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Report
DRAFT REPORT ON RECONNAISSANCE
ENVIRONMENTAL FIELD STUDIES
IN AND AROUND NALBAN-BAMANGHATA
EAST KOLKATA WETLAND
JOGAMAYA DEVI COLLEGE
2015
Submitted towards the partial fulfillment of Calcutta
University Undergraduate Course Curriculum
Name
: __________________________
Regn. No with Year
: ___________________ of __________
Roll No.
: ________________________
B.A./B.Sc./B.Com/
Honours/General/
Major in
: ______________________
PASTE THE
COUNTERSIGNED
PHOTOCOPY OF
REGISTRATION
CERTIFICATE HERE
INSTRUCTIONS
•Students are advised to download the draft report (Part-I &
II) from Notice Board of Jogamaya Devi College website on or
after 29th January, 2015 (18.00 Hrs.) available at:
http://www.jogamayadevicollege.org/
• Date of submission of final report:
•Science Students
: Feb. 2-3
•Arts Students
: Feb. 4-5
•Commerce Students: Feb. 9-10
•Venue for submission: Room No. 3, New Building, Jogamaya
Devi College
•Time: 8am to 11.00 am (each day).
•This draft project report on Environmental Field Studies attempts to
offer guidelines for student participants for preparing a final report,
individually. This report is compiled by faculties based on field data
(collected during field visit till 21 January, 2015), published reports,
unpublished field reports and additional sources.
•Students are encouraged to improve this draft report with the input
of additional data, field photographs, illustration(s), detailed
observation…etc (if there is any) that may be included in PART-II of
their final Field Report.
•Students are instructed to enter their Name, Regn. No. with Year,
Roll No. and Subject Combination in the front page of the final
report.
•Format for Report: (A4 pages: typed/hand-written/
channel bound/spiral bound).
•Additional input in Part-II would be appreciated.
•Final Report should include:
•Cover page (with student particulars filled therein).
•
PART-I
CONTENT
INTRODUCTION
STUDY AREA
OBJECTIVE
METHODOLOGY
OBSERVATION
DISCUSSION &
CONCLUSION
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
REFERENCES
PAGE
INTRODUCTION
Compulsory Field Work for Environmental Studies 2014-15 was held in
parts of EAST KOLKATA WETLANDS (EKW) situated in the vicinity of Kolkata
metropolis (Fig. 1) during the 16-18 December, 2014 and 20-21 February,
2015 towards the partial fulfillment of UG Courses under Calcutta
University Course Curriculum.
The area provides ample opportunity for environmental studies. This
wetland forms a part of Sundarban Delta and constitute a significant
wetland ecosystem. EKW occupies a special position for it nurtures the
world’s largest wastewater fed aqua culture system. In addition to fisheries,
this wetland offers a cheap, efficient and eco-friendly operating system of
solid waste disposal and sewer treatment for Kolkata metropolis. It caters
to the snowballing demand of Kolkata metropolis, for fish protein,
vegetables and other commodities. Even a self sustaining socio-economic
structure may be seen to operate in this ecospace. EKW also serves as the
lungs and kidneys of ailing, urbane Kolkata. Our reconnaissance field study
in parts of EKW may help to identify major and minor conflicts intrinsic in
the system to suggest probable remedial proposals in the long run, so that
the dynamic equilibrium is restored/maintained in the environment
gradient.
EKW has been declared a RAMSAR site since 2002. To stop further
deterioration of the system as also to restore its native state, the East
Kolkata Wetlands Management Authority, Department of Environment,
Govt. of West Bengal have prepared a comprehensive and Integrated
Management Plan in keeping with basic guidelines of the Ramsar
Convention (1971), and started implementing it.
Objective assessment of the facts and figures, relentless monitoring of
control factors in this system is a dire necessity.
Academic Institutions may employ their resources to work in unison
with other welfare bodies and Government authorities towards a good
end.
STUDY AREA
The study area forms a part of East Kolkata Wetlands (EKW) lying between 22.480°
‘N to 22.525°'N and 88.46° ‘E to 88.62° ‘E, (Fig.1).
