Waste heat recovery

Report
Dearman Engine Company – Tokyo Innovation
Show Case
9th October 2014
For more information:
www.dearmanengine.com
www.liquidair.org.uk
[email protected]
Dearman Engine Company
Dearman Engine Company
• UK Based SME technology developer founded 2011.
• ~40 full time employees. ~70% engineering focused
• Developing a novel zero emissions engine technology with applications in
cooling, waste heat recovery and zero emissions power.
• Business and carbon case for deployment.
• Transport refrigeration is first application. Field trials in 2015, fleet
deployments from 2016. Project supported by Hubbard, MIRA and Air
Products.
• Follow on waste heat recovery applications in development
• Consortium based approach to technology development >£5m in UK
government and partner funded projects underway.
• Partners sought for feasibility studies and potential demonstration
projects.
• Part of broader emergence of liquid air as an energy carrier.
Dearman Engine Company
What is Liquid Air?
Liquid air is made by:
1. Cleaning ambient air
2. Cooling it to ~ -196°C where it becomes a
liquid.
Liquid nitrogen is made by exploiting the
different boiling points of oxygen, nitrogen
and argon.
This process is mature:
 More than 100 years old
 Present in every industrialised nation
 Plants only need air and electricity
 Plants are large scale and flexibly operated
to achieve lowest electricity prices.
 Distribution and storage technologies and
infrastructure are mature.
Dearman Engine Company
Liquid Air Technologies
密閉空間
液体
窒素
Common operating principle for all
technologies:
• Energy generation side converts
heat from the environment or a
co-located process into shaft
power.
• Low starting temperature gives
high yields from even low-grade
waste heat.
• Air or nitrogen is the only
exhaust.
• Applications in grid-scale energy
storage and transport.
• Opportunities for big synergies
with processes that have cooling
requirement or spare heat
熱
空気
700倍に膨張
高圧ガス
シャフト
パワー
Dearman Engine Company
膨張
装置
Liquid Air Energy Network
Liquid air as an energy vector is entering
mainstream energy thinking.
• UK government has invested >$20m in
liquid air technologies.
• Highview Power Storage – 5MW
demonstration
• Dearman Engine Company – 2 engine
platforms
• Ricardo – 1 engine platform
• Liquid Air Energy Network founded to
explore the benefits
• Technology developers seeking
International collaborations
Dearman Engine Company
The Dearman Engine
Process – Operates by boiling liquid air to
produce high pressure gas that can be used to do
1.
2.
work. Power + cooling
Inventive Step Heat transfer inside the cylinder
through direct contact heat exchange with a heat
exchange fluid – patent granted
吸入
圧縮
温められた熱交換液(水・グ 超低温の液体窒素をシリンダーへ
リコール混合液)をシリン
直接注入。熱交換液の熱が
ダーに吸入
液体窒素に伝達、急激な気化と
昇圧をもたらす。
3.
4.

Rapid expansion
 High pressurisation rates
 Near isothermal expansion
 Non combustive
膨張
気化した液体窒素が膨張、ピストン
を押し下げる。直接接触型の熱伝導
を継続することにより、一定温度で
の膨張が可能となる。
Dearman Engine Company
排気
混合排気をシリンダーより排
出。ガス成分は大気中に戻
り、熱交換液は再加熱の上、
再利用される。
Heat Exchange Fluid
• The Heat Exchange Fluid (HEF) Dearman uses
is water or water mixed with glycol depending on
the application (temperature that system will be
at when not in use).
• Dearman may consider other HEFs but critical
features are low cost and non-toxic.
• High reclaim rates are required to comply with
emissions requirements and end user
convenience (how big is the tank and how often
must it be refilled with water?).
• >99% reclaim rates have been achieved on the
first systems, this exceeds regulatory
requirements.
• CFD and experimental tools are in place to
increase reclaim efficiency from this point.
Dearman Engine Company
Dropout tank
Phase
Separator
Coalescing
filter
Benefits
The cheapest zero emission power system – no life-cycle surprises, useful for cooling
Advantages
Characteristics
• Made from simple
materials in wellestablished processes
•
•
•
•
• Can use waste heat to
boost efficiency, even
at low temperatures
• Waste heat (i.e. inefficiency) is a problem for
engines, and fuel cells
• Works alongside other technologies rather
than seeking to replace them
• Fuel non-combustible,
exhaust cool and clean
• Synergies with cooling applications
• Indoor and underground use possible
• Low heat signature
• Liquid air or N2 widely
produced and available
• Modest infrastructure requirement
• Opportunity to integrate at system level with
e.g. renewable energy to achieve zero CO2
Low capital cost
Fits established ICE manufacturing base
Potential for plastics, additive manufacture
Low life cycle impacts
Dearman Engine Company
Applications
Cheaper and cleaner refrigerated transport or air-conditioning
Saving 15-25% total diesel consumption and CO2
Replacing high-emission auxiliary engines
High efficiency waste heat recovery system
Harnessing waste heat of the ICE or fuel cell radiator loop
Saving up to 25% fuel consumption
Zero-emission vehicle
Urban vehicles in emerging markets e.g. motorised three-wheelers
Off-highway markets, including industrial (e.g. fork-lift trucks), mining,
marine
Also suitable for static/grid-based applications – power and cooling, peak power and
back-up power
Dearman Engine Company
Intellectual Property Status
Patent No.
