Big Idea 14 : Organization and Development of Living Organisms

Report
Big Idea 14 : Organization
and Development of Living
Organisms
DESCRIPTION
A. ALL LIVING THINGS SHARE
CERTAIN CHARACTERISTICS.
B. THE SCIENTIFIC THEORY OF
CELLS, ALSO CALLED CELL THEORY,
IS A FUNDAMENTAL ORGANIZING
PRINCIPLE OF LIFE ON EARTH.
C. LIFE CAN BE ORGANIZED IN A
FUNCTIONAL AND STRUCTURAL
HIERARCHY.
D. LIFE IS MAINTAINED BY VARIOUS
PHYSIOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS
ESSENTIAL FOR GROWTH,
REPRODUCTION, AND HOMEOSTASIS.
Benchmark Number & Descriptor
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SC.6.L.14.1
Describe and identify patterns in the
hierarchical organization of organisms
from atoms to molecules and cells to
tissues to organs to organ systems to
organisms.
SC.6.L.14.2
Investigate and explain the
components of the scientific theory of
cells (cell theory): all organisms are
composed of cells (single-celled or
multi-cellular), all cells come from preexisting cells, and cells are the basic
unit of life.
SC.6.L.14.3
Recognize and explore how cells of all
organisms undergo similar processes to
maintain homeostasis, including
extracting energy from food, getting rid
of waste, and reproducing.
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SC.6.L.14.4
Compare and contrast the structure
and function of major organelles of
plant and animal cells, including cell
wall, cell membrane, nucleus,
cytoplasm, chloroplasts, mitochondria,
and vacuoles.
SC.6.L.14.5
Identify and investigate the general
functions of the major systems of the
human body (digestive, respiratory,
circulatory, reproductive, excretory,
immune, nervous, and
musculoskeletal) and describe ways
these systems interact with each other
to maintain homeostasis.
SC.6.L.14.6
Compare and contrast types of
infectious agents that may infect the
human body, including viruses,
bacteria, fungi, and parasites.
FROM SMALL TO BIG
HIERARCHICAL ORGANIZATION
 System of organization
where each level helps to
build the one above it.
 The base levels are very
simplistic in nature while
the upper levels become
more complex.
 Parts of the lower levels are
often found in the next
sequence.
 The organization of living
things starts with
subatomic particles and
progress all the way to an
organisms ecosystem.
Biome
Ecosystem
Community
Population
Organism
Organ System
Organ
Tissue
Cell
Organelle
Molecule
Atom
Subatomic
Particle
HIERARCHICAL ORGANIZATION
SUBATOMIC PARTICLES
 3 subatomic particles
 Proton
 Neutron
 Electron
 These particles make
up matter.
ATOM
 Smallest unit of an
element which has the
properties of that
element
 Contains the 3
subatomic particles
HIERARCHICAL ORGANIZATION
ORGANELLE
MOLECULE
 A particle composed of
 Structures in cells
at least 2 bonded atoms
 Each molecule has its
own properties.
 Each organelle has a
specific job.
 Examples:

Nucleolus, ribosome,
endoplasmic reticulum
mitochondria, vacuole,
lysosome
HIERARCHICAL ORGANIZATION
CELL
 Smallest structure that
can perform all the
processes necessary for
life
 Organelles are found
inside cells.
TISSUE
 A group of similar cells
that perform a specific
function.
HIERARCHICAL ORGANIZATION
ORGAN
 Different tissues that
work together and
carry out a specific
function create organs.
Your lungs
are an
organ made
up of
specialized
cells to help
exchange
gasses.
ORGAN SYSTEM
 A group of organs that
work together to
perform a body
function create organ
systems
Organs such as
the lungs,
diaphragm and
trachea make up
the respiratory
system.
HIERARCHICAL ORGANIZATION
ORGANISM
 Any living thing
 All organisms are made
up of one or more cells.
POPULATION
 Organisms of the same
species that line in the
same place make up a
population.
northern fur seals
HIERARCHICAL ORGANIZATION
COMMUNITY
 Different populations
which share the
environment make up
communities.
ECOSYSTEM
 An ecosystem includes
all of the populations
and non-living factors
in a particular
environment.
HIERARCHICAL ORGANIZATION
BIOME
 A large region which
has a distinct climate
and specific types of
ecosystems
 Biomes exist on both
land and sea.
HIERARCHY RECAP
KNOWLEDGE CHECK
1.
What is the smallest unit of matter? The smallest
unit of life?
2. What are organelles, and where are they found?
3. How are tiny cells related to organ systems found
in the body?
4. How are cells related to organisms?
KNOWLEDGE CHECK
1.
What is the smallest unit of matter? Atoms The
smallest unit of life? Cells
2.
What are organelles, and where are they found?
Structures with specific functions inside cells
3.
How are tiny cells related to organ systems found in the
body? Cells make up organs which create organ
systems.
4.
How are cells related to organisms? Organisms are
living things, and living things are made up of cells.
WHERE DID OUR
CELLS COME FROM?
THE CELL THEORY
 The Cell Theory states:

