Topic-3-Biotechnology

Report
Biotechnology ~ the alteration of natural
biomolecules using science and engineering
to provide goods and services
Biotechnology is the use of living systems and
organisms to develop or make useful products
Food
Medicines
& Biofuels
Crops
3.2 Describe a fermenter as a vessel used to cultivate microorganisms
for the production of biomolecules on a large scale
3.3 Explain suitable conditions in fermenters, and
the effect they have on growth rates, including:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
aseptic precautions
nutrients
optimum temperature
pH
oxygenation
agitation
Yield is the amount of product formed
Growth of yeast cells
She measured the volume of gas given off at each
temperature every 2 minutes for 20 minutes.
Stacey concluded that yeast breaks down sugar most quickly at 40 °C.
This is not a valid conclusion because . . .
3.8 Describe how bacteria are used in the
production of yogurt from milk by the conversion
of lactose to lactic acid
3.9 Investigate the effect of different factors on
yogurt making
BBC clip fermentation
& food
Yoghurt animation
Du Pont cheese
Chymosin
3.6 Describe how mycoprotein is manufactured,
including the role of the fungus Fusarium sp.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=scO2ZZKFjMk
3.10 Describe the use of enzyme
technology including:
1. chymosin, produced by genetically modified microorganisms, used in the manufacture of vegetarian
cheese
2. invertase (sucrase) produced by Saccharomyces
cerevisiae (yeast), used in the manufacture of sweets
3. enzymes used in washing powders
3.12 Investigate the use of enzymes in food production
What has this
got to do with
todays lesson?
Invertase
Chymosin
GMO = yeast
Pectinase and cellulase
Proteases and lipases
3.11 Investigate the use of immobilised
lactase to produce lactosefree milk
Immobilised enzymes advantages
• higher temperature because the active site
is less likely to change shape (denature) –
higher temperature means higher rate of
reaction - so yield can be increased
• continuous flow processing - alginate beads
can be packed into large columns - raw
materials are added at one end, are acted
on by the enzymes as they pass through the
column, and the product flows out of the
other end
• enzyme does not contaminate the reaction
mixture (product doesn’t need to be
extracted/purified at the end)
Quick check
1. Invertase converts glucose to fructose
2. Invertase is produced by yeast cells
3. Invertase is produced by genetically
modified yeast cells
GMO = genetically modified organism
1. How to extract a gene and insert it into a
plasmid
– Restriction enzymes & DNA ligase
2. How to produce the product of a gene
– Gene for making human insulin
GMO organisms
• 3.13 Explain recombinant DNA technology
using insulin as an example, including:
• a restriction enzymes
• b ligase
• c sticky ends
Link to Genetic
engineering
Cut & Stick
Overview
Restriction enzymes
Restriction enzymes
Recognition sequence
Restriction fragments
DNA ligase
‘Sticky ends’
Plasmid
vector.
Adenovirus – viral vector
Adenoviruses are human viruses that causes respiratory diseases including
the common cold.
Their genetic material is double-stranded DNA, and they are ideal for
delivering genes to living patients in gene therapy.
Their DNA is not incorporated into the host’s chromosomes, so it is not
replicated, but their genes are expressed.
3.15 Explain how Agrobacterium tumefaciens
is used as a vector in creating transgenic plants
3.16 Demonstrate an understanding of the advantages and
disadvantages of introducing genes for insect resistance
from Bacillus thuringiensis into crop plants
Vectors
Vectors
Genetic modification of crop plants
3.17 Demonstrate an understanding of the costs and
benefits of genetic modification of crop plants in the
context of developed and developing countries,
including the introduction of flavonoids in the purple
tomato
GM crops
p.78/79 B3
Extension
3.18 Explain how increased food
production for humans includes:
• conventional plant breeding programmes
(& importance of seed banks/biodiversity)
• pest management strategies
Pesticides
• genetic modification
GMO
– Golden rice
– Herbicide resistance
– Purple tomatoes
Purple
tomatoes
Bees
Herbicide
resistance
GMO Soy
Monsanto
IPS
Golden rice
Herbicide
Resistant crops
Greenpeace
Against
Monsanto
A new superfood?
Purple
tomatoes
Cathie Martin's purple tomatoes
have 20% more anthocyanins than
conventional ones.
Selective breeding programmes
Key ideas:
Same plant species
Variation in genes
Sexual reproduction (pollen/ova)
Selection of offspring
Growth & breeding from selected plants
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Nmkj5gq1cQU
3.14 Demonstrate an understanding of the impact of
human population growth on global food security
In 2011 just over 7 billion
7 thousand million
7,000,000,000
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sc4HxPxNrZ0
World population
World population density
World cereal production
Biofuels and maize
Good news for US farmers
What does this graph predict?
Biofuels
1. advantages and disadvantages of replacing
fossil fuels with biofuels
• biofuels are renewable
• their production uses carbon dioxide
• growing the crops - requires land and may
affect the availability of land for growing food
http://nation.time.com/2013/12/13
/time-explains-biofuels/
Biofuels introduction

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