Ergogenic Aids - Unit 3/4 VCE PE

Legal Ergogenic Aids
Key Knowledge
 Legal substances and methods that enhance
performance including mechanical devices such as
altitude training, and nutritional aids such as specialised
sports foods and supplements
Key skills
 Compare and contrast practices designed to enhance
performance and/or speed up recovery
 Analyse and evaluate nutritional and hydration
procedures used to enhance individual performance and
 Participate in and evaluate a range of nutritional,
physiological or psychological strategies that potentially
enhance performance and aid recovery
Ergogenic aids
 Ergogenic aids are methods, devices or substances that
enhance athletic performance.
 They can be used in competition, training and recovery
How do they enhance
 influencing the physiological capacity of a particular
body system (e.g. use of creatine supplementation to
increase creatine stores in the muscle for replenishment
of ATP)
 removing physiological constraints that impact on
performance (e.g. use of diuretics to reduce body
weight so the athlete is lighter or makes a weight
 increasing the speed of recovery (e.g. use of
compression garments to increase blood flow and
removal of wastes).
Catagories of Ergogenic aids
 mechanical — devices including heart rate monitors, weights,
sports clothing and footwear, and equipment
 nutritional — food sources including caffeine, creatine and
sports drinks
 pharmacological — synthetically produced drugs including
anabolic steroids, beta blockers and amphetamines
 physiological — practices and use of naturally occurring
products including blood doping, EPO, human growth hormone
 psychological — methods including imagery, meditation,
music, relaxation
Your turn!
Define the term ergogenic aid.
List the five categories of ergogenic aids and include three examples for each category.
 Identify the ways ergogenic aids are thought to improve performance.
 For each way identified in part (a), suggest types of athletes who may
use ergogenic aids to gain these improvements.
 .
Mechanical aids
 Training methods
 Devices
HR monitors
Resistance devices e.g weights
Altitude tents
Compression garments
Clothing and footwear
Altitude Training
 Altitude training is training at a level 1500m above sea
level to improve the bodies oxygen carrying capacity.
 It is a legal training method thought to induce changes
to the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood, increasing
the delivery to and use of oxygen by the muscles.
 It can then improve performance at sea level.
How does altitude training help?
 At altitude, there is a lower level of oxygen present in
the air and the body must adapt to this reduced oxygen
 Physiological changes that occur with acclimatisation
increase in the number of capillaries
increase in the production of red blood cells (RBC)
increase in buffering capacity (especially waste removal)
changes in the microscopic structure and function of
muscles, including an increase in the number of
mitochondria, the amount of myoglobin and the activity of
oxidative enzymes.
Disadvantages of altitude training
 The increase in red blood cells makes blood thicker,
reducing the speed of blood flow
 At very high altitudes (greater than 5000 metres'
elevation), weight loss occurs, the immune system can
weaken and, due to the lower level of oxygen, the body
cannot exercise as intensely as at sea level.
 Altitude sickness
Altitude tents
 Are specially designed tents that reduce the amount of
oxygen inside the tent.
 They athletes can train or sleep inside these tents.
Nutritional aids
 Dietary supplements are food or prepartions that are
taken in excess of normal diet to increase the nutrients
 Athletes however must be careful to adhere to antidoping regulations
Types of supplements
 Specialised sports foods.
 Address specific nutriotional needs such as sports drinks or
 They are practical and convenient.
 Vitamin and mineral supplements.
 Athletes should not need these if they have a sufficient diet.
 May be used in special cases such as iron and calcium
supplements for female endurance athletes
 Nutritional ergogenic aids.
 Benefit competition or recovery such as caffeine, creatine and
 Further reading “AIS guide to supplement grouping
Your turn
 Explain the various ways athletes can legally enhance their performance.
 Define what constitutes a dietary supplement.
 .
 Define the term altitude training.
 Identify the proposed physiological benefits of altitude training for an athlete.
 Identify and discuss three sports or events where athletes would benefit from
altitude training.
 .
 Discuss why an athlete might use a mechanical aid in addition to normal training.
Provide specific examples.
 Dietary supplements can be divided into three broad groups. List and outline each
of the groups, including examples. Suggest athletes or sports that might use these
 Use the internet to research a mechanical aid or device.
Find out the following information and present your
findings to the class.
 Name of the mechanical aid or device
 Common manufacturers and cost
 How the aid or device will benefit the athlete
 Athletes and training methods the aid or device are
suited for
 How to use the aid or device
 Any other useful information (i.e. training tips)
Nutritional aids : Sports drinks
 Have the most potential to improve performance.
 Can be taken during or after exercise.
 Contain 6-8% CHO, sodium and pottasium to refuel.
 The taste of the sports drinks also boosts fluid
consumption. Athletes more closely match sweat losses
when ingesting sports drinks.
Nutrtional aids : Electrolyte
replacement supplements
 Can replace electrolytes following moderate to large
fluid losses during exercise e.g ultramarathon
 Without sufficient electrolyte replacement, thirst will
decrease and urine output will increase, both of which
will lead to further dehydration.
 Can be used at the end of the event if the athlete does
not feel like eating
 Gastrolyte
Nutritional aids : Carbohydrate
gels and bars
 These gels and bars are compact, solid source of carbs
designed to deliver large boost of fuel.
 They are easily consumed and digested quickly.
 More concentrated than sports drinks
 Carbohydrate gels and bars are most effective when
 as a supplement during prolonged training sessions
 as a supplement for athletes with high energy demands
 as an effective post-exercise recovery supplement
 as an effective recovery supplement used during multievent competitions
 as a replacement snack or meal when making weigh-ins
for specific events.
