understand the customs, traditions, and beliefs of another culture. – Culture shock The physical and psychological symptoms that can develop when a person is abruptly placed in another culture. Cultural training is designed to help expatriates avoid culture shock, which is a major contributor to the high failure rate of overseas assignments.