All living things are made up of cells.

Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living
things.

Living cells come from only living cells.
CELL THEORY
ROBERT HOOKE
 Discovered the first cells
 1665 looked at a slice of
cork through a
microscope
 Saw tiny room-like
structures

Cells
 The cells he saw were
actually dead plant cell
walls.
ANTON VON
LEEUWENHOEK
 Used a simple
microscope to look at
blood, rainwater, and
teeth scrapings
 Discovered the first
one celled living things

Examples of these were
bacteria and paramecium
CELL THEORY
LIVING THINGS


All living things are made up
of tiny cells.
All living things are able to:
Cells work together to
perform basic life
processes that keep
organisms alive.
Move
 Perform complex activities
 Grow and develop
 Respond to stimulus
 Reproduce
Getting rid of
body wastes
Making new cells
for growth and
repair


CELL FUNCTION
Without specialized cells,
these processes would not
occur.
Releasing
energy from
food
CELL THEORY
CELLS FROM
LIVING THINGS
 Francesco Redi proved
that cells do not come
from non-living things.

Cells come only from living
things.
 His work disproved the
Theory of Spontaneous
Generation

Life could spring form nonliving matter.
CELL THEORY
UNICELLULAR
 Living things that
contain only one cell
 This unicellular
organism can perform all
of the functions that a
larger organism with
multiple cells can.
 Examples:


Bacteria
Algae
MULTICELLULAR
 Some organisms can
contain hundreds,
millions even trillions of
cells.
 Humans have an
estimated 6 trillion
cells.
 Most cells in these
organisms have
specialized functions.
KNOWLEDGE CHECK
1.
What are the 3 factors in the Cell Theory?
2. Who are the first two scientists credited with the
discovery of cells?
3. List 3 cell functions.
4. What does spontaneous generation mean?
KNOWLEDGE CHECK
1.
What are the 3 factors in the Cell Theory? All living things are
made up of cells; cells are the basic units of structure and function in
living things; living cells come from only living cells.
2.
Who are the first two scientists credited with the discovery of
cells? Robert Hooke, Anton Von Leeuwenhoek
3.
List 3 cell functions. Releasing energy from food; getting rid of
body wastes; making new cells for growth and repair
4.
What does spontaneous generation mean? Living organisms
can come from non-living things.
STAYING ALIVE
Homeostasis
 In order for cells to function
properly, conditions inside
the cell must maintain
constant even if outside
factors change.
 Cells must keep the proper
concentration of nutrients
and water and eliminate
wastes.
 The plasma membrane is
selectively permeable.

