Powerpoint-Big 6 - Department for Education and Child Development

Report
Edith Cowan University
The Fogarty Learning Centre
School of Education
The Big Six in SA Schools
The Big Six of Reading
Assoc Prof Deslea Konza
Edith Cowan University
The Fogarty Learning Centre
School of Education
Purpose
• To present a framework of
the reading process
that is based on
research
• To provide some
strategies for
implementing the
Big Six
Module 2
Edith Cowan University
The Fogarty Learning Centre
School of Education
Your role
• Engage and participate
Module
• I’ll let you know when you really have
to listen2
• Ask questions if there’s anything you don’t
understand
Edith Cowan University
The Fogarty Learning Centre
School of Education
First some definitions…
• Phonological
awareness
• Phoneme
• Phonemic awareness
• Phonics/alphabetic
principle/letter-sound
knowledge
• Orthographic skills
• Morpheme
• Grapheme
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Digraph
Blend (n)
Diphthong
Automaticity
Coarticulation
Sight word
Sight vocabulary
Onset
Rime
Edith Cowan University
The Fogarty Learning Centre
School of Education
Approaches to teaching reading…
Essentially two theoretical approaches…
• A decoding, phonics or
Module
skills-based approach
vs
• A meaning first, look-say or whole language
approach
• Over a century of debate
2
Edith Cowan University
The Fogarty Learning Centre
School of Education
In the beginning…a decoding approach
• Children were taught the alphabet before
engaging in reading
Module 2
• Reading was seen as a hierarchy of skills,
whereby
~ reader analysed letters, then words, etc
~ higher order comprehension processes then
engaged to integrate meaning
Edith Cowan University
The Fogarty Learning Centre
School of Education
Weaknesses of decoding or bottom-up model
• Explanation is too simplistic
• Decoding doesn’t necessarily lead to
Module 2
understanding
• Good readers read more quickly than decoding
alone suggests
• Beginning of sentence would be forgotten before
end of sentence reached
• Context often decides pronunciation and
comprehension
• It can be taught in a really boring manner!
Edith Cowan University
The Fogarty Learning Centre
School of Education
Top-down “whole language”approach…
• Learning to read is as natural as learning to
speak
Module 2
• Good readers don’t decode – they use
background knowledge and context to predict
text and “sample print” to confirm their
predictions
• Decoding is the least useful reading strategy
– Children should skip words they don’t know, or put
in another word that makes sense
Edith Cowan University
The Fogarty Learning Centre
School of Education
Top-down “whole language”approach…
• Teaching phonics systematically decreases
enjoyment of reading
Module 2
– Letter-sound knowledge can be embedded at
“teachable moments”
Goodman (1968, 1976); Smith (1978)
• Children learn to read by reading high quality
children’s literature, gradually building up
knowledge of words, predicting what will
appear and monitoring text to confirm
predictions (some do but most do not)
Edith Cowan University
The Fogarty Learning Centre
School of Education
Top-down “whole language”approach…
• Great enthusiasm for the approach among
teachers
Module
• Brought attractive and well-written books into
classrooms to replace primers and graded
readers
• Had great intuitive appeal
• Whole language greatly influenced university
education programs from late seventies
2
Edith Cowan University
The Fogarty Learning Centre
School of Education
Weaknesses of Top-down approach…
• Research evidence has overtaken a number of the
top down assumptions
Module 2
1. Learning to read is as natural as learning to speak
(history of language development vs writing
development; brain research; Watt’s poem)
2. Good readers don’t decode (Van Orden)
3. Readers only sample print (Rayner’s eye movement
research)
4. Good readers use context (multi-age group research)
5. Embedded phonics instruction OK if necessary
(synthetic vs analytic phonics research)
6. Use of high quality literature (some students need
Edith Cowan University
The Fogarty Learning Centre
School of Education
Brush up your English – T.S. Watt
I take it you already know
Of tough and bough and cough and dough?
Others may stumble, but not you,
On hiccough, thorough, lough and through.
Well done! And now you wish, perhaps
To learn of less familiar traps?
Beware of heard, a dreadful word,
that looks like beard and sounds like bird.
And dead: it’s said like bed not bead –
For goodness sake don’t call it deed.
Watch out for meat and great and threat
(They rhyme with suite and straight and debt).
