PERSUASION PRESENTATION

Report
Michelle Pozzi & Torrie Browne
PERSUASION
• Australia Curriculum Writing overview
• Classroom practice
»NAPLAN focus
»and beyond
»ICT
CHALLENGES
• Planning
– Ideas
– Can’t elaborate detail
– Waffle & repetition
• Generic
• Time limit
• Spelling and grammar
Child’s Persuasive Brain
REMEDIES
• Explicit direct instruction (I do)
• Collaboration with peers (We do)
• Individual practise (You do)
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Immersion in genre.
Timely feedback and conferencing
Environmental print scaffolds
Narrow focus on text type
NAPLAN
• The goal of persuasive writing is to
persuade!
• Mastery of “big-picture” writing
techniques = High Marks
NAPLAN Marks
• Engage reader (audience 6 marks)
• Strong Ideas (5 marks)
• Plan Powerfully (Structure 4 marks –
cohesion 4 marks)
• Persuade Reader (Devices 4 marks)
• Spelling and Grammar (11/48)
EXPLICIT TEACHING
• Tennis analogy – more effective?
- ‘’Go play” vs. Skill chunking.
• Gradual Release Model
- Modelling (I do)
- Interaction with others (We do)
- Solo practise (you do)
PLANNING & IDEAS
• Strong piece of writing is always
based on great ideas.
• Teaching Only Planning = 2 weeks
• Planning to time limit (5 mins)
BRAINSTORMING
• Creativity can be practised.
– Students will struggle at first
– Skill comes with practise
– Ignore test instructions, analyse the pictures.
• TEST TIP - Don’t walk around the room
– People standing behind you raises blood
pressure and intrudes on concentration.
– Police interrogation tactic
BRAINSTORMING
• Class, group, solo practise
– Thinking on their feet games
– Drama improv. Games
• Patterns emerge – common themes
• Relate to school values
GROUP BRAINSTORMING
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4-6 students
Each student writes a paragraph
Brainstorm For and Against
Select + Group main ideas
Each person chooses one main idea and
elaborates
• 1 min of help from group to improve ideas
VALUES
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Care
Cooperation
Pursuit of Excellence
Responsibility
COLLABORATION (WE DO)
• Interaction – Laughter and learning.
• Emphasis on oral to literate
– H.O.T.S
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Judge/Jury
4 Corners
Verbal boxing
Group Brainstorming
Role Plays
GRAPHIC ORGANISER
• K.I.S – 4 Square planner
–Easiest = no pre drawn boxes or
templates
• Strong plan = excellent marks for
»Ideas (5)
»Cohesion (4)
»Structure (4)
»Paragraphing (3)
4 SQUARE PLANNER
PLANNING
• TIPS
- Thinking = most important
- Separate brainstorming and planning
from writing.
- 2 different timeslots
IMMERSION
• Variety good + bad
• Embed persuasive texts into all aspects
of Literacy program (shared + guided
reading)
• BBC Persuaders
• Teen Ink
• Shared Student examples.
• BTN
• Kids Picture Books
BBC PERSUADERS
MODELING
• I do – “think alouds” as I’m writing
• Involve student input
• What have I done here?
• What’s a more persuasive word I could
use?
• Students copy and rewrite neatly as
homework
PERSUASION GRAPH
INTRODUCTIONS vs.
SIZZLING STARTS
• Boring but safe
– Scaffolded write by numbers approach
– Good as a fall back for writers block
• Formula
–Rhetorical question +
–Opinion +
–Preview 3 Ideas +
–Engage Reader (we….)
RISK-TAKING & EXCITING
• Why write something ordinary when
you can write something amazing?
• Facts don’t necessarily change minds,
the 3 E’s do!
• Engagement + Emotion + Energy
• Compelling stories = Entertain to
Persuade
SIZZLING STARTS
• Before
– I think books are better than TV because
1)…2)….3). Let me explain.
• After
– I’m in a fantasy land far away, magical
and mysterious. I am a sorcerer, a power,
a leader of thousands. Ok, I admit it. I’m in
bed reading a book. T.V. just doesn’t
compete.
SHOW DON’T TELL
• Kids “tell” because it is quick and simple
• Word pictures = empathise and connect
• Creates a solid image
• TELL
Before – Yes we should help other
countries because children in places like
Ethiopia are dying without water.
SHOW
• After – Thirsty? Walk into a shop and
pick up a bottle of water. Pay a few
dollars, unscrew the cap and drink. That’s
if you’re lucky and live in Australia. Now
take a close look at that small bottle in
your hands. If you lived in Ethiopia, that is
all the water you have to live on for three
days.
SHOW DON’T TELL
Sizzling Starts
• Teach using sensory input
• What can you see, hear, taste, touch,
smell?
• Scaffold Prompts
–Imagine if….
