Biodiesel - Chemical & Biological Engineering

Report
Out of the Frying Pan and Into the Fuel Tank
2008
CO2 Emissions
Harvest
Use for
Cooking
• Refined vegetable oils (FFA-lean triglycerides)
• High feedstock cost
• Cheap processing
• Waste fats, oils, and greases (FFA-rich)
• Degraded and dirty  Low feedstock cost
• More difficult processing
•
Soybeans for Biodiesel
4.0
Meal (80%)
Waste (80%)
Trap
Grease
Trap
Our process takes oils
Out of the Frying Pan
and
Into the Fuel Tank
Raw
Scum
Grease
Raw
Ra
Trap
Trap
Grease
Grease
Transfer
Station
Trap
Grease
Scum
Grease
Small-Scale
Biodiesel
Plant
Wastewater
Treatment
Waste
Sediments
Disposal:
•Incinerator
•Landfill
•Anaerobic
digester
O
R
C
+
FFA
OH
Rising
Bubble
H3C OH
O
H
MeOH
& H2O
Vapor
FAME
O
+
O H
CH3
Liquid Phase Lipids
Proposed Grease-to-Biodiesel Process
SETTLING
Chemical & Biological
Engineering
Drexel University
(1)Separation
3141 Chestnut St.
Philadelphia, PA 19104
(2)Conversion
(3)Purification
90:10 MeOH:H2O
Wipers
Pure EtOH
Crude FAME
201 PPM
90:10 EtOH:H2O
Hot
wall
Cold
wall
50
100
Residue
776 PPM
Time (minutes)
Operates
above boiling
temperatures
Bubble
Column
Pure MeOH
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0
Achieves
>95% FFA
conversion
Biodiesel
(19%)
Purification of Biodiesel by
Short-Path Distillation
FFA  Biodiesel by Bubble
Column Reactor 100
R C
Wastewater
HEATING
~60 C
Residue
(1%)
Glycerin (3%)
Restaurant
Pumping
Grease
FOG for Biodiesel
Biodiesel
(17%)
BCR is robust for:
• Low-value grease
feedstocks
• Various alcohols
• Elevated water content
Biodiesel 27 PPM
Feedstock
Crude FOG biodiesel is
• Dirty
• High in sulfur content
• Difficult to separate
Short-path distillation
purifies biodiesel:
• Under high vacuum
• Low temperature
• Reduces sulfur
• Crude: 201 PPM
• Residue: 776 PPM
• Biodiesel: 27 PPM
(ASTM grade = 15 PPM)
(MJ-natural gas/MJ-biodiesel)
To
Sewers
In commercial kitchens most FOG is
collected as Grease Trap Waste
and is regularly pumped out.
Some FOG enters sewer system and
is collected as Scum Grease in
Wastewater Treatment Plants
Diesel
Distribution
Richard Cairncross
[email protected]
215-895-2230
•
Sediments
Sanitary
Sewer
Biodiesel is a renewable fuel
• Can substitute for, or blend with diesel
• Lower emissions than petroleum diesel
• Domestic supply of energy
CONTACT INFORMATION:
Grease Trap
Waste
From
Kitchen
Kitchen
Effluent
Disposal
Alternative biodiesel production:
Schematic of a Grease Interceptor
Traditional Route to Biodiesel
Biodiesel
Production
Conventional biodiesel production:
FFA content (%)
Drexel University’s team has developed a
process to extract grease from wastewater
and convert it into biodiesel. Waste greases
are an untapped source of high value fuel, if
you can concentrate the grease, remove
impurities, and achieve stringent fuel
standards. Meeting these challenges
produces a fuel with a lower carbon footprint
than both petroleum diesel and soybean
biodiesel.
This poster presents results from an EPA
P3 funded project and ongoing research.
Biodiesel
Abstract
What Happens to FOG (Fats, Oils and Greases)
When It Goes Down the Drain?
Fuel Life Cycle
Biodiesel Chemistry and Research
Process Steam Energy
Chemical & Biological Engineering: Prof. Richard Cairncross, Megan Hums, Cory Melick, and over 20 other students
Mechanical Engineering & Mechanics: Prof. Nicolas Cernansky, Colin Stacy and over 15 other students
Civil Architectural and Environmental Engineering: Prof. Mira Olson, Prof. Sabrina Spatari, and over 10 students
Winner
0.8
3.5

0.7
Soybean
Biodiesel
0.6
0.5
2.5
2.0
0.4

1.5
0.3
Low Sulfur Diesel
0.2
0.1
3.0
Separation of lipids
Methanol Recovery
1.0
0.5
Conversion of lipids to biodiesel
Purification of biodiesel
0.0
0%
0.0
5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30%
Lipid Content of Waste Grease (%)
Fuel energy output
divided by fossil energy input
Drexel University Team
Fossil Energy Ratio
Novel Reactor Design for Biodiesel Production
Conversion
Vehicle Use
Fuel Life
 For > 14 % Lipids
FOG beats Soybean
 For < 1 % Lipids
FOG beats LSD
Research Collaboration
• Lipid chemistry expertise
• Analytical equipment – HPLC,
TLC, Sulfur
• Short path evaporator for
biodiesel purification
• Biofuel process expertise
USDA Eastern
Regional
Research Center
• Sources of scum grease
samples
• Testing secondary wastewater
• Standardized experimental
methods
• Evaluation of system scenarios
• Use of biodiesel in fleet
vehicles
Philadelphia
Water
Department
Current Activities Evolved
from EPA P3 Projects
• Bubble column reactor
research
• Analytical lipid testing
• Methods of fractionation of
grease
• Process modeling
• Life cycle assessment
• WERF funding
Drexel University
• Sources of grease trap waste
samples
• Database on generation of
grease trap waste
• Knowledge of waste
Management practices
• Use of biodiesel in fleet
vehicles
Russell Reid
Waste
Management
• Formed to research
commercialization of Greaseto-Biofuel process
• Longitudinal study of GTW
• Conversion of lipids to FAME
• Process development
• Commercial feasibility
• EPA SBIR funding
Environmental
Fuel Research,
LLC
The views expressed on this poster are not necessarily those
of the EPA, Drexel University or the Collaborating Partners

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