Module 2
Edith Cowan University
The Fogarty Learning Centre
School of Education
Brush up your English – T.S. Watt
A moth is not a moth in mother
Nor both in bother, broth in brother.
And here is not a match for there,
Nor dear and fear for bear and pear.
And then there’s dose and rose and lose –
Just look them up – and goose and choose,
And core and work, and card and ward.
And font and front and word and sword.
And do and go and thwart and cart –
Come, come, I’ve hardly made a start!
A dreadful language? Man alive,
I’d mastered it when I was five!
Module 2
Edith Cowan University
The Fogarty Learning Centre
School of Education
How important is context?
• The knight leaped upon his horse and drew
his _______.
Module 2
• A good reader can easily insert the correct
word “sword”. Poor readers usually cannot.
This has been interpreted as poor readers not
being able to use context. Let’s examine how
a poor reader might approach the above
sentence…
The Fogarty Learning Centre
Edith Cowan University
School of Education
A poor reader’s actual atempt
The knight leaped upon his
The king
leg
up
his
horse and drew his ______.
house and do his _______.
This is not a context problem!!
Module 2
Edith Cowan University
The Fogarty Learning Centre
School of Education
This is not a context problem!
• use of context demands about 90% word
recognition to provide context
Module 2
• beginning/poor readers do not have sufficient
word recognition skills to use context
• use of context demands word recognition
skills
Edith Cowan University
The Fogarty Learning Centre
School of Education
Interactive model (Rumelhart, 1977)
• Reading combines both bottom-up and topdown processes, interacting withinModule
working 2
memory
• Without decoding skills/rapid word recognition,
too much attention has to be focused on this
aspect
• Little cognitive capacity left to focus on
meaning
Edith Cowan University
The Fogarty Learning Centre
School of Education
Interactive/Compensatory Model
(Stanovich, 1980)
• When reader can't use bottom-up processes,
will rely more heavily on top-down Module 2
• When reader can't use top-down, will rely
more heavily on bottom-up
• Beginning/poor readers need focus on word
recognition skills to facilitate context, which
then facilitates meaning
Edith Cowan University
The Fogarty Learning Centre
School of Education
Research into reading acquisition…
• Learning to Read: The Great Debate (Chall, 1967)
- Examined hundreds of studies 1910-1965 Module 2
- Concluded that alphabetic knowledge is required to develop
independent reading
• Becoming a Nation of Readers (Anderson, 1985)
- Differentiated between “emerging literacy” (5-8 yr) and
“extending literacy” (8 yrs on)
- Highlighted importance of preschool years and oral
language
• Project Follow Through (1967-1995)
- Highly explicit approach proved to be superior approach for
struggling readers
Edith Cowan University
The Fogarty Learning Centre
School of Education
Research into reading acquisition…
• Beginning to Read: Thinking and Learning about Print
(Adams, 1990)
Module
2
- Sponsored by US Dept of Educ to survey “the entire
body of reading research”
- Concluded “deep and thorough knowledge of letters,
spelling patterns and words… are of inescapable
importance to both skilful reading and its acquisition.”
Also that phonics instruction is “necessary but not
sufficient” for reading acquisition.
- So need both!
