### Chapter 6 Registers and Counters

```Registers and Counters
Chapter 6
Registers and Counters
• A register is a group of flip-flops
• Each flip-flop stores one bit of info
• A counter is a register that goes through a
predetermined sequence of binary states
Registers
4-bit register with
• D Flip-flops
• Common clock input
• Common clear input; when Clear=0
flip-flops reset asynchronous
Exercise: Explain how
this register works.
Why is it necessary to
feed  back to the
combinational input
circuit? What if this
was not done?
Shift Registers
What happens with every clock pulse?
Serial transfer
Exercise: Describe how you add two binary numbers by hand. How do
you apply this to design a serial adder?
Assume you have two n-bit shift registers. Design a circuit that adds
one bit at a time and stores the result in one of the shift registers. How
do you handle the carries?
Hint: you may need one additional flip-flop.
Indicate the clock connections of the shift registers and the flip-flop.
=
=  ′  ′ = ( + )′
= ⨁ ⊕
Exercise: Explain how this circuit works. Obtain the excitation/input
equations for the JK Flip-flop and the equation for the sum .
Run an example sum assuming the circuit uses two 3-bit shift registers.
Universal shift register
1. Clear control to clear register to 0
2. Clock input to synchronize operations
3. Shift-right control to enable operation and associated
input and output lines
4. Shift-left control to enable operation and associated
input and output lines
5. Parallel-load control to enable parallel transfer and
the n input lines
6. n parallel output lines
7. Control state to leave information in the register
unchanged
Universal shift register
Exercise: explain how this universal shift register works
Universal shift register
Universal shift register
Counters
• A counter is a register that goes through a
prescribed sequence of states upon the
application of input pulses
• Two types of counters
– Ripple counters
– Synchronous counters
Ripple Counters
4-bit ripple binary counter
with T Flip-flops
Exercise: Obtain the state
table.
Ripple counters
4-bit binary ripple counter
with D flip-flops
Exercise: Explain how this
counter works.
Ripple Counters
BCD ripple counter
State diagram of a decimal BCD counterr
BCD ripple counter
Exercise: Obtain the excitation
equation and the state table. Explain
how this counter works.
Synchronous Counters
• Simple design procedure
• Least significant digit Flip-flop is
complemented with every clock pulse
• A flip-flop in any other position is
complemented when all the bits in the lower
significant positions are equal to 1
Synchronous Counters
Exercise: Using the excitation
tables for the JK flip-flops
explain how this counter
works.
Up-down binary counter
Countdown binary counter:
• Least significant bit is complemented
with each clock pulse
• A bit in any other position is
complemented is all lower significant bits
are all equal to 0
BCD counter
Flip-flop input
equations are
simplified using maps
1 = 1
2 = ′8 1
4 = 2 1
8 = 8 1 + 4 2 1
= 8 1
Exercise: Explain how this
counter works:
• When Clear is high/low;
• When Count is high/low;
Clear be for counting?
BCD counter implemented with
Other Counters
Counter with unused states
Other Counters
Counter with unused states
Ring counter
Johnson counter
Connecting complemented
LSB to ring counter input
doubles the number of
states of ring counter.
What happens if counter
starts from an unused
state?
Homework Assignment
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6.4
6.6
6.9 (a)
6.18
6.21
6.23
6.26
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