It will allow some things to
pass through while blocking
other things.
Homeostasis
CELL MEMBRANE
 The cell membrane
allows certain things to
enter and leave a cell.
 Its function is to keep
certain items outside the
cell and certain items
inside the cell.
 It is able to do this
because it is
semipermeable.
CONTROL OF MATERIALS IN & OUT
PASSIVE TRANSPORT
 Movement of substances through the cell
membrane without the use of cellular energy
 EXAMPLES:



Diffusion
Facilitated Diffusion
Osmosis
Weeee!!!
high
low
CONTROL OF MATERIALS IN & OUT
DIFFUSION
 Molecules move from a
crowded area to a less
crowded area.
 Diffusion occurs with
gasses and liquids.
 When molecules are evenly
spread out, equilibrium has
been reached.
 Molecules never stop
moving; they continue to
move but maintain
equilibrium.
ANIMATION
 http://highered.mcgra
whill.com/sites/007249
5855/student_view0/c
hapter2/animation__h
ow_diffusion_works.ht
ml
CONTROL OF MATERIALS IN & OUT
FACILITATED
DIFFUSION
 Diffusion of specific
particles through
transport proteins
found in the
membrane
a.
b.
Transport Proteins are
specific – they “select”
only certain molecules
to cross the membrane.
Transports larger or
charged molecules
ANIMATION
http://highered.mcgrawhill.com/sites/007249
5855/student_view0/c
hapter2/animation__h
ow_facilitated_diffusio
n_works.html
CONTROL OF MATERIALS IN & OUT
OSMOSIS
 Diffusion of water
through the cell
membrane
 Important processes
because it keeps water
in and around the
cells.
ANIMATION
 http://highered.mcgra
whill.com/sites/007249
5855/student_view0/c
hapter2/animation__h
ow_osmosis_works.ht
ml
CONTROL OF MATERIALS IN & OUT
ACTIVE TRANSPORT
 Energy is needed for the movement of substances
through the cell membrane.
 Proteins attach to the needed particles and uses
energy to move through the cell membrane.
 Once through, the protein leaves and picks up
another particle.
This is
gonna
 Examples:


Endocytosis
Exocytosis
be hard
work!
high
low
CONTROL OF MATERIALS IN & OUT
ENDOCYTOSIS
 Cell membrane folds
around the protein and
pulls it into the cell.
 “cell eating”
 Forms food vacuole &
digests food
 This is how white blood
cells eat bacteria!
EXOCYTOSIS
 Forces material out of cell
 Membrane surrounding
the material fuses with
cell membrane and
releases the material.
 ex: Hormones or wastes
released from cell
ANIMATION: http://highered.mcgrawhill.com/olcweb/cgi/pluginpop.cgi?it=swf::535::535::/sites/dl
/free/0072437316/120068/bio02.swf::Endocytosis%20and%
20Exocytosis
KNOWLEDGE CHECK
1. What part of the cell allows homeostasis to
occur?
2. List and describe two forms of passive
transport.
3. List and describe two forms of active
transport.
KNOWLEDGE CHECK
What part of the cell allows homeostasis to occur?
Cell Membrane
2. List and describe two forms of passive transport.
Diffusion: transporting specific substances through
the cell membrane; Osmosis: diffusion of water
through the cell membrane.
3. List and describe two forms of active transport.
Endocytosis: Process of pulling large particles into
the cell using energy
Exocytosis: Releasing large particles from the cell
using energy
1.
TRAPPING ENERGY FOR LIFE
CHEMICAL ENERGY
 Without energy, cells
cannot perform their
designated function.
 Cells take chemical
energy stored in foods.
 Total of all chemical
reactions in an
organism =
Metabolism
LIVING THINGS
 Producers:
 Organisms that make their
own food by the process of
photosynthesis
 Consumers:
 Organisms that cannot
make their own food but
instead rely on producers
and other consumers
TRAPPING ENERGY FOR LIFE
RELEASING ENERGY
FOR LIFE
 Cells must break down
food molecules and
release the energy.

Respiration
 Glucose is the food that
is mostly broken down.
 Mitochondria, an
organelle in the cell,
breaks down food for
energy.
TRAPPING ENERGY FOR LIFE
RESPIRATION
 The process by which cells
break down food sources
such as glucose, fats, and
protein and release their
stored energy
 Two main types


Anaerobic – no oxygen
required
Aerobic – requiring oxygen
Light energy
ECOSYSTEM
Photosynthesis
in chloroplasts
Organic
CO2 + H2O
+ O2
Cellular
molecules
respiration
in mitochondria
 Energy produced is in the
form of ATP and
adenosine triphosphate
Figure 9.2
ATP
powers most cellular work
Heat
energ
y
TRAPPING ENERGY FOR LIFE
AEROBIC
RESPIRATION
 Respiration which
takes place in the
presence of oxygen
 Formula:

C6H12O6 + 6O2  6CO2
+ 6H2O + Energy
(ATP)
TRAPPING ENERGY FOR LIFE
ANAEROBIC
RESPIRATION
 Respiration which takes
place in the absence of
oxygen

Fermentation
 Release of energy from
glucose without the
presence of oxygen
 Releases less energy then
aerobic respiration
 If fermentation occurs in
cells, lactic acid is
produced in muscles.
KNOWLEDGE CHECK
1. What is the difference between a producer
and a consumer?
2. What is the chemical process of breaking
down food and releasing energy?
3. What is a by-product of anaerobic
respiration?
KNOWLEDGE CHECK
1. What is the difference between a producer
and a consumer? Producers can make their
own foods through the process of
photosynthesis. Consumers cannot make their
own food and must rely on eating other
producers/consumers for energy.
2. What is the chemical process of breaking
down food and releasing energy? Respiration
3. What is a by-product of anaerobic
respiration? Lactic acid (fermentation)
REPRODUCING
 As living things become older,
they usually become larger in
size.
 Cells themselves do not grow
bigger in size; instead, they
multiply on large numbers.
 In order for survival, cells must
be able to reproduce
themselves, quickly and easily.
 The process of cell
division is known as
MITOSIS.
• Process in which the
nucleus of the cell
divides and the
formation of two
daughter cells occur
Mitosis
 Interphase
Normal functions
 Upon trigger, chromosomes &
centrioles duplicate.
 Prophase
 Early: nuclear envelope
degrades; chromosomes start to
condense.
 Late: chromosomes thicken;
spindle forms between
centrioles.
 Metaphase
 Spindle fibers attach to
kinetochores.
 Chromosomes line up at cell
equator.

sdst.org/shs/apbio/... /mitosis powerpoint.ppt
Mitosis
 Anaphase
Chromatids separate at
centromeres.
 Chromosomes move to poles.
 Telophase
 Nuclear envelope reforms in
each of two daughter cells.
 Cytokinesis separates two
new cells.
 Interphase
 Daughter cells are genetically
identical to each other and
the parent cell but smaller.

sdst.org/shs/apbio/... /mitosis powerpoint.ppt
KNOWLEDGE CHECK
MATCH THE FOLLOWING
PHASES WITH THEIR
DESCRIPTIONS:
1.
Daughter cells are
genetically identical to each
other.
 Prophase
2.
Chromatid arms move to
opposite ends of cell.
 Metaphase
3.
Chromatin condenses into
chromosomes.
4.
Chromosomes line up in
center of cell.
5.
Cytoplasm is divided
between two cells.
6.
Spindle fibers and centrioles
duplicate.
 Interphase
 Anaphase
 Telephase
 Interphase
KNOWLEDGE CHECK
MATCH THE FOLLOWING
PHASES WITH THEIR
DESCRIPTIONS:
1.
Daughter cells are
genetically identical to each
other.
 Prophase
2.
Chromatid arms move to
opposite ends of cell.
 Metaphase
3.
Chromatin condenses into
chromosomes.
4.
Chromosomes line up in
center of cell.
5.
Cytoplasm is divided
between two cells.
6.
Spindle fibers and centrioles
duplicate.
 Interphase
 Anaphase
 Telephase
 Interphase
WHAT’S INSIDE THESE
LITTLE THINGS?
Cell Organelles
 PLANT CELLS
Cytoplasm-gel like substance
found in a cell
Chloroplasts-a green structure
in a plant
Cell Wall-a stiff covering that
protects plant cells
Nucleus-control center of the
cell
Chromosomes-provides
direction for cell to follow
Endoplasmic Reticulumtransportation network
Mitochondrion-produces
energy in the cell
Vacuole-cell storage sac for
food, waste, and water
Cell Organelles
 ANIMAL CELLS
 Vacuole-cell storage sac for
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
food, waste, and water
Mitochondrion –produces
energy in a cell
Chromosomes-provides
direction for cells to follow
Nucleus-control center of a
cell
Endoplasmic Reticulum-transportation system
Cytoplasm-gel like substance
found in a cell
Cell Membrane-surrounds
cell material
Cell Organelles
 Plants and animals cells have many of the same type
of structures. These structures perform the same
type of activities.
 Plants and animals cells have some structures that
are not the same. These structures perform different
activities but necessary to its particular cell.
Cell Wall – found in plant not animal cells
 Chloroplasts – used in photosynthesis - found in plant not
animal cells

