Powerpoint K PALS-Final - Ingham Intermediate School District

Report
K-PALS
Presented by:
Jennifer Eaglin
October 28, 2013
Norms
To make this day the best possible, I need your
assistance and participation
• Be Responsible
– Attend to the “Come back together” signal
– Active participation…Please ask questions/Or use
Parking Lot
– Take care of your own needs
• Be Respectful
 Please allow others to listen
 Please turn off cell phones
 Please refrain from emailing and private browsing
Agenda for K-PALS
1.
Overview of the Big 5 for Literacy
2. Rationale and benefits of using PALS
3. Introduction to K-PALS
4. Practice activities with partners
5. Implementation Tips
3
Exit Outcomes
• By the end of this session you will be able to,
– Discuss the research and rationale for using
PALS strategies
– Understanding of the Big 5 in literacy
– Implement PALS at your grade level
Five Big Ideas Identified by the
National Reading Panel (NRP)
•
•
•
•
•
Phonemic Awareness
Alphabetic Principle
Fluency
Vocabulary
Comprehension
What the Research Says About
Phonological Awareness (PA)
• Phonological awareness is necessary but not
sufficient for reading acquisition.
• Phonological awareness is teachable and promoted
by attention to instructional variables. (Smith,
Simmons, & Kame'enui, 1998)
“Reading and phonemic awareness are mutually reinforcing: Phonemic
awareness is necessary for reading, and reading, in turn, improves
phonemic awareness still further.” (Shaywitz, 2003, pg. 55)
Simmons, Harn, & Kame'enui
© 2003
MiBLSi
What Skills Does PA
Include?
Phonological Awareness Development Continuum
• Word comparison
–Rhyming
• Sentence segmentation
– Syllable segmentation & blending
 Onset-rime blending and segmentation
 Blending & segmenting individual phonemes
 Phoneme deletion & manipulation
(Modified from O'Connor, Notari-Syverson, & Vadasy, (1998).
 High Priority Skills
Simmons, Harn, & Kame'enui ©
2003
What the Research Says
About Alphabetic Principle
• Letter-sound knowledge is prerequisite to effective word
identification. A primary difference between good and
poor readers is the ability to use letter-sound
correspondences to identify words. (Juel, 1991)
• Students who acquire and apply the alphabetic principle
early in their reading careers reap long-term benefits.
(Stanovich,1986)
• Teaching students to phonologically recode words is a
difficult, demanding, yet achievable goal with long-lasting
effects. (Liberman & Liberman, 1990)
Harn, Simmons, & Kame'enui © 2003
MiBLSi
What is Accuracy & Fluency
with Connected Text Reading?
• The ability to translate letters-to-sounds-towords fluently, effortlessly. LaBerge and Samuels
(1974) described the fluent reader as "one whose
decoding processes are automatic, requiring no
conscious attention" (e.g., Juel, 1991). Such
capacity then enables readers to allocate their
attention to the comprehension and meaning
of the text.
Simmons, Harn, & Kame'enui © 2003
MiBLSi
A change in what the research
Says about vocabulary
Effective vocabulary instruction:
Promotes wide independent reading
The best way to foster vocabulary growth
is to promote wide reading
“Research has shown that children who read even ten minutes a day
outside of school experience substantially higher rates of vocabulary
growth between second and fifth grade than children who do little or
no reading.” (Anderson & Nagy, 1992, p. 46)
Coyne, Kame'enui, & Chard © 2003
MiBLSi
What the Research Says
About Vocabulary
• A student in the 20th
percentile reads books
______
minutes a day.
.7
• This adds up to
21,000
_________words
read
per year.
• A student in the 80th
percentile reads books
14.2 minutes a day.
______
• This adds up to
1,146,000 words read
__________
per year.
Coyne, Kame'enui, & Chard © 2003
MiBLSi
11
What the Research Says
About Comprehension
Effective comprehension instruction:
• Teaches students explicit comprehension strategies
that can be applied before, during, and after reading
both narrative and expository text
For example, the National Reading Panel (2000)
concluded that the following strategies have a firm
scientific basis for improving text comprehension.
•
•
•
•
Priming prior knowledge / previewing / predicting
Identifying the main idea / summarizing
Using text structure / using graphic organizers
Answering and generating questions
Coyne, Kame'enui, & Chard © 2003
MiBLSi
Changing Emphasis of Big
Ideas
K
1
2
3-6
Phonological
Awareness
Alphabetic
Principle
Automaticity and
Fluency with the
Code
Vocabulary
Comprehension
Letter Sounds &
Combinations
Multisyllables
Listening
Reading
Listening
Simmons, Kame'enui, Harn, & Coyne © 2003
MiBLSi
Reading
The “big idea” behind
PALS
• K-PALS specifically addresses Phonemic
Awareness and the Alphabetic Principle
• First Grade PALS specifically addresses Phonemic
Awareness, Alphabetic Principle, Fluency and
Comprehension
Rationale and Benefits of Peer
Assisted Learning Strategies
• PALS improves
– Word identification (e.g., D. Fuchs et al., 1997)
– Reading comprehension (e.g, L. Fuchs et al., 1999)
– Social acceptance (D. Fuchs et al., 2002)
– Task engagement (Locke & Fuchs, 1995)
– Fluency (e.g., Simmons et al., 1994)
– Interest in reading (L. Fuchs et al., 1999)
Rationale and Benefits of Peer
Assisted Learning Strategies
• Consistent academic & behavioral gains by PALS
students compared to controls using rigorous
experimental methods
• Considered a “best practice” by U.S. Dept. of
Education
Rationale and Benefits of Peer
Assisted Learning Strategies
• Students in kindergarten benefit from phonemic
awareness and alphabetic principle and word recognition
• K-PALS promotes early reading skills in Kindergarten
students, including those with disabilities.