–Picture this…
AUDIENCE
• Imagine writing to a friendly adult or
teacher
• Makes the tone less stilted and generic.
ACTIVITY
• Student ad agencies are in charge of
marketing flavoured milk to a particular
audience.
• Use appropriate persuasive devices and
language for their audience.
– Kids
- Older people
– Teens
- Athletes/Sporty People
– Busy mums and dads - Weight Conscious
ELABORATION
• Challenge – students can find ideas, but
can’t elaborate
• Thesis = hypothesis - walls
• Elaboration = proof – wall paper
PERSUASIVE DEVICES
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A- Alliteration
F- Facts
O- Opinions
R- Rhetorical Questions/R- Repetition
E- Examples/Experts/Emotive Language
S- Statistics
T- Rule of Three
PERSUASIVE DEVICES
• Teach explicitly
• Identify examples
– Readings
– Written work
– Ads/ Movie Clips
Activity – Sell a product by creating a poster
using A FOREST devices.
SPOT THE DEVICES
ETHOS , LOGOS, PATHOS
QUOTATIONS
• Students research a good quote on the
topic of a persuasive theme.
• E.g. Cats are smarter than dogs. You can’t get
eight cats to pull a sled through snow (Jeff
Valdez)
• Dogs come when they are called. Cats take a
message and get back to you. (Mary Bly)
FINAL ARGUMENT
• Formula
• End with impact– use questions, rule of
3, short words and sentences.
• 3 Techniques
– Link to opening
– Show don’t tell
– Call to action – tell the reader what to do.
FINAL PARAGRAPH
• Before – Finally, plastic bags should be
banned because they are not as easily
disposed of as some people think. They
pollute the land and the sea.
FINAL PARAGRAPH
• After – You think plastic bags are
harmless? Tell that to the dolphin with the
plastic bag wound around its snout,
slowly starving to death. You think they’re
light and easily thrown out? Over one
million bags a week are buried, ditched
and dumped in our country. One little bag
blowing in the wind couldn’t hurt, could it?
One maybe wouldn’t. A million does.
VOCABULARY
• Vocab marked separate to spelling, so
have students take risks.
• ‘’I think toys are good’’……isn’t very persuasive
• Word walls of emotional + persuasive vocab
• Reinforce words in spelling program
• Explicitly teach high modality words
– Use modality strengthening exercises and
word cloze
4 SQUARE CONNECTIVES
CONVENTIONS
• Takes a long time to bring a weak
speller up to scratch
– Work on higher order thinking (planning etc)
– More empowering that trying to patch weak
spots
• Practise, practise, practise words and
phrases related to persuasive texts
– Words that crop up in written work
– Words like ‘’extremely’’ ‘’dangerous’’
CONVENTIONS
• Higher marks for complex punctuation
– Brackets, exclamation marks, speech marks,
ellipsis… () !! “”….
– Stronger students use small bits of dialogue
to show mastery
– Weaker students read work aloud to help
with commas and full stops.
• Last 5 mins to check work
– Hard for kids to focus on detail and big
picture thinking at the same time.
EDITING
• Explicitly taught and modelled
• SWAP & CUPS
• Peer Editing
– Start with a Star? (What do you like)
– What do you wonder? (3 questions)
– Advice (How to make it better)
– Plans for revising (Written by the writer)
SELF EDITING
• CUPS
• Capitalisation
• Usage and Grammar
• Punctuation
• Spelling
CUPS
• Read own work aloud 4 times
– Slows down reading
– Ear catches things the eye doesn’t.
– Read one time for each aspect of CUPS
– Ask yourself, “Does this make sense?”
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Different pen for each stage
Dictionaries
Environmental print
Work with a different student
GOALS
• Integral part of the curriculum
• Effective communication skills
• Challenge other people’s thinking
ICT
• AMAP – collaborative online maps
ICT
• Wordle – vocabulary word art
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ICT
Tagexedo –
Students type in
words or phrases
and computer
makes a word
cloud or image.
• Animoto – Creating ads
ICT
Xtranormal -Animated Persuasion
TEXTS
ACTIVITY
• Draw a portrait of the person you write to.
• Display these pictures near the
persuasive environmental print as a
‘’faces of inspiration gallery’’
ACTIVITY
• Three Word Challenge
– Pair students. Each person writes 3 words on
a piece of paper e.g. soup, racing, invisible
– Swap papers – 2 mins to write a persuasive
Sizzling Start using 3 words.
– Randomness gets kids thinking outside
square, i.e. creatively
WE DO – GROUP WRITING
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Groups 4-6
Each person will write a paragraph
Timed Brainstorm For & Against
Select + Group 3-5 Main Ideas
Each student chooses 1 Main Idea to
work on + elaborate
• Students present ideas + 1 minute
brainstorm help for more ideas.