CELL CITY
 A cell’s organelles function just like the parts of a
city.

Without them, communication, transportation, and everything
else would crumble.
CELL CITY
City Analogies
Cell Organelles
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Cell Membrane
Cell Wall
Cytoplasm
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Ribosomes
Golgi Bodies
Chloroplasts
Nuclear Membrane
Mitochondria
Nucleus
DNA
RNA
Nucleolus
Lysosomes
Vacuole
Protoplasm
Chromosomes
Proteins
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City Border
City Wall
Lawns
Highway or road system
Lumber or brick yard
Post Office or UPS
Solar Energy Plants
City Hall Fence with security guard
Energy Plants
City Hall
Original Blueprints of the city
Copies of Blueprints
Copy Machine
Waste Disposal/ Recyclers
Warehouses, water towers, or garbage dumps
Air or atmosphere
Rolled up blueprints
Lumber or bricks
KNOWLEDGE CHECK
1. Why is a cell compared to a city?
2. What are two differences between an animal and a
plant cell?
3. What is the smallest building block of matter?
4. What is the smallest building block of life?
KNOWLEDGE CHECK
1. Why is a cell compared to a city? Cells have
specialized parts in order to function, just like a
city.
2. What are two differences between an animal and a
plant cell?
Plant cells have a cell wall and chloroplasts.
3. What is the smallest building block of matter?
An atom
4. What is the smallest building block of life? A cell
THESE LITTLE CELLS MAKE
UP ME!
Cells:
the basic
building blocks
Nervous
System
Human Body
Reproductive
System
Digestive
System
Circulatory
Skeletal
System
System
Respiratory
System
Muscular
System
Nervous System Summary
 The brain and the spinal
cord make up the central
nervous system.
 Your brain controls
everything you do –
whether you think about
doing it (like drawing a
picture), or not (like
breathing and blinking).
 The brain is the body’s
information gatherer,
storage center, and control
center.
 The main function of the
nervous system is to collect
information on how the
body is doing, what it
needs, and sends a
response to meet those
needs.
 The nervous system uses
electronic impulses which
travel along the length of
cells. These impulses
travel up to 250 miles per
hour!
Skeletal System Summary
 Your bones give your  Babies are born with 270
body shape.
 Your skeleton allows you
to move with the help of
your muscles.
 Your rib cage protects
important internal
organs.
soft bones that fuse
together by age 25 into
206 hard permanent
bones.
 Some bones produce red
blood cells (carry
oxygen), and others
produce white blood cells
(fight harmful bacteria in
the body).
-
Muscular System Summary
 Muscles are attached
to bones by tendons
and other tissues
which allow us to
move in many ways
 Muscles are connected
to the brain and spinal
cord by many nerves
 Muscles can only pull
they cannot push
 3 types of muscles
 Cardiac muscle (found only in
the heart) – pumps blood
through the body
 Smooth muscle – surrounds or
are part of internal organs,
they are involuntary (you can’t
control them)
 -Skeletal muscle – carries out
voluntary actions (you can
control them) the most
common type, make up 23% of
women’s and 40% of men’s
body weight
Cardiovascular/Respiratory
System Summary
Cardiovascular system
 Contains the heart and
blood vessels
 Blood is the sticky, red
fluid that goes through
the body, taking oxygen
and collecting carbon
dioxide using veins and
arteries.
 Heart pumps the blood
through the body.
Respiratory system
 Contains the lungs,
nose, and mouth
 Organs are responsible
for taking oxygen from
the air to the blood
steam and getting rid
of carbon dioxide.
Both of these systems are very important to life and breathing.
Both are done automatically and controlled by the brain.
Digestive System Summary
 The digestive system is a group
of organs whose job is to break
down food so it can be used to
make energy for the body.
 The system also builds and
replaces cells and tissues which
are constantly dying.
 Digestion begins in the
mouth.





