Big Business & Organized Labor How did industrialization change the workplace and give rise to labor unions? How did industrialization change the relationship between the worker and boss? Organization Inventions Leaders Industrialization Leaders Lives of Workers? Inventions Organization PSD Time! • Please take 5 minutes to read and think about the document you were given • Think about: – The workers’ complaints – The workers’ attitudes and perceptions of their bosses – What workers’ conditions must have been like Minute Spit-it • Give each person in your small group one minute to talk about their findings • Remember: – Do not interrupt – If minute not filled, must be silent Conditions for Workers Factory Life • Workers: Immigrants, whites, & African Americans from the South. • Hours: Long • Pay: Very Low • Conditions: Dust, bad lighting, faulty machines, no inspections, burns, death, poor training. • Women: Highest number of workers. • Children: Did not go to school. • Employers not required paying for factory injuries. • Triangle Shirt Factory: Owner locked workers in, most died in a fire. Especially Brutal Conditions in PA • Coal and iron police • Pennsylvania Railroads and corporate charters • Use of the state militia and federal troops • Company towns What could you do to protect your rights? • If you were this guy, what would your options possibly be to try to protect yourself? Strikes in the U.S. Labor Unions • Goals: Safer working conditions, shorter hours, & better pay. • Early Unions: – Knights of Labor – American Federation of Labor led by Samuel Gompers. • Problems: Some unions did not represent all workers, riots, protests and strikes became violent. • Started Collective Bargaining or negotiations between workers and management Knights of Labor Terence V. Powderly An injury to one is the concern of all! Knights of Labor Knights of Labor trade card • Goals of the Knights of Labor Eight-hour workday. • Workers’ cooperatives. • Worker-owned factories. • Abolition of child and prison labor. • Increased circulation of greenbacks. • Equal pay for men and women. • Safety codes in the workplace. • Prohibition of contract foreign labor. • Abolition of the National Bank. The American Federation of Labor: 1886 Samuel Gompers How the AF of L Would Help the Workers • Catered to the skilled worker. • Represented workers in matters of national legislation. • Maintained a national strike fund. • Evangelized the cause of unionism. • Prevented disputes among the many craft unions. • Mediated disputes between management and labor. • Pushed for closed shops. Haymarket Riot (1886) McCormick Harvesting Machine Co. Management vs. Labor “Tools” of Management “Tools” of Labor “scabs” boycotts P. R. campaign sympathy demonstrations Pinkertons lockout blacklisting yellow-dog contracts informational picketing closed shops court injunctions organized strikes open shop “wildcat” strikes The Corporate “Bully-Boys”: Pinkerton Agents Case Study: The Pullman Strike of 1894 Pullman Cars A Pullman porter A “Company Town”: Pullman, IL The Pullman Strike of 1894 Government by injunction! Case Study: Strikes Each group will be given one of the following strikes to research: • The Lattimer Massacre • The Great Railroad Strike (in Pittsburgh) • The Homestead Strike • The McKeesport Strike Your group must research the following topics and report their findings to the class • What industry was involved with this strike (coal, steel, railroads)? • What caused the strike to happen? • How did the strike “go down”? • What was the end result? The Great Railroad Strike of 1877 The Great Railroad Strike of 1877 Homestead Steel Strike (1892) Homestead Steel Works The Amalgamated Association of Iron & Steel Workers Attempted Assassination! Henry Clay Frick Alexander Berkman Summarize What conditions cause strikes to happen? What is the purpose of the strike? How did the company, police, gov’t, etc treat workers? What did the strike accomplish?