Title
Scope
Priority Date
Status
EP 1257733
JP 464782
US 6,983,598
Engines driven
by liquefied or
compressed gas
Use of HEF with
compressed or
liquefied gas
22/02/00
Granted
PCT /GB2012
/053220
Improved
Injector technology
Cryogenic Engine
22/12/11
National Phase
PCT/ GB2013/
053056
Improvements in
Refrigeration
PCT/
GB2014
/050089
Cryogenic Engine Waste Heat
System
Recovery
Refrigeration Process 19/11/12
11/01/13
Dearman Engine Company
PCT
PCT
Transport Refrigeration Application
Quick payback, better urban air quality, great
CO2 potential
•
Refrigerated payload acts an a source of heat to
“boil” the LiN – gets 2/3 cooled this way
•
Dearman engine drives ancillaries (fans, defroster)
and a downsized refrigerator that provides 1/3 of
the cooling
•
Can be independent of the truck engine – or can
use engine coolant to boost performance
UK case
Vs Diesel
Vs Evap’
Yearly OpEx
-£1,200
-£3,100
CO2 now/2030+
-23%/-92%
-43%/-46%
On-vehicle demonstration with
MIRA, Air Products and
Loughborough University, funded
by UK TSB
Dearman system has zero emissions – Diesel APU can emit 6x NOx and 29x Pm of the
truck’s main engine
Source: Analysis by E4tech / Dearman. Basis of 40ft frozen trailer with Euro 6 prime mover on a typical daily cycle; today’s average UK and NL grid carbon, and CCC 2030 target
Dearman Engine Company
Current Status – Transport Refrigeration
System Integration a Vehicle Demonstration
in 2014 under IDP8 Cool-E with:
• MIRA
• Air Products
• Loughborough University
Partnerships in Place to Deliver first UK
Demonstration in Summer 2015:
• Hubbard (part of the Zannotti Group)
• Air Products Plc
• MIRA
Now Planning International Development and
Deployment
Dearman Engine Company
Market Status – Transport Refrigeration
Market Opportunity:
• The refrigerated vehicle market is worth ~£3.6bn p.a globally this is expected
to grow to ~£6.8bn p.a in 2018.
• The market is experiencing extremely rapid growth in South and East Asia as
cold chains become deployed.
European Drivers for Change:
• F-gas legislation coming into force in January 2015 is a challenge that the
industry is ill prepared to respond to.
• Emissions from the engines in TRUs are lightly regulated – there is an
expectation within the industry that this will change shortly, but very little idea
of what to do about it.
• In developed markets the growth in fleet monitoring and measurement is
currently yielding large gains from small changes – attention is likely to shift to
TRUs and their fuel consumption.
Copyright Dearman Engine Company
Private and Confidential
13
Waste Heat Recovery Engine
Dearman WHR “Heat Hybrid” system works alongside the IC engine, using its waste
heat and helping with propulsion – and chilling or air-con; much cheaper than HEV
IC Engine
Driven
Axle
Gearbox
Power combiner
LN2 engine
UK case
Bus no a/c
With a/c
Yearly OpEx
-£2,100
-£2,800
Payback Time
<3 years
< 1.5 years
“Warmant”
heat exchanger
•
•
•
•
•
ICEs reject ~2/3 of the energy in their fuel, to cooling system & hot exhaust
Main engine coolant acts as a source of heat to “boil” the LiN & warm the Heat
Exchange Fluid
Dearman engine drives into the main gearbox, allowing ICE to be down-sized and
operated efficiently – like an electric hybrid
Adding a chilled loop to the passenger compartment provides free air conditioning
The same principle applies to a fuel cell bus – relative savings may be even better
Dearman Engine Company
Current Project – Waste Heat Recovery
£3.25m 24 month UK government backed project to deliver:
• Technology development and
demonstration (TRL advancement) on a
vehicle
• Manufacturing Readiness Level
advancement and supply chain
development.
• “Real World” evaluation of monetary and
emissions benefits.
• Early identification of safety and legislative
issues.
End Users
• Voice of the customer
• Develop the high volume opportunity
Dearman Engine Company
Manufacturers
Market Status – Waste Heat Recovery
Buses and delivery trucks are likely to be first markets. Potential market is more than 1m
units p.a.