Edith Cowan University
The Fogarty Learning Centre
School of Education
Research into reading acquisition…
• Report of the National Reading Panel (2000)
Module 2
- Largest, most comprehensive evidence-based review of
reading research ever conducted; appointed by US Congress
- Included representatives from all “sides”;
• Concluded effective reading instruction required explicit
instruction in
– phonemic awareness
– phonics
– vocabulary
– fluency
– comprehension
Edith Cowan University
The Fogarty Learning Centre
School of Education
Research into reading acquisition…
• National Inquiry into the Teaching of Literacy (Rowe,
2005)
Module 2
– Reiterated findings of NRP
– Emphasised the need for explicit instruction of
alphabetic knowledge
– Also emphasised need for teacher training and
teacher professional development to reflect
scientific evidence regarding beginning reading
Edith Cowan University
The Fogarty Learning Centre
School of Education
Research into reading acquisition…
• Review of the Teaching of Early Reading (Rose,
2006)
Module
– Highlighted the need for
2
• well-trained teachers
• systematic instructional programs
• strong supportive school leadership
– Supported use of synthetic phonics approach plus
exposure to high quality children’s literature; embedded
approach too random
Edith Cowan University
The Fogarty Learning Centre
School of Education
Summarised in a simple framework …the Big Six
1. Oral language and early literacy
experiences
Module
2. Phonological Awareness
3. Letter-sound Knowledge (Phonics)
4. Vocabulary
5. Fluency
6. Comprehension
2
Edith Cowan University
The Fogarty Learning Centre
School of Education
The Big Six
Comprehension
Module 2
Fluency
Oral language & early
literacy experiences
Vocabulary
Letter-sound knowledge
(phonics)
Phonological
awareness
Edith Cowan University
School of Education
1. Oral Language and Early Literacy Experiences
Edith Cowan University
The Fogarty Learning Centre
School of Education
Early language and literacy experiences
• Interactions with significant
people in a child’s life shape the
development of language
• Some features of these
interactions are very important
~ the frequency of interactions
~ the responses the child receives
~ the language structures, the number and
variety of words used
~ the reading aloud of story books
The Fogarty Learning Centre
Edith Cowan University
School of Education
Early language and literacy experiences
• Enormous differences at school
entry between children from
different language backgrounds
(Beck & McKeown, 2002)
• Bottom 25% of students begin school with
1000 fewer base word meanings than top 25%
(Biemiller, 2005
• Gap never completely closes
• Need to directly teach vocabulary
especially to those who read little
)
Edith Cowan University
The Fogarty Learning Centre
School of Education
Developing oral language skills
• Speak accurately, emphasise
important words
• Use precise terminology
• Verb at beginning of directions
• Add visual or written cues (underline important
words; number instructions; place vertically not
embedded in sentence)
• Provide many opportunities for small group
interaction
Edith Cowan University
School of Education
2. Phonological
Awareness
Edith Cowan University
The Fogarty Learning Centre
School of Education
2. Phonological awareness
• Significance only recognised in
mid 1980s
Module
2
• Children have to learn what a
“sound” is
• Sounds (phonemes) are compressed (10-15/sec) so
we can process them; receive words as one pulse
• Disguises segmental nature of words
• If children can’t hear separate sounds, they can’t
attach a letter to a sound
• They can’t “map” sounds onto paper
• Alphabetic system doesn’t make sense to them
Edith Cowan University
The Fogarty Learning Centre
School of Education
Phonological awareness assessment
– Not related to intelligence!
– About 20% of people have some
difficulties
– Strongly related to early literacy
experiences
– Essentially nothing to do with phonics but phonics
builds on p.a.
– Relates to sounds of language
– If the sounds the child is hearing are not Standard
English, s/he will be disadvantaged from beginning
– Now for an empathy task
Module 2
Edith Cowan University
The Fogarty Learning Centre
School of Education
Phonological awareness
• Skills develop in broad sequence
– Word awareness
Module
– Syllable awareness (rhythm)
– Awareness of onset/rime division
– Awareness of individual phonemes – phonemic
awareness (alliteration, isolation, segmentation)
– Ability to blend and segment phonemes
– Ability to manipulate phonemes
2
Edith Cowan University
The Fogarty Learning Centre
School of Education
Developing phonological awareness
• Word awareness
– Point to words as they are read
– Ask chn to count words in sentences
• Syllable awareness
– Clap beats in chn’s names
– Clap beats in multisyllabic words
– Use compound words first if children
have difficulty
– Count chin drops
Module 2
Edith Cowan University
The Fogarty Learning Centre
School of Education
Developing phonological awareness
• Awareness of rhyme
– Model which part of word is
Module
important for rhyming
– Read traditional nursery rhymes
– Read modern stories that incorporate rhyming
2
• Awareness of onset
– Add an adjective, occupation to names (Energetic
Emily, Amazing Amanda, Jolly Jack, Andrew the
astronaut, Lainey the lion tamer
Edith Cowan University
The Fogarty Learning Centre
School of Education
Developing phonological awareness
• Begin using letters at this stage to
develop both phonic and phonemic Module 2
skills together
• Concentrate on blending of sounds at
beginning, end and middle of CVC words
wherever possible; teach continuous sounds
first
• Use magnetic letters to practise blending and
segmenting
Edith Cowan University
School of Education
3. Letter-Sound
knowledge
(Phonics)
Edith Cowan University
The Fogarty Learning Centre
School of Education
3. Letter-sound knowledge (phonics)
• Builds on phonemic awareness
• The English language is a
Module 2
coded system
• The alphabet is the code
• Without knowledge of the code one can never
be an independent reader
• Some children build knowledge of this code
easily
• Others require a great deal of explicit teaching
Edith Cowan University
The Fogarty Learning Centre
School of Education
Letter-sound knowledge (phonics)
• A difficult language
- different spellings of “or” (20)
Module 2
- different pronunciations of “ough” (8)
Edith Cowan University
The Fogarty Learning Centre
School of Education
Letter-sound knowledge (phonics)
• Different spellings of “or”
– or, more, poor, roar, four, saw,
awe, warm, broad, talk, water,
bought, sure, caught, Boer,
author, dinosaur, rapport,
Moore, abattoir (some SA)
Module 2
• Different pronunciations of “ough”
– cough, tough, bough, although, thought, thorough, through,
lough.