The teeth grind up the food.
The tongue detects “good’ and “bad”
flavors and helps move food around
the mouth and down the throat.
Saliva (spit) helps with chewing and
swallowing and starts digestion.
Food goes down the throat to the
stomach. Here chemicals break the
food down to be used by the body for
energy, building blocks for cells and
tissues, and some is stored for later
use.
The food passes through the small and
large intestine where nutrients are
absorbed. The parts of food that
cannot be used are passed out of the
body.
The Reproductive System

The main function of the
reproductive systems is
to make egg and sperm
cells which will combine
to make a zygote
(offspring).
Male Reproduction

The function of the male
reproductive system is to
produce and deliver
sperm.
Female Reproduction

The function of the
female reproductive
system is to produce
eggs, receive sperm,
and provide an
environment that a baby
can develop in.
KNOWLEDGE CHECK
MATCH EACH SYSTEM WITH
ITS FUNCTION.
 Nervous system
 Converts food so it can be

 Skeletal system
 Muscular system
 Reproductive system
 Respiratory system
 Circulatory system
 Digestive system





used by cells
Coordinates the body’s
response to changes in its
internal and external
environments
Helps produce voluntary
movement, circulate blood,
and move food
Creates framework for body
and provides a site for blood
cell formation
Produces reproductive cells
Brings materials to cells,
fights infection, and helps to
regulate body temperature
Provides oxygen and removes
carbon dioxide
KNOWLEDGE CHECK
MATCH EACH SYSTEM WITH
ITS FUNCTION.
 Nervous system
 Skeletal system
 Muscular system
 Converts food so it can be


 Reproductive system
 Respiratory system
 Circulatory system



 Digestive system

used by cells
Coordinates the body’s
response to changes in its
internal and external
environments
Helps produce voluntary
movement, circulate blood,
and move food
Creates framework for body
and provides a site for blood
cell formation
Produces reproductive cells
Brings materials to cells,
fights infection, and helps to
regulate body temperature
Provides oxygen and removes
carbon dioxide
CAUTION!
BE ON THE LOOKOUT
VIRUS
 Small particle that invades
cells and reproduces inside
them
 Viruses are considered
non-living because they do
not have cells or use
energy.
 Most viruses act like
parasites.

They invade a cell, multiply,
take over, and eventually kill
the cell.
 Viruses can attack any
organism of the 6
kingdoms.
VIRUS
PARTS of a VIRUS
Proteins to latch on
 All viruses have 2 parts:

Outer coat for protection


The outer coat of a virus is
made of special proteins
that lock onto the host cells.
Inner core made of genetic
material

The genetic material inside
the core of a virus contains
the instructions for
reproducing the virus once
it is in its host.
Genetic material
VIRUS
REPRODUCTION
 Once the virus has entered
the cell it can do 2 things:
ACTIVE VIRUS
1.
1.
Gets into the cell and begins
to spread its genetic
material. The cell makes new
virus cells until it cannot
hold them anymore and
explodes, sending the viruses
out into the body
HIDDEN VIRUS
2.
1.
Acts the same way as an
active virus except it does
not begin to multiply
immediately
VIRUS
BAD NEWS
 Viruses can be devastating to
the human body as well as
other animals/plants.
 For humans, some viruses last
for days, and we soon recover;
whereas some cause deadly
disease such as HIV.
 Animals/plants can also be
affected negatively by viruses.
 Some viruses can stunt crop
growth such as the rice dwarf
virus, and others can harm
animals such as distemper.
GOOD NEWS
 Since viruses get inside
cells and duplicate their
genetic material, scientists
have begun to inject viruses
with “good” genetic
material.
 Once the virus has entered
the cell, “good” genetic
material can be duplicated
and spread into the body.

