Aid for education after 2015: Lessons from the past decade

Report
Aid for education after 2015: Lessons from the past decade
Pauline Rose
Mokoro, Oxford
29 January 2014
Aid to education decreased for the first time in 2011
16
14.4
14.4
13.4
14
12.5
11.4
12
Constant 2011 US$ billions
12.3
5.6
10.2
10
8.9
Basic education
5.7
5.4
9.2
5.3
5.0
Post-secondary education
5.1
8
4.7
6.7
4.4
4.2
6
2.7
4
2
1.1
3.0
1.2
3.3
1.4
3.6
1.3
4.2
2.0
2.0
5.1
5.2
2.5
2.5
6.2
6.2
2.2
1.7
4.6
Secondary education
5.8
0
2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
Aid to basic education decreased for 19 low income countries in 2011
Bangladesh
Afghanistan
Mozambique
Haiti
Mali
D. R. Congo.
Tanzania
Malawi
Uganda
Liberia
Madagascar
Somalia
Sierra Leone
Tajikistan
Mauritania
Chad
Guinea-Bissau
Comoros
D. P. R. Korea.
0
25
50
75
100
125
150
175
Constant 2011 US$ millions
2010
2011
200
225
250
275
300
Denmark
Norway
Sweden
AfDF
Netherlands
France
IMF
Japan
AsDB Special Funds
World Bank (IDA)
EU Institutions
Germany
Canada
United States
United Kingdom
Constant 2011 US$ millions
Nine of the 15 largest donors reduced aid for basic education to LICs in 2011
350
300
2010
2011
250
200
150
100
50
0
Wide variations between donors channeling aid to education via governments
Total
United States
Germany
Spain
Recipient government
France
Donor government
Unspecified public sector
Norway
Multilateral
Netherlands
NGOs & Civil Society
Australia
Other
Canada
United Kingdom
Japan
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
Share of how education aid is channelled
80%
90%
100%
Earmarked bilateral aid channeled through multilaterals large for UNICEF
800
USD million (constant 2011 prices)
700
600
UNICEF
500
World Bank - IDA
400
EU Institutions
Asian Development Bank
300
African Development Bank
200
100
0
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
8
2
11
7
8
Significant partnerships Non significant partnerships
8
7
7
9
5
6
4
6
5
3
5
D. P. R. Korea
7
10
C. A. R.
16
Comoros
10
Togo
Guinea
9
10
Chad
Eritrea
8
10 10
The Gambia
10
Kyrgyzstan
10
Burundi
12
Somalia
8
12
Guinea-Bissau
13
Liberia
Sierra Leone
12
Tajikistan
Yemen
9
13
Nigeria
Niger
Philippines
13
Cote d'Ivoire
14
Myanmar
Benin
12 12
Malawi
Madagascar
16
Zimbabwe
18
Mali
Rwanda
13
14
Haiti
Nepal
12
14
Cambodia
4
16
Burkina Faso
Pakistan
20
Uganda
6
Bangladesh
D. R. Congo
22
Afghanistan
Ethiopia
8
Mozambique
24
Tanzania
India
Kenya
Number of donors
Donors to education are not evenly spread across countries
23
22 22 22
21 21 21
19 19 19 19
18 18
17
16 16
15 15
14
13 13 13 13 13
12 12 12 12 12 12
11 11 11
10 10
9
8 8
7
6
5
8
4
0
20
10
20
24 22
16 16
15 15
13
33
12 12 12 11
10 10
8
8
0
8 7
7
Tanzania
D. R. Congo
Myanmar
India
Chad
Philippines
Nigeria
D. P. R. Korea
30 30 29
Niger
Uganda
27 27
Madagascar
Guinea
33
The Gambia
Kenya
Zimbabwe
44
Ethiopia
Somalia
Yemen
50
Guinea-Bissau
Malawi
Nepal
Burundi
Tajikistan
Cambodia
Bangladesh
Sierra Leone
Togo
Pakistan
C. A. R.
60 63
Mozambique
Benin
Burkina Faso
Cote d'Ivoire
Comoros
30
Mali
Liberia
40
Haiti
Eritrea
Afghanistan
Rwanda
Kyrgyzstan
US$ 2011 constant prices
Aid per child for many LICs does not fill the minimum spending required
70
Ensuring primary
education of
adequate quality is
estimated to cost
$131 per child
39 39
36
32
35
34
21 20 19
19
10
7
6
5
4 3
2 0
As a proportion of total recipients who receive education aid from donor
Number of significant aid relations in education for UNICEF low
100%
1
90%
12
7
80%
49
70%
62
60%
50%
11
40%
52
22
30%
57
20%
54
10%
0%
AsDB
AfDF/ AfDB
EU Institutions
UNICEF
World Bank
Significant partnerships Non significant partnerships
Extending goals to lower secondary widens finance gap to $38 billion
US $ billion
Financing gap
US $38 billion
Donors:
Meet 0.7% target
1.3
Donors:
Reallocate student
imputed costs
3.1
DAC Aid US $3 billion
Government
expenditure
US $36 billion
Remaining
financing
gap
7.6
Donors:
Prioritise basic
& lower
secondary
education
6.1
Government:
Increase tax base
9.9
Government:
Prioritise basic
education
9.8
Targets for 2015 must be set so no one is left behind due to lack of resources
After 2015, financing targets should be set for
countries to allocate:
 at least 6% of GNP on education; only 41 had
reached this level by 2011
 at least 20% of their budget on education; only 25
had reached this level by 2011
Financing targets should also apply to aid donors so
that all funders are held to account for their promises.
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