Split of Global Truck Market
Split of Global Bus Market
Coach
Transit/City Bus
Urban HGV
Mixed MGV
Medium Duty Bus
•
Global market 370k units p.a growing to
875k p.a by 2025.
•
Though best used in urban settings even
intercity coaches have significant periods of
urban operation so whole market could be
addressed.
Copyright Dearman Engine Company
Mixed HGV
Longhaul HGV
•
~1/2 of the mixed usage truck market is
used in the urban delivery usage patterns
likely to be suitable for this type of waste
heat recovery.
•
So about ¼ of this 3.7m units p.a market
could be addressed by the technology.
Private and Confidential
16
Zero-emission propulsion
Dearman Engine is an effective prime mover for low power or utilisation,
especially where ambient is warm or cold is valued – CapEx lower than battery
LiN Tank
P
Ambient Heat
Exchanger
(Heat Source)
H/X
•
•
•
•
Sepa
rator
H/X
DE
India case
Vs Petrol
Vs Battery
Yearly OpEx
+£70
+£75**
10yr TCO
+£2,300*
-£1,100
A/C &
Refrigeration
Free without
adding to fuel
consumption
Free without
depleting range
Exhaust
Drive
Ambient heat exchanger used to harvest heat - ~2.5x engine power required
– Size ~4x that of equivalent ICE radiator – large (~500x500mm) but feasible
– Provides “free” air conditioning; payload refrigeration function can also be
provided
Access to city centres with air quality restrictions enabled
Fast refill compared to battery recharge
Compared to fuel cell or battery EV, offers lower CapEx & whole-life costs, more
familiar manufacture & maintenance
Dearman Engine Company
Source: E4tech/Dearman. Based on 8kW 3wheel rickshaw using Indian fuel, electricity
and LiN costs. NO assumption for changes
to diesel/petrol subsidies
*Dearman system made in high-niche
volumes >10,000/yr vs >100k/yr ICE
**Battery replacement 10yrs, annualised in
OpEx & TCO
Built environment applications
The Dearman Engine offers three potential
HVAC/
sources of benefit:
Refrigeration
i)
Shaft power that can be used to
support local demand or be exported
ii) Cooling (because of the low start
temperature of the working fluid)
iii) Conversion of waste heat into
additional shaft power
Onsite
Generation
Achieving the maximum benefit from these
services will require energy system analysis
and optimisation for the end user’s site.
There are also opportunities to explore
interaction with the fleet applications.
Dearman Engine Company
Electricity
Timeline – Initial focus on Cooling and WHR
Key Technical Activities
Late
2011
Dearman Engine Company Formed –
Ricardo Leads Due Diligence.
2012
Subsystems development with Ricardo
2013
Single Cylinder Engine Build led by Dearman.
H1,
2014
Integration with refrigeration cycle and hand over for
vehicle demonstration.
H2,
2014
Refrigeration: efficiency
and power density
enhancements,
preparations for field trials.
Waste heat recovery:
multi-cylinder project starts.
2015
Field Trials of refrigeration
application.
Multi-cylinder engine on to
test bed.
2016
Short run production for
fleet trial units (50 off at a
time) commences.
Waste heat recovery into
application
Dearman Engine Company
Japanese Market Opportunities
Applications Exploration
• Working with partners to identify and assess
existing and new applications in this market.
• Developing demonstration or field trial
opportunities.
Technical Collaboration
• Japan has world class capabilities in
technology development and
industrialisation of cryogenic systems and
engines.
• Japanese companies and research
organisations have done work on liquid air
energy storage concepts.
Dearman Engine Company
Japanese Refrigeration Opportunity
Dearman’s most mature product is a transport refrigeration device, Japan
could be a good Asian launch market for this product because:
• Japan has a mature and sophisticated cold chain
• Market participants like Denso, Hino Motors and Mitsubishi Heavy
Industries are already producing energy innovations in the sector.
• End users have experience of trialling new technologies
• Japanese world class expertise in cryogenic systems and processes could
support technology development as well as first field trials.
• Japanese market could provide a launch pad for other Asian territories.
• Refrigerated van and truck sales are about 20k units p.a in this market
Dearman is seeking technology development, host and finance partners for
this application.
Dearman Engine Company
Dearman Engine Company
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
UK Based SME technology developer founded 2011.
~40 full time employees. ~70% engineering focused
Developing a novel zero emissions engine technology with applications in cooling,
waste heat recovery and zero emissions power
Business and carbon case for deployment.
Transport refrigeration is first application. Field trials in 2015, fleet deployments from
2016. Project supported by Hubbard, MIRA and Air Products.
Follow on waste heat recovery applications in development
Consortium based approach to technology development >£5m in UK government and
partner funded projects underway.
Partners sought for feasibility studies that are being developed for additional
applications.
Part of broader emergence of liquid air as an energy carrier.
For more information, please contact Michael Ayres –
[email protected], (+44) 7714 513 653
Dearman Engine Company

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