Gene Therapy
KNOWLEDGE CHECK
1. Why do scientists classify viruses as non-
living?
2. Name the two parts of a virus.
3. Describe how viruses replicate.
4. What is one good thing about a virus?
KNOWLEDGE CHECK
Why do scientists classify viruses as non-living? They do
not require energy, have cells or make/excrete waste.
2. Name the two parts of a virus. Protein outershell, genetic
material in the inner core
3. Describe how viruses replicate. Once inside the cell, the
viruses genetic material begins to multiply and fill the
cell. Once the cell is full, it bursts, and the new viruses
spread.
4. What is one good thing about a virus? Scientists can use
viruses and fill them with “good” genetic information.
Once they are injected into the body, they can attach to
cells and multiply as if they were destructive.
1.
BACTERIA
 All bacteria are
prokaryotes.
 Mostly single-celled
 No nucleus or
organelles
 Circular chromosomes
 Cell walls
 Reproduce mostly
asexually
 Anaerobic or aerobic
 Heterotrophic or
autotrophic
BACTERIA
EUBACTERIA
ARCHAEBACTERIA
 May resemble Earth’s
first life forms
 Live in extreme locations
 Oxygen-free
environments
 Concentrated saltwater
 Hot, acidic water
 Intestines of animals
 Do not live in extreme
environments
 Found everywhere else
 Photosynthetic

make their own food from
light
 Parasites

live off of other organisms
 Saprobes
 live off of dead organisms
or waste (recyclers)
BACTERIA
SHAPE


Spiral:
• Capsule
Spirilla
• Cell wall
rod-shaped:


STRUCTURE
bacilli, bacillus
• Ribosomes
• Nucleoid
• Flagella
Round:


cocci
• Pilli
• Cytoplasm
BACTERIA
REPRODUCTION
 ASEXUAL
 Binary fission


One cell produces two identical
cells.
Each new cell has identical
genetic information as the
parent.
 SEXUAL
 Conjugation


2 parents combine their genetic
information.
A new cell is formed with a
different genetic makeup then
its parents.
BACTERIA
BAD NEWS
 Some bacteria cause diseases.
 Animals can pass diseases to
humans.

Communicable Disease:

Disease passed from one
organism to another
 The spread of bacteria can
happen in several ways:



Air
Touching clothing, food,
silverware, or toothbrush
Drinking water that contains
bacteria
GOOD NEWS
 Decomposers help recycle




nutrients into the soil for other
organisms to grow.
Bacteria grow in the stomach of a
cow to break down grass and hay.
Bacteria are used to make
antibiotics.
Used to treat sewage
 Organic waste is consumed by
the bacteria, used as nutrients
by the bacteria, and is no longer
present to produce odors,
sludge, and pollution
Foods like yogurt, cottage, & Swiss
cheeses, sour cream, and
buttermilk are made from bacteria
that grows in milk.
KNOWLEDGE CHECK
 How are bacteria cells different than others in your
body?
 Why are there two classifications of bacteria?
 What is the difference of the two ways bacteria
reproduce?
 List 2 ways in which bacteria helps us?
KNOWLEDGE CHECK
 How are bacteria cells different then others in your
body? Bacteria cells do not contain a nucleus.
 Why are there two classifications of bacteria?
Archaebacteria and Eubacteria
 What is the difference of the two ways bacteria
reproduce? Binary fission – 2 identical cells are
made from one parent; Conjugation – 2 parents
create a new cell with a new genetic makeup
 List 2 ways in which bacteria helps us? They are
used in medicines and help create food products
we eat.
THERES A FUNGUS AMONG
US!
FUNGI
 Fungi are heterotrophs.
 Fungi and bacteria are the
decomposers of the
biosphere.
 Most fungi are multicelled.
 Many fungi are symbionts
with other organisms.
 Once considered plants but
contain no chlorophyll and
are not photosynthetic
 Also unlike animals
therefore placed in own
kingdom
 Fungi thrive in moist,
warm places such as:






Moist foods
Damp tree bark
Lawns with dew
Damp forest floors
Wet bathroom tiles
Warm, sweaty feet
FUNGI
STRUCTURE
 Arranged in structures
called Hyphae


