Six Big Events in Human Evolution

Report
Introduction – Human Evolution

Mosaic Evolution: ________________________

With respect to human evolution:
•
•
_____________________
Developed at varying times along our
evolutionary history
But how did we get here?

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.
Anatomical Adaptations for
Bipedalism
1.
2.
___________

Increase in ________

Changes to hallux

__________
_______________
 _____________________
Anatomical Adaptations for
Bipedalism
Anatomical Adaptations for
Bipedalism
3.
_______________________

Increase in surface area

Extension ____________

__________ - angled towards the
middle of the body
Anatomical Adaptations for
Bipedalism
4. Pelvis

_____________________

______________________
Anatomical Adaptations for
Bipedalism
5. _________________

____________________
Morphological Changes

6. Foramen Magnum – _______________________
Bipedal – ____________________
Quadrupedal – ______________________
Hominin
Evolution
Pre-dating Australopithecus
 Hominins
discovered in
_________________
 Bipedal
 We
– debatable in some species
will focus on the species for which
there is ________________of bipedalism
Ardipithecus ramidus

Middle Awash area of
Ethiopia

Approximately 4.4mya

Found:
 1.
 2.
 3.
Ardipithecus ramidus

Indicators of Bipedalism
 ____________________
 Femur
and pelvis
 Humerus
–
_______________
 Foot
Phalanges
Ardipithecus ramidus
Ardipithecus ramidus
Ardi
= “facultative” biped
What
do you think this term
mean?
Australopithecus afarensis
 _______________
 Hadar,
Ethiopia
 Laetoli, Tanzania
 3.6-3.0
 Forest,
mya
woodland,
grassland
A. afarensis – Traits
Bipedal
 1.
 2.
Some Arboreal Abilities Retained
 1.
 2.
A. afarensis – Traits
A. afarensis – Traits
Type Fossil – “Lucy”
Found:
1974, Hadar,
Ethiopia
____________________
Both
arms
Much of the pelvis
Left femur, right tibia
Hand and Foot bones
Adult
(based on 3rd molar)
_____________
Type Site: Laetoli Footprints
 Tanzania
 3.6 mya
 75 feet long preserved
 _____________
 ___________
 ______________
A New Hominin

Australopithecus
sediba
 Discovered in
2008; located in
South Africa
 Proposed
by some
to be the best
candidate
__________
_________________
A New Hominin
 Features:
_______________
_
Pelvis – ________
of
Australopithecu
s-like and
Homo-like
features
Hand –
Foot & ankle
shape –
The Genus Homo – Overall Trends
 Characterized
by:
Introduction To Homo habilis

Contemporaneous with _______________________

Anatomically different than specimens assigned
to the genus _______________________

Distinguishing feature – _________________
 H.
habilis shows an ___________________as
compared to Australopithecines
Homo habilis – OH 24

Location: Olduvia Gorge

(Africa)

Comparison to
Australopithecines:
“Twiggy” or OH 24
Dated to ~ 1.8mya
 1.
 2.

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