• Certain instructional features boost academic
performance (e.g. Swanson, 1999)
• These features include:
– Explicit practice & skill modeling
– Immediate, corrective feedback
– Small-group work
An Important Part of
Explicit Instruction
I do!
We do!
Y’all do one!
You do one!
From: Dr. Anita Archer
PALS Materials:
Kindergarten/First Grade
Teacher Materials
– Overhead/Data
Projector
– Transparencies or
photo copies
-Partner chart
-Rules
– K-PALS Manual
– Marker
– Timer
Student Materials
– K-PALS folder
-scorecard
-game sheet
– Pencil
– Books of various
reading levels
– A Speed Game
Incentives Bag
19
KPALS-Student Games
• Name Game
• Rhyme Time
• First Sound
• Say the Word
• Last Sound
• Stretch It
K-PALS
Scope & Sequence
Game Sheets
Weeks Played
Games Played
1-15
1-5
Name Game
Rhyme Time
First Sound
16-30
6-10
Name Game
Say the Words
First Sounds
31-45
11-15
Name Game
Say the Word
Last Sound
46-60
16-20
Name Game
Stretch It
Last Sound
K-PALS is conducted for 20 minute sessions, three
days a week for about 20 weeks
K-PALS Training
Page 10
• You will teach students to play the first 3 K-PALS games
• Name Game, Rhyme Time, & First Sound (P. 19 in book)
• Using Game Sheets 1-3
• Use the 6 fully scripted lesson plans provided
• Need about 6, 15-25 minute training sessions
• Model the rules, activities, correction procedures in whole
group format
• Teacher serves as the coach and students as the reader
• Gradually individual students get to practice being the coach
and the rest of the class the reader
• Eventually students start working in pairs while the teacher
monitors and provides corrective feedback
K-PALS Routines Name GameGame Sheets 1-60
• Steps
1. Coach: “What Letter?”
2. Reader: “m”
3. Switch jobs
4. Reader marks 5 points; Coach fills in smiley face
• Correction Procedure
1. Tell: That letter is________
2. Ask: What letter?
3. Start Again: Start the line again
K-PALS Routines
Rhyme Time-Game Sheets 1-15
• Steps
1. Coach: says the two words (pictures) and then asks
“Do these rhyme?”
2. Reader: yes or no
3. Switch Jobs
4. Readers marks 5 points; Coach fills in smiley face
• Correction Procedure
1. Tell: No.____does not rhyme with____
2. Ask: Do these rhyme?
3. Start Again: Start the Line Again
K-PALS Routines
First Sound Game-Sheets 1-30
• Steps
1. Coach: says the word (picture) and asks, “What’s
the first sound?”
2. Reader: says sound
3. Switch jobs
4. Reader marks 5 points; Coach fills in smiley face
• Correction Procedure
1. Tell: No. The first sound is ___
2. Ask: What’s the first sound?
3. Start Again: Start the line again.
K-PALS Routines
Say the Word-Game
• See p. 90 of manual for details and Game Plan 7 where
it is introduced
• Oral Teacher Directed Activity at Game Sheet 7
• Becomes a student game on Game Sheet 16
• Slowly segment a word, phoneme by phoneme,
raising fingers as cues (Finger Spelling)
• Then ask student to “Say the word”
• Coaches hold sheet so Readers do not see pictures
• Do not switch jobs for this game.
K-PALS Routines
Last Sound
• See p. 121 of manual for details and Game Plan 22
where it is introduced
• Oral Teacher Directed Activity at Game
Sheet 22
• Becomes a student game on Game Sheet 31
• Say a word and ask, “What is the last sound in the
word____?”
K-PALS Routines
Stretch-It
• See p. 146 of manual for details and Game Plan 37
where it is introduced
• Oral Teacher Directed Activity at Game
Sheet 37
• Becomes a student game on Game Sheet 46
• Say word, “Stretch the word_____. Hold up one
finger at a time to lead students (keeping them
together)
K-PALS Routines
Letter-Sounds Correspondence
• See p. 146 of manual for details and Game Plans 3760 for where introduced
• Introduce same time as Stretch-It
• Never becomes a student game
• Use letter cards
• See progression
• Eventually, “What Sound?”
• Stretch continuous sounds (hold finger down)
• Keep stop sounds short (tap finger)
K-PALS Routines
Sounding Out Words
• See p. 166 in manual for details and Game Plan 46
for where introduced
• Never becomes a student game
• Use Word Cards
Let’s Play Games
•
•
•
•
•
After you have taught Lessons 1-6
Do Game Plan #7 (5 minute Teacher Game)
Next: Student Game Sheet- Game Sheet #7
You will be the Reader… I will be the Coach
Let’s PLAY!
When you teach
you learn.
~Author Unknown
Works Cited
.
Lemmer, Stephanie. “PALS K-1.”
Ingham Intermediate School
District. Ingham Intermediate
School District. 8 Mar. 2010.
Powerpoint file.
Mathes, Ph.D., Patricia G., et
al. PALS First Grade PeerAssisted Literacy Strategies.
Longmont: Sopris West, 2001.
Print.
K PALS
• If you have any questions or need assistance with K
PALS, please contact me at:
– Jennifer Eaglin
[email protected]

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