European regulations PED 97/23 EC, EN 378

Report
JBT FoodTech
PED 97/23 EC
EN 378
Staffan Sundsten
2013-11-06
CE-marking…why?
 Before all countries had there local regulations…
 Easier product trade in europe and worldwide
 Safer products both for environmental and humans
 CE-mark secures manufactor taking full responsibility
regarding european directives
CE = “Conformité Européenne” wich means fulfills CE-directives
CE-directives = European Law
2
Refrigeration directives…




Pressure Equipment Directive - 97/23 EC (PED)
Machine directive - 2006/42 EC (MD)
Low Voltage directive - 2006/95/EC (LVD)
Electromagnetical directive - 2004/108/EG
 EN 378-2 = C-standard
Design according to this standard means
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Directives
Fulfilled!
Pressure Equipment Directive (PED 97/23 EC)
The pressure equipment is classified according to 4
categories (I-IV)
The categories are determined by:
–
Pressure (max pressure the equipment is made for)
–
Volume (for pipes: diameter)
–
Content (medium)
The category is set with the help of nine (9) different
diagrams
Diagram 1- Pressure vessels, Ps= Max allowed pressure in bar that the
supplier state that the pressure vessel are designed after.
Diagram 7. Pipes, DN = The nominal size of the pipe.
Pressure Equipment Directive (PED 97/23
EC)
The category give a so called Module according to the
table below. The Module gives the extent of the control
required.
Category I
Category II
Category III
Category IV
Module A
Module A1
Module D1
Module E1
Module B1 + D
Module B1 + F
Module B+ E
Module B + C1
Module H
Module B + D
Module B + F
Module G
Module H1
Pressure Equipment Directive (PED 97/23 EC)
technical file…
Module G:







