Treatment - Paradise First Aid

Report
First Aid
© Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd
01/05/2012 V1.0
Snake Bite
 Paired fang marks, but often only a
single mark or a scratch mark may be present
 Signs and symptoms will depend on the type of
snake and venom
 Signs and symptoms may not appear for hours
Treatment
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DRS ABCD & Call 000
Lay the casualty down and keep completely still
Apply a pressure immobilisation bandage to the affected limb
Splint the affected limb & Immobilise the casualty completely
© Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd
01/05/2012 V1.0
Snake Bite
DO NOT!
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Wash the bite site
Try to catch and identify the snake
Cut the bite site
Suck the venom out
Move the casualty unless in danger
Apply a tourniquet
© Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd
01/05/2012 V1.0
Funnel Web Spider
&
Mouse Spider
Treatment
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DRS ABCD & Call 000
Lay the casualty down and keep completely still
Apply a pressure immobilisation bandage to the affected limb
Splint the affected limb & Immobilise the casualty completely
© Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd
01/05/2012 V1.0
Red Back & White Tailed
Spider
Treatment
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DRS ABCD
Apply cold pack
Watch for allergic reaction
Seek medical advice
© Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd
01/05/2012 V1.0
Bee & Wasp Sting
Potential Signs & Symptoms
 Immediate pain
 Local swelling and redness
Treatment
 Remove Sting (bee)
 Apply ice pack for the pain
© Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd
01/05/2012 V1.0
Fire Ants
Potential Signs & Symptoms
 Pain and burning at the site
 Swelling
Treatment
 Rinse ants off with running water
 Wash with soap and water or disinfectant
 Apply ice packs for the pain
© Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd
01/05/2012 V1.0
Paralysis Ticks
Potential Signs & Symptoms
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Local irritation
Lethargy
Muscle weakness
Unsteadiness in walking
Double vision
Difficulty in swallowing and breathing
Treatment
 DRS ABCD
 Tweezers either side of the head and pull straight out
 Apply disinfectant
© Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd
01/05/2012 V1.0
Blue Ringed Octopus
&
Cone Shell
Treatment
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DRS ABCD & Call 000
Lay the casualty down and keep completely still
Apply a pressure immobilisation bandage to the affected limb
Splint the affected limb & Immobilise the casualty completely
© Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd
01/05/2012 V1.0
Box Jelly Fish & Irukandji Jelly Fish
Treatment
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DRS ABCD
Call 000
Carefully remove tentacles but do not rub
Apply liberal amounts of vinegar to the area
DO NOT use a pressure immobilisation bandage
Be prepared to start CPR
© Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd
01/05/2012 V1.0
Blue Bottle Jelly Fish
Potential Signs & Symptoms
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Blue tentacles stuck to the body
Red welts on the skin
Pain for some hours
Pain in the groin and armpits
Treatment
 DRS ABCD & reassure patient
 Remove tentacles, do not rub
 Immerse the affected area in hot water, as hot as the casualty can
tolerate
 If hot water is not available, apply an ice pack
© Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd
01/05/2012 V1.0
Fish Stings
Potential Signs & Symptoms
 Extreme pain
 Bleeding, swelling and discolouration at the site
 Panic, irrational behaviour
Treatment
 DRS ABCD
 Call 000
 Immerse the affected area in hot water, as hot as the casualty can
tolerate
© Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd
01/05/2012 V1.0
Diabetes
What is it?