• Too complicated for random approach to
teaching for most students
Edith Cowan University
The Fogarty Learning Centre
School of Education
To be independent, readers need to know
• Letter sounds and letter names
– When should you begin?
Module 2
– How quickly should you go?
– Should letter shapes be related to animals, etc?
– Should sounds be related to actions and songs?
– How should they be taught?
Edith Cowan University
The Fogarty Learning Centre
School of Education
Synthetic, Analytic and Embedded approaches…
• Embedded/analytic/ approaches entail
– Looking for common patterns in
words read in stories
– Analysing patterns in words
Module 2
• Synthetic (synthesising) approaches entail
– explicit and systematic instruction of letters and their
sounds in an order that promotes blending
– Emphasis on blending very early
– Using knowledge in reading asap, so practice with cvc
words in simple stories, etc
Edith Cowan University
The Fogarty Learning Centre
School of Education
Synthetic, Analytic and Embedded approaches…
• Explicit, systematic instruction
in letter-sound knowledge has
Module
been demonstrated in many
studies to be more effective
than embedded or analytic approaches for
beginning (R/1) and struggling readers
(Johnston & Watson, 2003, 2005; NRP, 2000; Rose Review,
2006)
2
Edith Cowan University
The Fogarty Learning Centre
School of Education
Synthetic, Analytic and Embedded approaches…
Gender differences disappear
(Johnston & Watson, 2003)
Module 2
Edith Cowan University
The Fogarty Learning Centre
School of Education
To be independent, readers also need to know…
• Common letter combinations –
digraphs, prefixes
(esp. un-, re-, in-, dis-), suffixes
• High frequency sight words
Module 2
Edith Cowan University
The Fogarty Learning Centre
School of Education
To be independent, readers also need to know…
• Common letter combinations –
digraphs, prefixes (esp. un-, re-,
in-, dis-), suffixes
• Base words and how to build on
them
• Etymological roots
• High frequency words
Module 2
– Oxford Word List
…TO THE POINT OF AUTOMATICITY…
IN ORDER TO BUILD A LARGE SIGHT
VOCABULARY
Edith Cowan University
School of Education
4. Vocabulary
Edith Cowan University
The Fogarty Learning Centre
School of Education
4. Vocabulary
• Vocabulary has the highest
correlation with intelligence than
any other measured factor
Module 2
(Manzo, Manzo & Thomas, 2006)
• One of the best predictors of educational
achievement in children, especially reading
accuracy and comprehension
(Beck, 2007, Irvin, 2001, Nash & Snowling, 2006)
Edith Cowan University
The Fogarty Learning Centre
School of Education
Vocabulary
• Beginning readers have a much
more difficult time reading words
that are not already part of their
oral vocabulary.
