Chapter 14 - CMS4Schools

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Chapter 14: Musculoskeletal System
MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY
Chapter 14 Abbreviations
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D.O.
NSAID
AKA
BKA
CR
CRIF
 disl
 Fx
 ORIF
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Doctor of Osteopathy
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug
above-knee amputation
below-knee amputation
closed reduction
closed reduction internal fixation
(fracture treatment)
 dislocation
 fracture
 open reduction internal fixation (surgical
fracture treatment)
Chapter 14 Abbreviations
 MD
 muscular dystrophy
 OA
 osteoarthritis
 RA
 rheumatoid arthritis
 C1, C2
 cervical vertebrae #1, 2, etc.
 L1, L2
 lumbar vertebrae #1, 2, etc.
 LS
 lumbosacral
 T1, T2
 thoracic vertebrae #1, 2, etc.
 EMG
 electromyogram
 ROM
 range of motion
Chapter 14 Abbreviations
 Ortho
 orthopedics
 OT
 occupation therapy
 PT
 physical therapy
 Ht
 height
 Wt
 weight
Musculoskeletal System
 Function
 Muscular System – movement, posture, joint
stability, and heat production
 Skeletal System – provide a framework for the
body, protect the soft body parts (i.e. brain), store
calcium, and produce blood cells
 They work together  protect, support, and
move the body
Musculoskeletal System
 Bone Structure
 periosteum
 outermost layer of the bone, made up of fibrous tissue
 compact bone
 dense, hard layers of bone tissue that lie underneath the
periostem
 cancellous (spongy) bone
 contains little spaces like a sponge and is encased in the
layers of compact bone
 endosteum
 membranous lining of the hollow cavity of the bone
Musculoskeletal System
 diaphysis
 shaft of the long bones
 epiphysis
 end of each long bone
 bone marrow
 material found in the cavities of bones
 red marrow: thick, bloodlike material found in flat
bones and the ends of long bones; location of blood
cell formation
 yellow marrow: soft, fatty material found in the
medullary cavity of long bones
Musculoskeletal
System
Bone Structure
Musculoskeletal System
 Skeletal Bones
 maxilla
 upper jawbone
 mandible
 lower jawbone
 vertebral column
 made up of bones called vertebrae (pl.) or vertebra
(sing.) through which the spinal cord runs.
 protects the spinal cord, supports the head, and
provides points of attachment for ribs and muscles
Musculoskeletal System
 cervical vertebrae (C1-C7)
 first set of 7 bones, forming the neck
 thoracic vertebrae (T1-T12)
 second set of 12 vertebrae. They articulate with the 12 pairs
of ribs to form the outward curve of the spine
 lumbar vertebrae (L1-L5)
 third set of five large vertebrae, which forms the inward
curve of the spine
 sacrum
 next five vertebrae, which fuse together to form a triangular
bone positioned between the two hip bones
 coccyx
 four vertebrae fused together to form the tailbone
 lamina (pl. laminae)
 part of the vertebral arch
Musculoskeletal System
 clavicle
 collarbone
 scapula
 should blade
 acromion process: extension of the scapula, which
forms the high point of the shoulder
 sternum
 breastbone
 xiphoid process: lower potion of the sternum
 humerus
 upper arm bones
Musculoskeletal System
 ulna and radius
 lower arm bones
 olecranon process
 projection at the upper end of the ulna that forms
the bony point of the elbow
 carpal bones
 wrist bones
 metacarpal bones
 hand bones
 phalanges (sing. phalanx)
 finger and toe bones
Musculoskeletal System
 pelvic bone, hip bone
 made up of three bones fused together
 ischium: lower, rear portion of which one sits
 ilium: upper, wing-shaped part of each side
 pubis: anterior portion of the pelvic bone
 acetabulum
 large socket in the pelvic bone for the head of the femur
 femur
 upper leg bone
 tibia and fibula
 lower leg bones
Musculoskeletal System
 patella(pl. patellae)
 kneecap
 tarsal bones
 ankle bones
 calcaneus
 heel bone
 metatarsal
 foot bones
Bones of the Body
Musculoskeletal System
 Joints (articulations)
 Hold bones together
 articular cartilage
 smooth layer of firm, fibrous tissue covering the
contacting surface of joints
 meniscus
 crescent-shaped cartilage found in the knee
 intervertebral disk
 cartilaginous pad found between the vertebrae in the
spine
 pubic symphysis
 cartilaginous joint at which two pubic bones come
together
Musculoskeletal System
 synovia
 fluid secreted by the synovial membrane and found in
joint cavities
 bursa (pl. bursae)
 fluid-filled sac that allows for easy movement of one part
of a joint over another
 ligament
 flexible, tough band of fibrous connective tissue that