Branching, threadlike
tubes which make up their
bodies
Substances move freely
through the Hyphae
FUNGI
FOOD SOURCE
 Absorb food through
hyphae which grow into
its food source
 Once the hyphae is
attached to its food
source:


Digestive enzymes are
released into the piece of
food.
Digestive chemicals are
produced to break down the
food which is absorbed.
REPRODUCTION
 SPORES:

produce thousands of spores with a
protective covering


carried by water and air
spores land in a warm, moist place they
grow
 BUDDING:

A well fed cell grows from the body
of the mother cell and separates.
 SEXUAL:

making new spores that are
different from both parents
FUNGI
 4 Classifications:
 Threadlike - produce spores in their threadlike hyphae (ex. bread
mold)
 Sac - produce spores in structures that look like sacs (ex. yeast)
 Club - produce spores in structures that look like clubs (ex.
mushrooms)
 Imperfect - those that cannot reproduce sexually (ex. penicillin)
FUNGI
BAD NEWS
Plant diseases
1.


Smuts
rusts
2. Human diseases

athlete’s foot

Ringworm

thrush
3. Food

Cause food spoilage
GOOD NEWS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Food
Molds in cheeses – Blue
cheese
Aspergillus - used to make
soy sauce and citric acid
Yeasts
Penicillium
Genetic engineering tools
Used to break down
materials and recycle
wastes and dead
organisms
KNOWLEDGE CHECK
1. Why are fungi not considered plants?
2. What is the basic structure of a fungus?
3. How do fungi multiply?
4. List one good function and one bad
function of fungi.
KNOWLEDGE CHECK
1.
Why are fungi not considered plants? They do not
contain chlorophyll or use photosynthesis.
2. What is the basic structure of a fungus? Hyphae
3. How do fungi multiply? Budding, spores, and
sexual reproduction
4. List one good function and one bad function of
fungi. GOOD: Penicillium BAD: Human/plant
disease
STICKING TO IT!
PARASITES
 An organism which lives
in or on another living
organism (host)

Symbiosis
 It obtains part or all of its
nourishment from its
host.
 Causes some degree of
damage to its host
Primary hosts:
 Definitive host –
 host in which the parasite
reaches maturity
 Reservoir host  host that can harbor a parasite
indefinitely with no ill effects
 Secondary hosts:
 Paratenic host –
 a secondary host that it is not
necessary for the parasite's
development cycle to progress
 Dead‐end host –
 an intermediate host that does
not generally allow transmission
to the definite host, thereby
preventing the parasite from
completing its development

PARASITES
Ectoparasites
 Feed on the blood or
secretions of the host;
generally do not kill the
host
 Generally much
smaller than host
Endoparasites
 Generally live within
the host body and
generally consume the
host internal organs
leading to death of host
 Generally the
endoparasites attack
other insect or
arthropod hosts.
PARASITES
BAD NEWS
 Parasites can cause lots of
discomfort or disease.
 Parasites can live on your hair
or your body; some even
burrow deep into your skin,
making it very itchy.
 Parasites can eat your skin or
oils that your hair and skin
make and even your blood.
 Some live inside your/animal’s
body; eat your food, or damage
your organs which can make
you ill.
GOOD NEWS




Some parasites are fungi
which you can eat.
mushrooms or food and
drinks made using yeast,
like bread and soy sauce
Parasites are used in
medicine.
Leeches and maggots are
grown in special
laboratories and are used
to keep blood flowing or
clean up dead tissue after
people have had accidents.
KNOWLEDGE CHECK
1. What kind of relationship does a parasite
have with its host?
2. List and describe the two types of parasites.
3. List one good function and one bad
function of parasites.
KNOWLEDGE CHECK
1.
What kind of relationship does a parasite have with
its host? Symbiotic
2. List and describe the two types of parasites.
Ectoparasites: Feed on blood/secretions, does not
kill the host
Endoparasites: Consume organs of the host,
eventually kills the host
3. List one good function and one bad function of
parasites. GOOD: Used in medicine
BAD: Cause disease in both humans and animals

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