ch 10

Washington & Adams
Reasons behind the formation of political parties and
their effect on government. (chapter 10)
The development of a post-Revolution foreign policy
and roadblocks along the way. (chapter 10)
Creation of a Presidential Cabinet
• Shows use of “implied powers”
• Created by Washington
• First 3 departments
1) Secretary of State- Thomas Jefferson
2) Secretary of Treasury- Alexander Hamilton
3) Secretary of War- Henry Knox
Economic Policy
• Headed by Treasure Secretary Alexander
• Believed if gov. favored the wealthy in the
long run all would benefit = stronger
• “trickle down” theory
Hamilton's Assumption Bill
• Wanted Congress to assume debts
accumulated by the national gov. and
• Believed that support from the wealthy
would create a strong central gov.
Virginia’s Bargain
• Against assumption
• Wanted District of
Columbia to be
located along the
Potomac River
• Agreed on
assumption bill and
bargain was made in
• Washington D.C. is
“Father of National Debt”
• Thanks to Hamilton U.S. in debt
$75 million
• Needed $$ to pay off debt
• Look towards tariffs
• Taxed Whiskey 7 cents a gallon
The Whiskey Rebellion
Began in Pennsylvania in 1794
Challenged new government
Tar and feathered revenue collectors
Washington called in militia
Proved Washington's administration was
strong and commanded respect
Issue of Banks and Constitution
Hamilton v. Jefferson
• Said what the
Constitution did not
forbid it permitted
• Stated congress can
pass any laws
“necessary and
• If the national gov.
was to collect taxes
and trade it needed a
• “loose construction”
• Said the constitution
had no written
authority to est. a
• Said it must then
reside w/ states (10th
• “Strict construction”
“Elastic Clause”
To make all Laws which shall be necessary
and proper for carrying into Execution the
foregoing Powers, and all other Powers
vested by this Constitution in the
Government of the United States, or in any
Department or Officer thereof.
Political Parties Emerge
• Political parties (fractions) emerge out of
the new issues facing the nation
• Created in 1790 as Jefferson and Madison
organize opposition against a federal bank
• DemocraticRepublicans
• Republicans
• DemocraticRepublicans
• Democrats
Foreign Policy Under Washington
• French Revolution
• Franco-American alliance of
• Washington and Hamilton
against helping French
• Neutrality Proclamation of 1793
Jay’s Treaty
• Jay’s Treaty- between Britain and U.S.
• Britain agrees to evacuate posts on U.S.
soil & pay for damages to American ships
• U.S. to pay off debts (creates division
between north and south)
• France saw it as a violation of the FrancoAmerican Treaty
Pinckney’s Treaty 1795
• Treaty w/ Spain who was fearful of an
American alliance with Britain
• Gave U.S. free navigation of Mississippi
• North Florida
Washington leaves office
• Leaves after 2nd term (retires)
• Federalists back John Adams
(Washington’s VP)
• Democratic-Republicans back Thomas
• Adams won 71 to 68 Electoral Votes
Adams Administration
• Aristocrat
• Harvard Education
• Did not appeal to the masses
XYZ Affair
• Adams sent an envoy to help fix relations
w/ France headed by John Marshall
• Instead of meeting the French Minister he
met X,Y and Z
• Asked for 32 million florins and another
250,000 dollars in order for the Americans
to speak to Talleyrand.
• Marshall refused and the U.S. prepared for
“Millions for Defense”
• Navy Department created (expanded from
its 3 ships)
• Marine Corps reestablished
• New army of 10,000 men
The Little man and America
• 1799 Napoleon Bonaparte becomes new
French Minister
• Adams sends envoys to France
• Treaty of Convention 1800- peacetime
military alliance between the two
• U.S. agreed to pay damage claims of
American Shippers
Domestic Policy Under Adams
Issue of immigration from Western
1. raised residence requirements from 5 years to 14
2. Alien Laws: President could deport “dangerous”
persons even in time of peace
3. Sedition Acts- those who spoke out against the
gov. would be fined & imprisoned (set to expire in
The Virginia & Kentucky
• Jefferson & Madison challenge the Alien &
Sedition Acts
• Compact Theory- individual states were to
be the final judges of the Federal gov.
overstepping its “compact”
• Used as a platform for the election of 1800

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