attaches one bone to another at a joint
 tendon
 band of fibrous connective tissue that attches muscle to
bone
 aponeurosis
 strong sheet of tissue that acts as a tendon to attach
muscles to bones
Body Joints
Musculoskeletal System
 Muscles
 skeletal muscles (striated muscles)
 attached to bones by tendons and make body
movement possible. Skeletal muscles produce
action by pulling and by working in pairs. Voluntary
muscles because we have control over them
 smooth muscles (unstriated muscles)
 located in internal organs such as the walls of blood
vessels and the digestive tract. Involuntary muscles
b/c they respond to impulses from the autonomic
nerves and are not controlled voluntary
Musculoskeletal System
 cardiac muscle (myocardium)
 forms most of the wall of the heart. Its involuntary
contraction produces the heartbeat
Muscles of the Body
Types of Muscle
Types of Body Movement
Term
Definition
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abduction
adduction
inversion
eversion
extension
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flexion
pronation
supination
rotation
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moving away from the midline
moving toward the midline
turning inward
turning outward
mvmnt. in which a limb is placed in a
straight position
mvmnt. in which a limb is bent
mvmnt. that turns the palm down
mvmnt. that turns the palm up
turning around its own axis
Word Parts for the
Musculoskeletal System
Combining Form
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carp/o
clavic/o, clavicul/o
cost/o
crani/o
femor/o
fibul/o
humer/o
ili/o
ischi/o
lumbo
Definition
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carpals (wrist bones)
clavicle (collarbone)
rib
cranium (skull)
femur (upper leg bone) [note: u  o]
fibula (lower leg bone) (also perone/o)
humerus (upper arm bone)
ilium
ischium
loin, lumbar region of the spine
Word Parts for the
Musculoskeletal System
Combining Form
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mandibul/o
maxill/o
patell/o
pelv/i, pelv/o
phalang/o
pub/o
rachi/o
radi/o
sacr/o
scapul/o
Definition
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mandible (lower jawbone)
maxilla (upper jawbone)
patella (kneecap)
pelvis, pelvic bone
phalanges
pubis
spine, vertebral column
radius (lower arm bone)
sacrum
scapula (shoulder blade)
Word Parts for the
Musculoskeletal System
Combining Form
Definition
 spondyl/o,
 vertebra
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vertebr/o
stern/o
tars/o
tibi/o
uln/o
 sternum (breastbone)
 tarsals (ankle bones)
 tibia (lower leg bone)
 ulna (lower arm bone)
Word Parts for Joints
Combining Form
Definition
 aponeur/o
 aponeurosis
 arthr/o
 joint
 burs/o
 bursa (cavity)
 chondr/o
 cartilage
 disk/o
 intervertebral disk
 menisc/o
 meniscus (crescent)
 synovi/o
 synovia, synovial membrane
 ten/o, tend/o,
 tendon
tendin/o
Word Parts commonly used
with Musculoskeletal
Combining Form
Definition
 ankyl/o
 crooked, stiff, bent
 kinesi/o
 movement, motion
 lamin/o
 lamina (thin, flat plate or layer)
 lord/o
 bent forward (increased concavity)
 myel/o
 bone marrow
 my/o, myos/o
 muscle
 oste/o
 bone
Word Parts for the
Musculoskeletal System
Prefix
Definition
 inter-
 between
 supra-
 above
 sym-, syn-
 together, joined
Suffix
Definition
 -asthenia
 weakness
 -clasia, -clasis
 break
 -desis
 surgical fixation, fusion
 -physis
 growth
 -schisis
 split, fissure
Med Terms (from word parts)
[Disease and Disorders]
Term
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ankylosis
arthritis
bursitis
chondromalacia
cranioschisis
diskitis
fibromyalgia
kyphosis
lordosis
maxillitis
Definition
Med Terms (from word parts)
[Disease and Disorders]
Term
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meniscitis
myasthenia
osteitis
osteoarthritis
osteochondritis
osteofibriboma
osteomalacia
osteomyelitis
osteopenia
osteosarcoma
Definition
Med Terms (from word parts)
[Disease and Disorders]
Term
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polymyositis
rachischisis
rhabdomyolysis
scoliosis
spondylarthritis
spondylosis
synoviosarcoma
tendinitis
tenosynovitis
Definition
Med Terms (not from word parts)
[Disease and Disorders]
Term
Definition
 bunion
 abnormal prominence of the joint at the
base of the great toe.
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Common problem, often hereditary or caused
by poorly fitted shoes (hallux valgus)
 carpal tunnel
 a common nerve entrapment disorder of
syndrome
the wrist caused by compression of the
median nerve.