Wetlands are defined as areas of earth, fen, peat land and water body, where one
would find natural/ artificial, permanent/ temporary, stagnant/ flowing, freshwater/ brackish/
saline/ marine water. Water table is usually at or near the surface or the land is covered by shallow
water.
The multifunctional EKW ecosystem consists of an area of 12,500 hectares with
about 254 sewage fed fisheries, small agricultural plots and solid waste farms. Besides, there are
some built up areas also.
•EKW supports a diverse fauna (both native and cultured) and bring about myriad benefits to
mankind, providing opportunities for cultivation, sewage fed fisheries, urban waste disposal and
recreation.
Fig. 1: Location Map of the Study Area Showing Waypoints
OBJECTIVE:
Reconnaissance environmental field study was aimed at learning the basic
approaches and field techniques of environment studies to develop a basic
understanding of the ecology of the studied wetland system and to prepare an
assay on the socio-economic aspects in and around the study area.
METHODOLOGY- Ecological Studies
1. pH of the water is measured by digital pH meter and litmus paper.
2. Salinity of water is measured by digital salinometer.
.
3. Soil temperature is measured by soil thermometer.
4. Transparency of water is measured by Secchi Disc.
4. Dissolved solutes were measured by TDS meter.
5. Floral and faunal documentations were made during field traverse.
Aquatic fauna was studied on specimens, as collected by plankton
net.
6. Location for individual study points is recorded by GPS.
7. Traverse details , waypoints and maps are documented from
GoogleEarth (See Fig. 1).
8. Photographs, diagrams, write up etc. are processed using MSOffice-2007 and CORELDRAW-11.
1. Ecological Observations
•Field study involves collection of field data (Table-1) on soil
temperature, water salinity, transparency and pH conditions in
classified water bodies (feeder canal, sediment settling tanks, fish
rearing ponds, partially submerged lands etc.) .
•Few field documentation of plant/animal and/or their activities were
recorded in the study area (Fig.2A-F).
•A number of cultured fishes (Table-2) were identified along the field
traverses and from fishing net.
Field Data collected from field traverses during
Ecological Studies are given in Tables below:
Table-1. Water Quality in different water bodies.
New Data:
GPS
LK-1
LK-2
LK-3
LK-4
Description
Main Feeder Canal
Main Feeder Canal
Main Feeder Canal
Main Feeder Canal
pH
7.8
7.6
7.7
8.5
TDS
824
820
831
1050
Transparency
(inches)
-
Temp.
(Water)
22.5
21.5
21.4
20.9
Temp.
(Soil)
-
Salinity
1
1
1
1
TABLE-2. Animal Fauna recognized in Sewage-Fed Fisheries of EKW
(including cultivable fishes)
Sl. Species
Short description
1
MRIGAL
2
SILVER
CARP
3
PUNTI
4
MAGUR
5
LATA
6
TILAPIA
(Niloticus)
A linear body, small head with blunt snout, mouth
with thin non-fringed lips. Two barbles present on
the upper jaw, caudal fin forked, head scaleless. They
are bottom feeder.
This exotic fish was introduced in India in 1959 from
Honkong. This fish has laterally compressed body
with thin lips in the mouth. Body bears very thin
small shiny scales, caudal fin forked, head scaleless.
They are surface feeder.
Small laterally compressed body, abdomen rounded,
small head with thin lips, barbels present. Caudal fin
forked, head scaleless. They are bottom feeder.
Elongated scaleless body, head dorsoventrally
compressed, head bears 8 barbels, dorsal fin is
continuous, caudal fin rounded. They are bottom
feeder and prefer muddy water.
Head snake like, dorsal fin long, without spine,
caudal fin rounded, body elongated and
subcylindrical, head with scales. They prefer muddy
stagnant ponds or ditches.
Body laterally compressed, body is thick and broad,
large mouth opening, fins are well developed,
coloured patches on the body. They are found in
ponds with rich organic matter.
Few examples of faunal elements documented from EKW
Fig.1- swamp eel burrow in nutrient
rich sewage canal
Fig.3- Lemna minor
Fig.5- Common freshwater invertebrates
Fig.2 - typical catch of cultured fishes
from EKW.