Type 1 & Type 2
 Hypoglycaemia – Too little blood sugar
 Hyperglycaemia – Too much blood sugar
© Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd
01/05/2012 V1.0
Diabetes
Hypoglycaemia Potential Signs & Symptoms
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Quick onset of symptoms
Sweating
Pale, clammy skin
Weakness, tiredness
Trembling
Confusion & aggression
Vomiting
© Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd
01/05/2012 V1.0
Diabetes
Hypoglycaemia Treatment
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DRS ABCD
Give a sugary drink
If no improvement after 5 mins give more
Call 000 if no improvement
If casualty is unconscious do not give them anything to eat or drink,
follow DRS ABCD
© Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd
01/05/2012 V1.0
Seizures
Treatment
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DRS ABCD
Call 000
Provide a safe environment
Place padding around the person if safe to do so
Put person into the recovery position once the seizure stops or
diminishes
Cover with a blanket if loss of bladder control
Get bystanders to move away
Do not restrain the person (unless essential to prevent injury)
Do not put anything in their mouth (including fingers)
Do not hold on to their head
Record start/finish time of seizure
Reassure until fully recovered
© Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd
01/05/2012 V1.0
Febrile Convulsions
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01/05/2012 V1.0
Heart Attack
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01/05/2012 V1.0
Heart Attack
Potential Signs & Symptoms
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Pain or discomfort in the chest
Pain described as crushing or squeezing
Pain may radiate to the left arm, jaw, shoulder, back and neck
Shortness of breath
Nausea / vomiting
Sweating
Pale/grey clammy skin
Feeling of impending death
Feeling of needing to use the toilet
© Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd
01/05/2012 V1.0
Heart Attack
Treatment
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DRS ABCD
Call 000
Get the casualty to stop and rest
Sit the casualty upright with knees supported
Assist with medication
Loosen tight and restrictive clothing
Reassure
Be prepared to start CPR
© Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd
01/05/2012 V1.0
Stroke
© Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd
01/05/2012 V1.0
Stroke
Potential Signs & Symptoms
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Flushed face
Loss of movement and feeling down one side of the body
Severe headache
Difficulty swallowing
Slurred speech
Altered level of consciousness
Pupils may differ in size
Pounding, rapid pulse
Facial droop
Look and feel ill
Nausea / vomiting
© Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd
01/05/2012 V1.0
Stroke
© Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd
01/05/2012 V1.0
Stroke
Treatment
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DRS ABCD
Call 000
Reassure the casualty
Loosen tight clothing
Maintain body temperature
Rest in semi reclined position (if able to maintain airway)
Roll in to recovery position if unconscious or unable to maintain
airway
 Ensure airway is open and clear
 Nil by mouth
© Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd
01/05/2012 V1.0
Poisoning
 Ingested (Swallowed)
 Inhaled (Breathed In)
 Absorbed (Through the Skin)
 Injected (Pierced Skin)
© Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd
01/05/2012 V1.0
Poisoning
Potential Signs & Symptoms
Ingested
 Looking & feeling unwell
 Nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea
 Abdominal and / or chest pain
 Altered conscious state
 Headache
 Breathing difficulties
 Seizures
Injected
 Possible visible injection site
 Red / discoloured skin
 Other signs and symptoms will depend
on the injected poison
Inhaled
 Pale or bluish skin to indicate lack of
oxygen
 Breathing difficulties
 Altered conscious state
 Possible visible burns to face and neck
Absorbed
 Red or burnt skin
 Other poisoning sign & symptoms
© Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd
01/05/2012 V1.0
Poisoning
Treatment
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DRS ABCD
Call 000 if required
Treat life threatening conditions
Do not make the casualty vomit
If vomiting occurs, keep to show emergency services
If CPR is required, ensure protection is taken to ensure you do
not become contaminated
(i.e Mouth to mask technique)
© Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd
01/05/2012 V1.0
Poisons Information Centre
13 11 26
© Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd
01/05/2012 V1.0
Drug & Alcohol Abuse
Common Drugs
Amphetamines
Also known as speed, goey, whiz, crystal, meth, base, paste, ice, shabu.
Alcohol
Cannabis
Also known as marijuana, grass, pot, ganja, mull, hash, dope, yarndi, skunk, hydro.
Cocaine
Also known as coke and sometimes available as freebase or crack.
Ecstasy
Also known as E, pills.
Hallucinogens
Includes Magic Mushrooms and LSD (also known as trips, acid, tabs, wangers, microdots).
Heroin
Also known as hammer, H, shit, smack, horse, harry, white, scag, junk, slow, rock.
Steroids (Anabolic Androgenic Steroids)
Volatile Substances (Solvents, Inhalants)
Includes a wide range of different substances such as petrol, spray paints, some glues, laughing gas (nitrous oxide), butane
and other chemicals.
© Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd
01/05/2012 V1.0
Drug & Alcohol Abuse
Treatment of Suspected Drug Use/Overdose
 DRS ABCD
 Call 000
 Be aware of your own safety including the possibility of contaminated
needles. Do not put yourself in danger
 Manage life threatening conditions
 Do not leave the casualty alone unless you are in danger
 Roll casualty into recovery position if they have a reduced level of
consciousness or are unconscious
If CPR is required, ensure protection is taken
(i.e Mouth to mask technique or continual chest compressions only)
© Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd
01/05/2012 V1.0
Needle Stick Injury
Treatment of Needle Stick Injury
 Wash the area with soap and water
 If water is not available use hand wipes
and alcohol-bases liquid or gel
 An antiseptic such as povidine-iodine
may also be applied
 Cover with a dressing
 Immediately seek medical attention
© Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd
01/05/2012 V1.0
Questions & Break
© Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd
01/05/2012 V1.0
Secondary Survey
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Top to toe examination of the casualty
Monitor vital signs
Ask bystanders for information
Look for medical alert devices
Take a good history from the casualty
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Allergies
Medication
Previous relevant medical history
Last food and/or drink
Events leading to the incident
© Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd
01/05/2012 V1.0
Shock
Shock is a loss of effective circulation
resulting in impaired tissue oxygen, and nutrient
delivery and causes life threatening organ failure.
 Severe bleeding
 Major or multiple fractures or major trauma
 Severe burns or scalds
 Severe diarrhoea and vomiting
 Severe sweating and dehydration
© Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd
01/05/2012 V1.0
Shock
Potential Signs & Symptoms
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Pale, cool, clammy skin
Irritability / restlessness / anxiety
Irrational behaviour & confusion
Drowsiness
Muscle weakness
Rapid, shallow breathing
Rapid weak pulse
Nausea / vomiting
Thirst
Feeling cold
Reduced level of consciousness
Collapse or unconsciousness
© Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd
01/05/2012 V1.0
Shock
Treatment
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DRS ABCD
Call 000
Lay casualty down
Render the necessary first aid treatment
Elevate the legs if injuries permit
Provide reassurance
Maintain body temperature
Loosen tight and restrictive clothing
Ensure good oxygen flow
Nil by mouth
© Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd
01/05/2012 V1.0
External Bleeding
Treatment
Pressure, Elevation, Rest, Treat for Shock
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Wear personal protective equipment
Apply direct pressure to wound
Elevate above the level of the heart
Rest and reassure the casualty
Treat for shock if required
Nil by mouth
Remember to call 000 for life threatening bleeding
© Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd
01/05/2012 V1.0
External Bleeding
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01/05/2012 V1.0
External Bleeding
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01/05/2012 V1.0
Embedded Objects
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01/05/2012 V1.0
Amputation
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01/05/2012 V1.0
Constrictive Bandage
(Tourniquet)
As a last resort and only when other
methods of controlling bleeding have failed.
life-threatening bleeding e.g., traumatic amputation of a
limb or major injuries with massive blood loss.
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5cm wide
Note time applied on bandage
Not to be removed once applied
Do not apply directly to the wound or over a joint
Do not cover constrictive bandage with any other bandages or clothes
© Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd
01/05/2012 V1.0
Minor Wounds
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Use swabs and sterile saline to clean the wound
Cover with a non-adherent dressing
Watch for signs of infection
Seek medical advice if required
© Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd
01/05/2012 V1.0
Nose Bleeds
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Pinch the fleshy part of the nose
Get the casualty to lean forward
Ask the casualty to breath through their mouth
Maintain pressure for 10 minutes
Apply a cool compress to the back of the
neck and the forehead
 If bleeding persists apply pressure for a
further 10 minutes
 If the bleeding is still not controlled call help
© Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd
01/05/2012 V1.0
Traumatic Abdominal
Injuries
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01/05/2012 V1.0
Fainting
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01/05/2012 V1.0
Crush Injury
 Car accidents
 Falling masonry
 Mine shaft collapse
 Trench cave-in
© Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd
01/05/2012 V1.0
Crush Injury
Treatment
 DRS ABCD
 Call 000
 If safe and physically possible, all crushing forces should be
removed as soon as possible after the injury.