Teaching Persuasive Writing –
The Bones
• K-10 Syllabus English Scope and
Sequence for persuasive texts
• First Steps Resource Book – Writing to
Persuade (p103-116)
• Sentence and Paragraph work – First
Steps Writing Resource Book (p190196)
• DET NAPLAN site
Art of Persuasion
Connect to Students Lives
• Children are natural persuaders??
Variety of genre - TV Commercials
Letters to the Editor
Junk mail
Magazine ads
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Connect with Literacy – non fiction and
fiction books.
BBC The Persuaders
Child’s Persuasive Brain
Monty Python defines an
argument
Oral to Literate
• Hands Game – Three B’s
• Verbal articulation of H.O.T.S – 4
Corners, Judge Jury
• Drama – improvised skits, role-play
debates.
• Argument Game
Gradual Release
• Stephen King – “On Writing”
• Teacher directed – graphic organisers
completed with think aloud statements.
• Read Write Think – Writing is Fun
• Timely and specific feedback is
CRITICAL
ICT and Persuasion
• Opportunities are
infinite.
Test Triage
• What are your kids’ problems?
• - Wyatt Earp Syndrome –brave,
courageous and bold
• - Filibustering
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Writing Scaffolds
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O - Opinions
R - Reasons
E - Explanation
O – Opinion restated
A FORREST
Spot the techniques
Your Turn
• Task – Creative a persuasive poster
advocating for either as to why a dog or
a cat would make the best pet. Use
some of the techniques we’ve covered in
the presentation.
Recommended Resources
The End
• Thanks for listening!
What is Persuasive Writing?
Definition: persuasive writing…
seeks to convince its readers to embrace the
point-of-view presented by appealing to the
audience’s reason and understanding through
argument and/or entreaty.
Persuasive Genres
You encounter persuasion every day.
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TV Commercials
Letters to the Editor
Junk mail
Magazine ads
College brochures
Can you think of other persuasive contexts?
Steps for Effective Persuasion
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Understand your audience
Support your opinion
Know the various sides of your issue
Respectfully address other points of view
Find common ground with your audience
Establish your credibility
When to Persuade an Audience
• Your organization needs funding for a
project
• Your boss wants you to make
recommendations for a course of action
• You need to shift someone’s current point
of view to build common ground so action
can be taken
Understanding Your Audience
• Who is your audience?
• What beliefs do they hold about the topic?
• What disagreements might arise between you
and your audience?
• How can you refute counterarguments with
respect?
Understanding Your Audience
What concerns does your audience face?
For example:
– Do they have limited funds to distribute?
– Do they feel the topic directly affects
them?
– How much time do they have to consider
your document?
Understanding Your Audience
• Help your audience relate to your topic
• Appeal to their hearts as well as their
minds.
– Use anecdotes when appropriate
– Paint your topic in with plenty of detail
– Involve the reader’s senses in these
sections
Researching an Issue
• Become familiar with all sides of an issue.
-find common ground
-understand the history of the topic
-predict the counterarguments your
audience might make
-find strong support for your own
perspective
Researching an Issue
• Find common ground with your audience
For example:
Point of Opposition: You might support a
war, whereas your audience might not.
Common ground: Both sides want to see
their troops come home.
Researching an Issue
• Predict counterarguments
Example:
Your Argument: Organic produce from local
Farmers’ Markets is better than store-bought
produce.
The Opposition: Organic produce is too
expensive.
Researching an Issue
One Possible Counterargument:
Organic produce is higher in nutritional
value than store-bought produce and is
also free of pesticides, making it a better
value. Also, store-bought produce travels
thousands of miles, and the cost of
gasoline affects the prices of food on
supermarket shelves.
Support Your Perspective
• Appeal to the audience’s reason
– Use statistics and reputable studies
• Cite experts on the topic
– Do they back up what you say?
– Do they refute the other side?
Cite Sources with Some Clout
• Which source would a reader find more
credible?
– The New York Times
– http://www.myopinion.com
• Which person would a reader be more likely
to believe?
– Joe Smith from Fort Wayne, IN
– Dr. Susan Worth, Prof. of Criminology at
Purdue University
Establish Credibility
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Cite credible sources
Cite sources correctly and thoroughly
Use professional language (and design)
Edit out all errors
Cite Sources Ethically
Don’t misrepresent a quote or leave out
important information.
Misquote: “Crime rates were down by 2002,”
according to Dr. Smith.
Actual quote: “Crime rates were down by
2002, but steadily began climbing again a year
later,” said to Dr. Smith.
Tactics to Avoid
• Don’t lecture or talk down to your
audience
• Don’t make threats or “bully” your reader
• Don’t employ guilt trips
• Be careful if using the
second person, “you”
Have More Questions?
• Visit us at the Writing Lab
– Heavilon Hall 226
– 4-3723
– http://owl.english.purdue.edu/writinglab
• Visit us online at the OWL
– http://owl.english.purdue.edu
The End

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