 Symptoms include pain and paresthesia in
portions of the hand and figures
 exostosis
 abnormal benign growth on the surface of
a bone (spur)
Med Terms (not from word parts)
[Disease and Disorders]
Term
Definition
 fracture
 broken bone
 gout
 disease in which an excessive amount of
 herniated disk
 rupture of the intervertebral disk cartilage,
uric acid in the blood causes sodium urate
crystals to be deposited in the joints,
especially the great toe, producing arthritis
which allows the contents to protrude
through it, putting pressure on the spinal
nerve roots
 also called slipped disk, ruptured disk,
herniated intervertebral disk, or herniated
nucleus pulposus
Med Terms (not from word parts)
[Disease and Disorders]
Term
Definition
 Lyme disease
 an infection caused by a bacteria
carried by deer ticks and transmitted
to humans by the bite of an infected
tick.
 Symptoms, caused by the body’s immune
response to the bacteria, vary and may
include a rash at the site of the tick bite and
flulike symptoms such as fever, headache,
joint pain, and fatigue
 First reported in Lyme, Conn., in 1975. The
primary treatment is antibiotics. Left
untreated, Lyme disease can mimic several
other musculoskeletal diseases
Med Terms (not from word parts)
[Disease and Disorders]
Term
Definition
 osteoporosis
 abnormal loss of bone density that
may lead to an increase in fractures
of the ribs, thoracic and lumbar
vertebrae, hips, and wrists after
slight trauma (occurs predominantly
in postmenopausal women)
Med Terms (from word parts)
[Surgical Terms]
Terms
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aponeurorrhaphy
arthrocentesis
arthroclasia
arthrodesis
arthroplasty
bursectomy
carpectomy
chondrectomy
chondroplasty
costectomy
Definition
Med Terms (from word parts)
[Surgical Terms]
Terms
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cranioplasty
craniotomy
diskectomy
laminectomy
maxillectomy
meniscectomy
myorrhphy
ostectomy
osteoclasis
patellectomy
Definition
Med Terms (from word parts)
[Surgical Terms]
Terms
 phalangectomy
 rachiotomy
 spondylosyndesis
 synovectomy
 tarsectomy
 tenomyoplasty
 tenorrhaphy
 vertebroplasty
Definition
Med Terms (from word parts)
[Diagnostic Terms]
Terms
DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING
 arthrography
ENDOSCOPY
 arthroscopy
OTHER
 electromyogram
Definition
Med Terms (from word parts)
[Complementary Terms]
Terms
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arthralgia
atrophy
bradykinesia
carpal
clavicular
cranial
dyskinesia
dystrophy
femoral
humeral
Definition
Med Terms (from word parts)
[Complementary Terms]
Terms
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hyperkinesia
hypertrophy
iliofemoral
intercostal
intervertebral
intracranial
ischiofibular
ischiopubic
lumbar
lumbocostal
Definition
Med Terms (from word parts)
[Complementary Terms]
Terms
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lumbosacral
osteoblast
osteocyte
osteonecrosis
pelvic
pelvisacral
pubic
pubofemoral
radial
sacral
Definition
Med Terms (from word parts)
[Complementary Terms]
Terms
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sternoclavicular
sternoid
subcostal
submandibular
submaxillary
subscapular
substernal
suprapatellar
suprascapular
Definition
Med Terms (from word parts)
[Complementary Terms]
Terms
 symphysis
 tibial
 ulnoradial
 vertebrocostal
Definition
Med Terms (not from word parts)
[Complementary Terms]
Terms
 podiatrist
 chiropractic
 chiropractor
 crepitus
Definition
 specialist in treating and diagnosing
diseases and disorders of the foot,
including medical and surgical treatment
 system of treatment that consists of
manipulation of the vertebral column
 specialist in chiropractic
 the crackling sound heard when two
bones rub against each other or grating
caused by the rubbing together of dry
surfaces of a joint (crepitation)
Med Terms (not from word parts)
[Complementary Terms]
Term
Definition
 orthopedics
 branch of medicine dealing with the
 orthopedist
 orthotics
 orthotist
study and treatment of diseases and
abnormalities of the musculoskeletal
system
 physician who specializes in orthopedics
 making and fitting of orthopedic
appliances, such as arch supports, used
to support, align, prevent or correct
deformities
 a person who specializes in orthotics
Med Terms (not from word parts)
[Complementary Terms]
Term
Definition
 osteoclast
 type of bone cell involved in absorption and
removal of bone minerals. It works in
balance with osteoblasts to maintain
healthy bone tissue
 osteopath
 physician who specializes in osteopathy
 osteopathy
 system of medicine that uses the usual
forms of diagnosis and treatment but places
greater emphasis on the role of the relation
between body organs and the
musculoskeletal system; manipulation may
be used in addition to other treatments
Med Terms (not from word parts)
[Complementary Terms]
Term
Definition
 prosthesis (pl.
 an artificial substitute for a missing
prostheses)
body part such as a leg, eye, or total
hip replacement

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