Unit 3

Report
Sub-Saharan Africa and Ghana 9/15/11
• Do Now:
Make a cluster map of
what you associate with
AFRICA. It can be
anything – use the
GRAPES poster to inspire
you!
Sub-Saharan Africa and Ghana 9/15/11
• Sub-Saharan Africa is the part of
Africa that lies south of the
Sahara.
• Africa is mostly a plateau
• Many waterfalls make it hard to
travel by boat
• Victoria Falls
• Smooth coastline with few harbors
• Sahara is the world’s largest
desert, gotten drier over time
• The Sahel is a fertile region with
some rain on the edge of the
Sahara
– Grasslands and animals
• What would some
natural resources of
California be?
• Sahel is a tropical savannah
– South of that is the rainforest
• Main River is the Niger River
– Civilizations grow along the
river
– Provide water and way to
access inner Africa
• Many African trade goods are
natural resources
– Gold, salt, diamonds, copper,
iron
p. 129
• 1. How many different
environments are on
your map?
• 2. Which parts of
Africa have the fertile
environments needed
to support
civilizations?
• Ancient West Africa history is
known mainly from oral history
• West Africans had
metals/ironmaking skills, taken
from the Kush
• Strong kingdom founded by the
Soninke people (AD 300)
– powerful weapons, lots of food
– Empire became Ghana
• Able to have labor specialization
• In clans/tribes, each with a special
craft or trade
• traded gold for salt to north of the
Sahara
• Islam spread to West Africa
• Ghana had two sources of revenue
1. Taxes on trade
2. Gold – owned only by the King
• Group called the Almoravids
launched a jihad and took the
capital
• Leaders converted to Islam
• Ghana was never as wealthy
again
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Sub-Saharan
Plateau
Savannah
Natural resources
Oral history
Labor specialization
Revenue
The Rise of Mali
9/20/11
The Rise of Mali
9/20/11
DO NOW:
15L
15R
Classroom Policies – A
Reminder
•
•
•
•
•
Bathroom Passes
30/30 Rule
Pencil Sharpener
Out of Seat
Talking out of Turn
• Why do you think
Sumanguru let
Sundiata live, when
he killed everyone
else in the family?
• Sumanguru “Sorcerer
King”
– Cruel, mean, magical?
– Killed 11 of 12 sons of
Malinke King, let crippled
son Sundiata live – big
mistake!
– Big battle, Sundiata killed
Sumanguru who
magically disappeared
• How do you think
restoring the gold and
salt trade could have
helped pave the way
for the spread of
Islam?
• Sundiata was a wise king
– Conquered the gold-producing
regions
– Told his people to start farming
their land
• Mali controlled trade route again,
King Sundiata was a hero
• Mali was powerful, traded with
many countries
– $$$ from gold and salt
• Converted to Islam willingly
– NOT like Ghana
• Mansa Musa, famous Muslim ruler
of Mali
– Made his hajj (piligrimage) to
Mecca
– Showed off richness/power of
Mali
– Caused inflation of gold value
(rise in prices)
• Brought back As-Saheli to build
mosques in Mali
• Timbuktu became center of
Islamic learning
• Mali expanded and explored
• Strictly followed Islam
Mansu Musa's Trip to Timbuktu
Venn Diagram Ghana and Mali
Glossary words:
–
–
–
–
–
–
Sundiata
Conversion
Mansa Musa
Inflation
Scholarship
Ibn Battuta
Storytelling in Africa
9/21/11
• Do Now:
What are the two ways that
Ghana made money
(revenue) off gold?
16L
Storytelling in Africa
9/21/11
• Griots were the professional
story tellers
• Proverbs were wise sayings to
guide and inspire Proverbs
• West Africans’ lives were
filled with music
– Drummers create
polyrhythmic music
• Traditional dance to drums
• The arts are used to express
beliefs, an event, or celebrate
people
16R
1. In your own words,
write a short
summary of this
Anansi story.
2. What do you think
is the lesson of
this story?
Griot
Polyrhythmic
Proverbs
The Growth of Islam
• Do Now:
– Of the 5 pillars of
Islam, which one do
you think is the most
important? Why?
9/23/11
• Songhai empire grew as Mali
weakened
• Sunni Ali Ber is king of Songhai
– Decides to conquer Timbuktu
– Uses cavalry and infantry, kills
many in the city
– Horrible tyrant
• Next target is wealthy city of Djenne
– Has a siege, Djenne holds out
for 7 years until surrender
• Sunni Ali Ber treats them
with respect
• Songhai = largest empire
• Askia Muhammad takes
over Songhai
– Spreads Islam, attacks
non-Muslims
– Had judges enforced laws
– Encouraged scholarship
– People can read/write
Arabic
• Songhai invaded by
Morocco, capture
Timbuktu
• Decline of Empire
West African Society 9/26/11
“Kings may come and go, but families are
forever”. – Mali proverb
West African Society 9/26/11
• Well-organized society based on
family
• Families share kinship,
connection based on family
relations
• Large families form lineage, a
group of people with common
ancestors
– Head controls family
• Lineage a part of a clan, many
clans make up a village
• Villages unite as ethnic groups
with common language, identity,
and culture
• West Africans had fixed caste
system
• Slaves either prisoners of war or
born into slavery
• Farmers, servants, government
jobs, soldiers
– Could pay way out of slavery,
– Cannot be separated from
family, had many rights
• City – spoke Arabic, are Muslim
• Country – old languages,
polytheism
• Farming villages, trading cities
• Emperors protected trade
• Population in cities of Gao, Djenne,
Timbuktu grew
• Very different between city and
country
•
•
•
•
•
Kinship
Lineage
Ethnic group
Clan
Caste

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