General description assembly (system overview)
Flowchart
List of used standards
Design calculation
Declarations of conformity
Risk assessment PED/MD
Technical file installation (WPQ,PQR, NDT….)
Design standard refrigeration systems
world wide
 European refrigeration standard:
EN 378
 American refrigeration standard:
ISO/CD 5149
 Australian refrigeration standard:
AS/NZS 1677
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To fulfill directives there are
harmonized standards…
EN 378:2008 Refrigeration systems and heat
pumps…
 EN 378-1 Safety and environmental
requirements.
 EN 378-2 Design, construction, testing, marking
and documentation.
 EN 378-3 Installation site and personal
protection.
 EN 378-4 Operation, maintenance, repair and
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recovery.
Other important standards related to
EN 378-2…
 EN 13136 Refrigeration system (design
capacity safety relief valves/lines)
 EN14276 (general requirements of
pressure vessels/pipes refrigeration)
 EN 13480 (industrial piping…welding
and materials)
 EN 13445 (design pressure vessels)
 EN 10216 (Approved Low temperature
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materials)…
What do we sell?
 Modules/units
 JBT delivers units and separate
declaration of conformities
 Plant
 JBT delivers a complete unit but the
customer is responsible for
integration and an accredited
notified body approves installation.
CE certificates on sub units.
 Assembly
 JBT delivers a complete assembly–
JBT is integrator and supplies CE
certificate on system
Who is the integrator and responsible for
the approval?
There are three different players in the project that can take
on the roll as an integrator:
 Refrigeration contractor - The company installing piping
and the other equipment.
 JBT – In this case JBT delivers a complete refrigeration
system with subunits from several different suppliers,
including piping.
 The customer – In this case the customer is building the
system himself with internal
resources.
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Important to buy components as part
assemblies and decide who is integrator!
Pipes
Vessels
Condensor
Compressor
Pack
LVS
14
Approval process with notified body…
Design & documentation communicated
- Design
-Declaration of conformity
- Calculations safety relief line&pipes
- Risk analysis etc
Pressure test & 1st inspection
Approval installation refrigeration system
-operators manual
- Manufactor plate
- Technical file installation company
Approval technical
file to EN 378-2
Design and documentation
according
Final approval
- JBT declaration of conformity
- Certificate from notified body
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Declaration of Conformity according to 97/23 EC…
should contain:
 Name and address manufacture
 Description of pressure equipment/Assembly
 Module and Category
 Harmonized standards used
 References of other applied directives
 Name and address of notified body
 Sign from authorized represented manufacture
 Certificate examination
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 See example of JBT-declaration…
See example of JBT-declaration…
Word document
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Learnings approval process
 Declaration of conformity according to PED 97/23
 Safety relief valves (calculations, pressure protocol,
design etc)
 To check that over flow valves are safety valve approved
 Minimum Pipe thickness to be calculated all projects
 Risk assessment according to MD 2006/42 and PED
97/23 all projects where JBT Foodtech is integrator.
 To assure that installation company have welders
certificate that covers pipe sizes
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Some remarks from inspections with
notified body…
Remark: Overflow valve not
approved as safety valve!
Remark: Safety valve flanges not
approved!
Action: Change flanges
Action: Change valve and repipe.
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Second hand Pressure equipment
 PED 97/23 EC
The application of and compliance with the Directive is
mandatory from 29 May 2002.
Equipment manufactured before :
 Fulfill directive 89/655 EC (minimum directive for
working equipment ) or to fulfill local rules
 Need to check with local notified body the demand of:
- Documentation
- Risk assessment
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SOME REFRIGERANTS AND
ITS IMPACT ON
ENVIRONMENT AND HUMAN
SAFETY
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NATURAL REFRIGERANTS
Natural refrigerants are the answer for high
capacity and high efficiency operation.
•
•
•
•
•
Air - R 729
Water - R 718
Ammonia - R 717
Carbon dioxide - R 744
Hydrocarbons, such as propane - R 290 and
isobutane - R 600a
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NH3 – Ammonia
- Because of the characteristic smell, ammonia it is the only
refrigerant in the world that warns long before it is dangerous
and gives persons chance to move away.
- Ammonia is toxic when inhaling, corrosive to the eyes,
respiratory, skin and flammable at certain conditions.
- Therefor it has to be treated with care and all ammonia
systems must be designed with safety in mind.
- At the same time, unlike most refrigerants, Ammonia has a
characteristic smell that can be detected by humans at very low
concentrations which give a warning signal if having leakage.
- Already at around 20-25 ppm you will feel very uncomfortable.
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Energy efficiency
Ammonia is one of the most energy-efficient applications, the
application range from high to low temperature. Normally flowing
ammonia system is 15-20% more energy efficient than a DX
R404A counterpart.
Environment
Ammonia is the most environmentally friendly refrigerant. It
belongs to the group of so-called "natural" refrigerants, and it
has both GWP (Global Warming Potential) and ODP (ozone
depletion potential) of zero
Smaller pipe sizes
Both vapour and liquid ammonia requires smaller diameter than most
chemical refrigerants.
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Better heat transfer
Ammonia has better heat transfer properties than the
majority of chemical refrigerants and therefore allows
devices with a smaller heat transfer area used. These
properties also favours the thermodynamic efficiency of the
system and reduces the operational costs of the system.
Refrigerant cost
In many countries, the cost of ammonia (per kg)
significantly lower than the cost of HFC
Safety
As described earlier, Ammonia is toxic when inhaling,
corrosive to the eyes, respiratory, skin and flammable at
certain conditions. That is why it must be handled carefully,
and all the ammonia systems must be designed with safety
in mind.
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In Sweden:
NGV (24 h): 20 ppm
TGV (15 min): 50 ppm
Alarm levels:
C: Leakage, non acute: 50 - 300ppm
B: Acute: 500 - 1000ppm
A. High level , plant is stopped =
Protection of people > 3000ppm
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SYNTHETIC REFRIGERANTS
1. CFC (Clorofluorcarbon - a member of the FC family
containing only chlorine, fluorine and carbon.)
The Montreal Protocol of 1987 has phased out the
production of CFC refrigerants. CFC is not to be used at all
since January 1, 2000. The actual CFC refrigerants are:
R 12, and azeotropic blend R 502.
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2. HCFC (Hydrofluorocarbon - a member of FC family
containing hydrogen, chlorine, fluorine and carbon.)
HCFC has limited future for new design. HCFC are
not allowed to be used in new installations or to re fill. A
total stop is expected from Jan 1, 2015. The main HCFC
refrigerant is: R 22 and blends with R 22.
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3. HFC (Fluorohydrocarbons - a family of chemicals
containing fluorine hydrogen and carbon.)
HFC refrigerants are the answer to many
refrigeration applications. Pure HFC or blends should be
avoided for large size food freezing and food preservation.
Below some HFC as alternatives to R 22
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R134a can be an option upon conversion in cases where a
power loss can be accepted or if the compressor
displacement can be increased enough without other
factors adversely affected. Suitable mainly for chilling
applications. Oil change required
R404a (R507) is usually the best option in the refrigerator
and freezer facilities but an increase in power output and
higher condensing pressure must be considered. In air
conditioning the energy efficiency is reduced and electrical
output will increase significantly. Oil change required.
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R407C is a proven alternative in facilities with appropriate heat
exchangers but requires that the oil is changed to ester oil
except in rotary compressors which typically special low
viscosity alkyl benzene oils are recommended.
R417A (Isceon 59) is poorly documented but is interesting
when the cost of oil change is considered too high while
capacity reduction and some uncertainty is acceptable, for
example, if the unit is to be replaced relatively soon.
R410A is not an option for conversion of existing R22 systems
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For small refrigeration plants (~30-50 kW),
HFC is attractive since the investment is
much less than if installing an ammonia
plant.
Freon's are not normally considered as
dangerous for people, but it is well known
that Freon's has a very big impact on the
environment.
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GWP Global warming potential, compared to the GWP of
CO2. All GWP figures here are based on the 100 year time
horizon.
ODP Ozone Depletion Potential - compared to ODP of
R 11 which is defined as 1.
Refrigerant
R 22
HCFC
R 134a HFC pure refrigerant
R 404A HFC zeotropic blend
R 407C HFC zeotropic blend
R 410A HFC zeotropic blend
R 507 HFC azeotropic blend
R 290 propane
R 600a isobutane
R 717 ammonia
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R 744 carbon dioxide
ODP
0.055
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
GWP
1700
1300
3800
1600
1900
3800
3
3
0
1
34

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