Fig.4- Ant colony on dry pond bottom
Fig.6- Worm activity on soft mud.
DISCUSSION & CONCLUSION
•The study area reveals human interference on natural fauna.
•Naturally stressed wetland fauna is further challenged with
human interferences.
•Water parameters changes rapidly within a short distance, as
induced by local input of household waste (all along the main
feeder canal). Sewage fed fisheries and integrated farming
schedule is also responsible for local variation of water
parameters. Such quick changes are unnatural and, as such,
inhospitable except for tolerant taxa.
•Natural fauna is represented by benthic invertebrates
(dominantly mollusks, Crustaceans, worms and annelids, rare
fishes), birds and wetland vegetation (other than cultivated
crops).
•Cultured fishes and crops provide partial sustenance to local
people and cater the demand of local food market.
•Sewage fed fisheries and associated integrated farming through
indigenous method helps improve the quality of water and air in
the ambience.
•In-depth rigorous study is required to understand and suggest
improvement options as regards the ecological and socioeconomic problems intrinsic in the study area.
SOCIO-ECONOMIC STUDY
*Commerce Students may attach their datasheet in Part-II section of
this report in support of their study.
A Socio-economic survey was conducted by the students of B.Com 3rd year
Hons & General students on 20.01.2015 at village Haripota, P.S. Bhangar
under 24 pgs (south). The survey revealed that about 90% of the village
adults are in disguised unemployment. Almost all of them are dependent on
agriculture and fisheries. Remaining population is at their domestic job.
About 60% of the people are literate and only 10% of them having studies
up to class VIII level. Out of the total population less than 1% has reached
the college level.
The economy of the village largely depends on sewage fed fishery and
complimentary agriculture. Still these are uncertain means for sustenance.
Agriculture is dependent on rain water. No alternative source of irrigation is
there. Fishery is the major source of income. About 80% of the adult
population work in fisheries on the basis of daily wages. The fisheries of
the locality are dependent of the Sweage of Kolkata metropolitan area. In
fact the village Haripota, which falls under East Kolkata Wetland feed the
lungs of Kolkata by providing Oxygen and absorbing domestic, industries
and hospital wastes. The survey revealed that there is potency to establish
‘Molasses’ industry or producing ‘Nalen Gur’ as there is huge number of
dates. Most of the village people depend on poultry and cattle for their side
income. There is no arrangement for recreation except dish TVs.
The village is only 10 km away from Kolkata. But it is still in the primitive
age. There is not sufficient arrangement for schooling of the children. No
hospital nearby. Even no reliable transport system. People of the village
live in a very wretched condition from both economic and social point of
view.
Acknowledgements:
College Administration, Faculties and Staff of
Jogamaya Devi College are acknowledged for
providing logistic help and academic guidance.
Word of appreciation for people, in and around
Bamaghata for co-operation towards data retrieval
on their socio-economic profile.
References:
•East Calcutta Wetland management Authority
Link:
http://www.ekwma.com/index.php?view=default&MenuID=20
• Ghosh, D., 2005. Ecology and Traditional Wetland PracticeLessons from Wastewater Utilization in the East Calcutta
Wetlands. Worldview, pp. 120.
• Saha, T.,…Wise Use of Wetland: East Kolkata Wetland, A case
Study. Departmental Note, Institute of Environmental Studies and
Ecological Design, p. 1-8.
• Sarkar, S. et al., 2009. Sewage Treatment in a single pond system
at East Kolkata Wetland, India. Water Science & Technology, p.
2309-2317.
•Mitra, B., Das, S.K. and Bja, D., 2001. Wetland Ecosystem Field
Guide.
•Z.S.I. Publ., 2006. Utilization of Waste Water Wetlands and
Biological Modules for its Conservation.
•Chakarborty, S., East Calcutta Wetlands - its significant
preservation, protection and developments.
PART-II
PASTE THE
PHOTOCOPY
OF THE SIGNED
PAGE OF YOUR
FIELD NOTE
HERE
Add page(s) to include your personal observation,
Data-sheet (for Commerce Students, in particular),
illustration(field photographs, sketches, diagrams
etc), if there is any.

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