Module 2
• Very important to reading comprehension - chn
cannot understand what they are reading without
knowing what most of the words mean
Edith Cowan University
The Fogarty Learning Centre
School of Education
Levels of word knowledge…
1. Have never seen or heard it
2. Have seen or heard it but unsure
Module
of meaning
3. Vaguely know meaning; can
associate it with concept or context
4. Know meaning well enough to explain it
interlocutor acclivity fudiciary osculate
2
Edith Cowan University
The Fogarty Learning Centre
School of Education
Tiers of word knowledge…
• Tier One words are basic,
everyday words; should be known
Module 2
• Tier Two words are understood by
mature users. These should be
targeted for instruction; will differ depending on age
of group; should increase text comprehension
• Tier Three words are low-frequency, specialised
words limited to certain fields of knowledge; should
only be taught as required
Edith Cowan University
The Fogarty Learning Centre
School of Education
What teachers can do…
• Explicitly pre-teach new terminology
• Build large “living” Word Wall” of Unit
vocabulary; lists with definitions and spelling
tips displayed (large) and referred to often
• Group similar words to show patterns
• Interesting word charts to flag particular
words in specific text
Edith Cowan University
The Fogarty Learning Centre
School of Education
Teach relevant morphemes (units of
meaning)
• Morphemes are letter patterns that also have
meaning – so knowing these helps word
reading, spelling and comprehension
• Many technical words have been created by
joining morphemes together
• Morphemes may be
– syntactic (-s, -ed, ing),
– Prefixes, suffixs
– etymological (Greek/Latin roots)
Edith Cowan University
The Fogarty Learning Centre
School of Education
Morphemes, cont.
• Older students don’t mind learning
morphemes – larger units
• Knowing hydro means “water” helps with
meaning of hydrogen, hydrant, hydroelectric,
hydrofoil and hydrophobia and the less
common hydroacoustic, hydrostatics and
hydrographic.
• What is the meaning of haemocytometer
Edith Cowan University
The Fogarty Learning Centre
School of Education
Word sorts
• Give student pairs a collection of words
related to unit for categorisation in different
ways
• Can also provide category names
• Can be left to students to decide as long as
they can defend categories
• Can categorise on basis of syntactic features
Edith Cowan University
School of Education
5. Fluency
Edith Cowan University
The Fogarty Learning Centre
School of Education
Fluency is…
…when the magic happens…
When “learning to read”
turns into
“reading to learn”
Edith Cowan University
The Fogarty Learning Centre
School of Education
Fluency occurs when…
• All subskills of reading from
decoding to semantic
understanding must occur
automatically – must be completed
without overt attention
• Need high level of automatic word recognition
• Attention can then be focused on comprehension
• If your students are struggling through the text, they
are not able to understand
Edith Cowan University
The Fogarty Learning Centre
School of Education
Reading rates
• By end Year 1
60 wpm
• By end Year 2
90/100 wpm
• In Years 3-6
100-120 wpm
with < 3 errors with material
getting progressively harder
Edith Cowan University
The Fogarty Learning Centre
School of Education
What teachers can do…
• NRP (2000) suggested two major
strategies
– Wide independent reading
– Repeated reading of short passages
•
•
•
•
Readers Theatre
Read-along with CD
Poems, jokes
Paired reading
– Echo reading
– Song lyrics
Edith Cowan University
The Fogarty Learning Centre
School of Education
What teachers can do…
• Create short summary (250 words)
of main point of each lesson,
definitions; distribute to pairs of
readers (better with poorer)
– At end of lesson, few minutes of paired repeated reading
(better reader first, then poorer, 3-4 times)
– Builds reading skill and content knowledge
Edith Cowan University
The Fogarty Learning Centre
School of Education
What teachers can do…
• Dictogloss (Content dictations)
• Teachers reads short passage
of content three times
• Students write as much as they
can each time
• End up with summary to be used for fluency
exercise
Edith Cowan University
The Fogarty Learning Centre
School of Education
Link between fluency and comprehension
• A reader cannot be fluent
without comprehending
• A reader cannot comprehend
without being fluent
• Two components have a strong
connection
Edith Cowan University
School of Education
6.