 If the crushing force has been in place for 30 min or longer (or the
first aider is unsure of time) the crushing force should not be
removed
 Control any external bleeding
 Reassure and monitor the casualty
© Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd
01/05/2012 V1.0
Internal Bleeding
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01/05/2012 V1.0
Internal Bleeding
Potential Signs & Symptoms
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Pain and tenderness over or around the area
Rigidity, swelling and distension
Discoloration of the skin in the affected area
Shock
The appearance of blood from a body opening
History of an injury
© Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd
01/05/2012 V1.0
Internal Bleeding
Treatment
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DRS ABCD
Call 000
Control any external bleeding
Treat for shock
Provide reassurance
Nil by mouth
Place casualty in appropriate position determined by injuries
Keep any body fluids to show ambulance crew
© Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd
01/05/2012 V1.0
Using Bandages – Practical
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01/05/2012 V1.0
Bandages – Important Points
 Check circulation once bandage is applied and continue to monitor
 Continue the pressure and elevation If bleeding persists
 Apply further, firmer bandages over the first to control heavy bleeding
 It may be necessary to remove the first bandage to check the bleeding
point if major bleeding continues
© Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd
01/05/2012 V1.0
Questions & Break
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01/05/2012 V1.0
Burns
• Superficial
first degree
• Partial thickness
second degree
• Full thickness
third degree
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01/05/2012 V1.0
Burns
Treatment
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DRS ABCD
Call 000
Cool burn with cool running water for at least 20min
Where possible remove clothing and jewellery close to the burn site (as
long as they are not stuck to the skin)
 Cover the burn with a non stick dressing (cling wrap)
 Where possible elevate burns to help reduce swelling
 Treat for shock
© Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd
01/05/2012 V1.0
Burns
Do Not!
 Remove clothing or jewellery that sticks to the skin
 Use lotions, ointments or creams other than hydrogel
 Use ice or ice water
 Burst blisters
 Use dressings that may stick to the burn site
© Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd
01/05/2012 V1.0
Chemical Burns
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DRS ABCD
Call 000
Avoid contact with any chemical or contaminated material
Consult Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)
Remove contaminated clothing
Brush powdered chemicals from skin
Rinse with cool running water for at least 20 min
Ensure that the chemical does not spread further
© Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd
01/05/2012 V1.0
Electrical Burns
 Ensure the casualty is disconnected from the electrical source
 Remember to look for and treat exit burns
 Be aware of irregular heart rhythms
© Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd
01/05/2012 V1.0
Burns – Urgent Treatment
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Children, infants and the elderly highly susceptible to shock and infection
Burns to special areas. Hands, face, feet, genitalia, major joints
Burns that circle limbs, chest or throat
Burns to the mouth with associated inhalation injuries
© Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd
01/05/2012 V1.0
Heat Exhaustion
Potential Signs & Symptoms
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Pale, cool, clammy skin
Rapid breathing
Profuse sweating
Cramps
Thirst
Nausea/vomiting
Headache
Lethargy
© Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd
01/05/2012 V1.0
Heat Exhaustion
Treatment
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DRS ABCD
Complete rest in a cool environment
Lay the casualty down and elevate legs
Remove excess clothing
Cool by fanning
Sponge with cool water
Give sips of cool water
© Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd
01/05/2012 V1.0
Heat Stroke
Potential Signs & Symptoms
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Flushed, hot, dry skin
Sweating has ceased
Rapid, weak pulse
Irrational, aggressive and confused
Fatigue
Visual disturbances
Headache
Nausea/vomiting
Seizures
Coma, cardiac arrest
© Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd
01/05/2012 V1.0
Heat Stroke
Treatment
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DRS ABCD
Call 000 (heat stroke is an emergency)
Complete rest in a cool environment
Remove excess clothing
Lay the casualty down and elevate legs
Give sips of cool water
Cover the casualty in a wet sheet and
fan air over them
 Apply ice packs to the groins, armpits
and back of the neck
© Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd
01/05/2012 V1.0
Drowning
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DRS ABCD – Check airway in the recovery position
Call 000
Do not attempt a rescue beyond your capabilities
Treat for hypothermia
Suspect and treat for spinal injuries
© Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd
01/05/2012 V1.0
Near Drowning
There must be careful observation of immersion victims because of
possible deterioration after an apparently successful rescue.
