Unit One Geography: It’s Nature and Perspectives Chapter One: Introduction to Human Geography Major Divisions of Systematic Geography: Physical Geography VS Human Geography The Five Themes of Geography • Derived from the spatial perspective of geography. –Variations amongst geographic phenomenas across space. Place Human features Physical features Region united by similar physical conditions Region United by common cultural traits People adapt to the environment Interaction People change the environment Absolute location (latitude and longitude) Location Relative location (in relation to another place) Travel from place to place Movement Exchange of goods and ideas LOCATION • Answers the questions where and why. Absolute Location • The exact location of something based on latitude and longitude A formal mathematical measurement. • Is a fixed location: Does not change. Relative Location • Describes a place in relationship to other human and physical features. • Usually this is done using a landmark of sorts. • Are not set in stone, rather these locations frequently change – For example: Where is the ASC Residence? – Old: The 4th floor of the Jes. Res. Building. – New: Across from Marquette High on the corner of 33rd and Michigan. Human-Environment Interactions • The relationship between humans and the physical world. • Addresses the Cultural Landscape. – All human-induced changes that involve the surface and the biosphere. Environmental Determinism Theory (Alexander von Humboldt and Carl Ritter) • States that human behavior is affected by and/or controlled/determined by the environment. • Physical environment causes social development. • NOT A GOOD THEORY: Why? POSSIBILISM THEORY • Counter-theory to ED Theory. • States that the natural environment serves to limit the range of choices available to a culture. – BUT, people have the means/resources to work around these limitations and adjust their environments. PLACE • A specific point on the earth’s surface distinguished by a particular characteristic. – Could be a cultural feature, physical processes, landforms/geo. features. PLACE Cont… • Perception of Place – The view one creates about a specific place, even though the person has never been there. • based on images, stories, and media, etc. – For example: Columbia. PASS OUT MAPS Region • Areas of unique characteristics. • Way of organizing people geographically. • Unity based off of cultural landscape. Distinctive Characteristics • The area covered (spatially). • The location. • The boundaries. – visible/tangible (or not) – Can be pre-determined. • Also impacted by culture, economics, politics, and physical landscape. Types of Regions • Formal Region (uniform region) • Functional Region (nodal region) • Vernacular Region (perceptual) Overlapping Formal and Functional Regions Vernacular Regions MOVEMENT • The mobility and interconnection of people, ideas, services, and goods across the planet. • Dependent upon distances, accessibility, and connections. MOVEMENT Cont… • Diffusion – The process of spreading something from one place/person to another. – Types of Diffusion • Cultural • Expansion – Contagious, Hierarchical, and Stimulus • Relocation – Acculturation – Transculturation Diffusion Forces that inhibit diffusion • Time-Distance Decay – The longer something has to travel, the less likely it will make it there. • Cultural Barriers – Prevailing attitudes, traditions, or taboos. Key Concepts: Core-Periphery • Core – U.S., Europe, Japan, Australia – Wealthy – Powerful – Controls Media and Finance – Technologically advanced • Periphery – Less Developed – Poor – Dependent upon Core countries for: • • • • Education Technology Media Military Equipment NEW TOPIC: Understanding Maps •Reference Maps •Thematic Maps Upside Down World http://www.flourish.or g/upsidedownmap/ho bodyer-large.jpg Reference Maps • Show location of places as well as geographic features. • Show the absolute location of something. • Map creation aided by GPS – Global Positioning System • Satellite system that can identify the absolute location of a place or feature. Thematic Layer Maps • Are story telling maps. – Show the degree of an attribute or movement of a geographical phenomena. – Are qualitative (characteristic) or quantitative (amount of). • Created Using GIS – Geographic Information System **SCALE** • The representation of real world phenomena at a certain level of reduction or generalization. • The ratio between the size of an area on a map and the actual size of that same area on the earth’s surface. Ways To Express Scale • Representative Fraction • Word Statement • Graphic Scale SCALE Cont… • Large Scale – Shows a smaller piece of earth with greater detail. – RF is usually between 1:1-1:50,000 • Small Scale – Shows a larger piece of earth with less detail – This is often very inaccurate because the degree of generalization is great. SCALE Cont… • BEWARE OF THE FALLACY OF TRUTH! – One scale may not be true at a different scale.