Comprehension
Edith Cowan University
School of Education
Comprehension
• Understanding the
purpose of reading
• Connecting with prior
knowledge
• Actively engaging with
the text
• Monitoring
comprehension
• Adjusting reading
strategies
The Fogarty Learning Centre
Edith Cowan University
The Fogarty Learning Centre
School of Education
Requires active engagement with text
• For some students this means an
actual activity to do while reading
– Look for particular word/answer
– Write questions on a sticky note
– Pictorial and graphic organisers
• Skeletal diagrams
• Pyramids - many options on Inspiration and
Kidspiration)
Edith Cowan University
The Fogarty Learning Centre
School of Education
Semantic grid
FOOD
Meat
Grains
Dairy
Fruit/vegetables
Cakes/sweets
High fat
High salt
High carb
High sugar
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Edith Cowan University
School of Education
Retrieval chart
Environment
Savannah
Tundra
Desert
Rainforest
Location
Climate
Plants
Animals
Edith Cowan University
The Fogarty Learning Centre
School of Education
Continuing impact of oral language and vocabulary
• Oral language important
on school entry and
forever after
• Vocabulary continues to
develop throughout life
and also has a
continuing impact
• Students need more
opportunities for one-onone conversations
Edith Cowan University
The Fogarty Learning Centre
School of Education
Paired discussions
• Paired or small group discussions are one of
the best ways to build students’ language
and comprehension of content
• Mixed ability tends to be most effective but
groupings can be changed for different
purposes
• Many different ways to structure a discussion
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Edith Cowan University
School of Education
Say something!
• Students in pairs (A & B)
• Reader A reads paragraph/subsection (keep
chunks fairly small)
• Reader B then has to “say something”
–
–
–
–
–
–
agree or disagree
ask a question
predict what comes next
request clarification (I didn’t understand it when…)
state main point
make a connection (This reminds me of…
• Readers swap roles
Edith Cowan University
The Fogarty Learning Centre
School of Education
Three facts, one fib
• Good mixed ability activity
• Practice strategy before using on content (perhaps
3 facts, one fib about themselves)
• Fibs have to be subtle so they trick other students
• Students read text; write four statements on an
index card
• Students swap cards and try to identify fibs
• Can get points for correctly identifying fib
Edith Cowan University
The Fogarty Learning Centre
School of Education
Give one get one
• Works as a think/pair share activity
• After class or individual reading, students complete
card
• Write four ideas/statements about text/input
• Discuss with partner to share idea and get one in
return
• Discuss with other pairs until four new ideas are
recorded
Give one get one
Edith Cowan University
The Fogarty Learning Centre
School of Education
One sentence/one word
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
After reading activity
Helps students focus on main idea or theme
Students read assigned section individually
Each student chooses most important sentence
Students justify their choice in pairs
Can be done as circle activity
Can be modified to selecting most meaningful word
Edith Cowan University
The Fogarty Learning Centre
School of Education
Insert notes
• Students use sticky notes to respond to
text
• Begin with 2-3
• Practice as class; work in pairs to begin
Edith Cowan University
The Fogarty Learning Centre
School of Education
Change the Form
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Narrative to timeline
Recipe to flow diagram
Compare/contrast to Venn diagram
Narrative to newspaper report
Text to picture/graph
Graph to text
Description of event to a diary entry
Single incident from three different points of
view
Edith Cowan University
The Fogarty Learning Centre
School of Education
3 2 1 Discussion
• Gives opportunity to review after reading or any
input
• Can be generic or specific
• Requires students to synthesise information
• Students work individually to complete a card
• Discuss in pairs
• Cards are collected and used to start discussion in
next lesson
• Provides feedback on your teaching and their
learning
3 2 1 Discussion
Edith Cowan University
The Fogarty Learning Centre
School of Education
Take home messages
• Strategies need to be
– Modelled a number of times
– Practised by students with guidance and
feedback
– Used many times before students become
effective users
• Usually best to keep to a small number of
strategies, even across classes, esp for
struggling students
Edith Cowan University
The Fogarty Learning Centre
School of Education
Free on-line resources
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
On Target: Reading Strategies to Guide Learning
On Target: Strategies to Help Struggling Readers
On Target: Strategies to Improve Student Test Scores
On Target: Strategies to Help Readers Make Meaning
through Inferences
On Target: Strategies to Build Student Vocabulary
On Target: More Strategies to Guide Learning
On Target: Bringing Writing into Content Area Classrooms
On Target: Strategies That Differentiate Instruction, Grades
4-12
Edith Cowan University
The Fogarty Learning Centre
School of Education
The Big Six
Comprehension
Module 2
Fluency
Vocabulary
Letter-sound knowledge
(phonics)
Early language &
literacy experiences
Phonological
awareness
Edith Cowan University
The Fogarty Learning Centre
School of Education
Contact details
Dr Deslea Konza
Assoc/Professor of Language and Literacy
School of Education
Edith Cowan University
[email protected]
Thank you!

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