Complications following immersion, even those that appear to be well
following resuscitation. For this reason any immersion victim must
always be assessed in hospital.
© Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd
01/05/2012 V1.0
Eye - Minor Foreign Object
Treatment
 Tilt head towards injured eye
 Gently flush the affected eye with Sterile saline or clean water
 Cover eye to restrict movement
 Seek medical attention
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01/05/2012 V1.0
Eye – Major Embedded Object
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Ear – Foreign Object
Treatment
 Irrigate the ear using sterile
saline, clean water or warm vegetable
oil may free small objects
 If unsuccessful, pad over injured
ear and seek medical attention
© Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd
01/05/2012 V1.0
Head Injuries
Potential Signs & Symptoms
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Loss of memory
Blurred vision
Slurred speech
Aggressive / confused
Seizures
Reduced level of consciousness or drowsiness
Wound to head
Changes in the shape and size of pupils
Headache
Nausea/vomiting
Blood/clear fluid escaping from ears, nose or mouth
© Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd
01/05/2012 V1.0
Head Injuries
Treatment
 DRS ABCD
 Call 000
 If unconscious place casualty in recovery position (if fluid leaking
from one ear, place casualty on the side of leakage to allow to
drain)
 If conscious rest in a semi reclined position
 Monitor airway, breathing
 Monitor and record conscious level
 Control external bleeding
 Suspect and treat for spinal injuries
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01/05/2012 V1.0
Spinal Injuries
First Aiders must be suspicious of spinal injuries in accidents where
velocity is involved, where a severe head and/or chest injury is
present or where a casualty has multiple injuries
Look at the history of the accident!
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01/05/2012 V1.0
Spinal Injuries
Treatment
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DRS ABCD
Call 000
If conscious encourage the casualty not to move
Pack supportive material around the casualty
Hold on to casualties head to prevent movement
If unconscious place casualty in recovery position using the spinal
log roll if possible
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01/05/2012 V1.0
Spinal Log Roll – Practical
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01/05/2012 V1.0
Sprains & Strains
Potential Signs & Symptoms
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Pain
Tenderness and discomfort when weight bearing
Swelling
Bruising and discoloration
© Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd
01/05/2012 V1.0
Sprains & Strains
Treatment
R.I.C.E.R
 Rest – get the casualty to stop and rest. Reduce movement
 Ice – Apply an ice pack for the pain and swelling
 Compression – Apply a compression bandage
 Elevation – Elevate the area to restrict blood flow and reduce swelling
and pain
 Refer – Refer the casualty to appropriate medical professional
© Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd
01/05/2012 V1.0
Dislocations
Potential Signs & Symptoms
Pain, deformity, reduced mobility, bruising, swelling
Treatment
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DRS ABCD
Call 000
Immobilise & support in the most comfortable position
Treat for shock
DO NOT REPLACE A DISLOCATION
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01/05/2012 V1.0
Dislocations
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01/05/2012 V1.0
Dislocations
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Dislocations
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Dislocations
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Dislocations
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01/05/2012 V1.0
Fractures
Potential Signs & Symptoms
Pain, deformity, bruising, swelling, reduced mobility, crepitus,
tenderness, bleeding (if open fracture)
Treatment
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DRS ABCD
Call 000
Control bleeding
Support & Immobilise in the most comfortable position
Treat for shock
If you have any doubt as to whether an injury is a fracture, always
treat as a fracture and seek medical attention.
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01/05/2012 V1.0
Closed Fracture – Arm
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Closed Fracture – Collar Bone
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Complicated Fracture – Femur
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01/05/2012 V1.0
Open Fracture – Leg
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01/05/2012 V1.0
Fractures
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Jaw
Collar bone
Upper arm
Lower arm
Wrist
Fingers
Ribs
Pelvis
Legs
Ankle
Toes
© Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd
01/05/2012 V1.0
First Aid Kits
© Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd
01/05/2012 V1.0
Thank You!
Any Questions?
© Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd
01/05/2012 V1.0

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