Nutrional aids : Liquid-meal
 Liquid-meal supplements are usually high carb, mod
protein, low fat formula you can mix with water or
 Liquid-meal supplements are a great source of vitamins,
minerals and essential amino acids.
 This compact form of energy is especially useful for
athletes who are aiming to increase their lean body
mass, coping with demanding training programs or
undergoing growth spurts.
 Liquid-meal supplements are also useful as a postexercise recovery snack.
5–7 per cent
Sports drink
Powder Liquid
10–25 mmol/L
delivery of fluid
+ CHO during
60–70 per cent
Sports gel
(25 g per
Gel 30–40 g
sachets or larger
Some contain
triglycerides or
training diet
•CHO loading
recovery —
provides CHO
•CHO source
during exercise,
especially when
CHO needs
exceed fluid
High CHO
10–25 per cent
Powder Liquid
(+ some B
training diet
•CHO loading
CHO recovery —
provides CHO
(may be used
during exercise
when CHO
needs exceed
1–1.5 kcal/mL
15–20 per cent
Liquid meal
Powder (mix
with water or
milk) Liquid
50–70 per cent
als: 0.5–1 L
supplies RDI*
trient diet
during heavy
ition or weight
•Low-bulk meal
(especially preevent meal)
recovery —
provides CHO,
protein and
nutrition for
40–50 g CHO
5–10 g protein
Usually low in
Sports bar
Bar (50–60 g)
als: can supply
50–100 per cent
of RDI May
creatine, amino
Sport related
•CHO source
during exercise
recovery —
provides CHO,
protein and
trient diet
nutrition for
Vitamin and Mineral supplements
 Vitamins, which assist chemical reactions in the body
(and thus help to release energy from food)
 Minerals, which are important in muscle contraction,
nerve transmission, fluid balance and enzyme activity,
are a very important part of an athlete's diet.
Injection of vitamin
supplements to aid performance
 The injecting of vitamin supplements to aid performance and
assist in recovery from exercise bouts would appear to be
widespread at almost all levels of professional sport.
 The practice is neither illegal nor banned.
 Iron can be supplemented as it helps to carry oxygen around the
 Calcium can be supplemented as it is important for muscle
contraction, nerve transmission, enzyme activity and blood
 Neither is needed to be supplemented if your diet is sufficient
 Further reading “Powders, Pills and Potions of the stars”
Nutritional ergogenic aids
 Nutritional ergogenic aids benefit performance and/or
recovery from exercise.
 Research has found that the benefits of very few socalled nutritional ergogenic aids are actually supported
by scientific evidence and as such these aids should be
used with caution.
 There is, however, sound evidence that caffeine can
enhance endurance and performance of:
short-duration, high-intensity events of 1–5 minutes
prolonged high-intensity events of 20–60 minutes
endurance events of a minimum of 90 minutes
prolonged intermittent, high-intensity team or racquet
 This is most likely due to a reduced feeling of fatigue in
the athlete.
 How much caffeine?
 Caffeine doses of 1–3 milligrams per kilogram BM or 70–200
milligrams have proven to be beneficial in prolonged
exercise lasting longer than 60 minutes.
 More than this can cause skill impairment and overarousal.
Food or drink
content (mg)
*The caffeine content of tea and coffee varies widely, depending on
the brand, the way that the individual makes their cup of tea or
coffee, and the size of their mug or cup.
Instant coffee
250 mL cup
60 (12–169)*
Brewed coffee
250 mL cup
80 (40–110)*
250 mL cup
27 (9–51)*
Chocolate (milk)
60 g
Chocolate (dark)
60 g
Coca Cola
375 mL can
Red Bull energy drink
250 mL can
V energy drink
250 mL can
Mother energy drink
500 mL can
PowerBar caffeinated
sports gel
40 g sachet
1 tablet — Australia
1 tablet — USA
No Doz
 Natural compound in skeletal muscle. Created through intake of fish, poultry and
red meats.
 Also made in kidneys.
 Creatine monohydrate is the commonly supplemented form of creatine.
 The use of CP is used to resynthesize ATP in short high intensity events.
 Supplementing Creatine can increase stores within the muscle.
 creatine supplementation will enhance performance involving repeated sprints or
bouts of high-intensity, short-duration activity separated by short recovery
intervals of less than 1 minute.
 It is also recommended for developed, elite athletes who use resistance training
to increase lean body mass, or for team athletes who participate in intermittent
sports such as netball, football or racquet sports.
 Rapid loading protocol — 20 grams daily (4 × 5-gram
doses) for a total of five days. This protocol is linked to
weight gain, usually in the form of fluid retenti on.
 Slow loading protocol — smaller doses (3 grams)
ingested each day.
 There have been some side effects on the liver and
kidneys if too much creatine is taken.
 Bicarbonate increases the body's ability to dispose of
excess hydrogen ions that are produced during
anaerobic glycolysis.
 Bicarbonate loading acts as a buffer within the muscle,
reducing the fatiguing effect of hydrogen on the
functioning of the muscle. It is relevant to highintensity events lasting between 1 and 7 minutes.
 Acute bicarbonate loading — 300 milligrams per
kilogram BM dose ingested 1–2 hours prior to the
 Chronic bicarbonate loading — 500 milligrams per
kilogram BM dose ingested per day over five days and
split into four doses over the day.
 Outline why nutritional ergogenic aids should be used with caution.
 Define the term creatine. List food sources containing creatine.
 .
 For each of the ergogenic aids mentioned in this
section, describe:
 how they are thought to enhance performance
 how much should be consumed
 any side-effects
 athletes that would benefit from taking the
 Read the article ‘Can caffeine improve sports
performance’ and summarise the key elements of the
article by answering the following questions.
 Why is caffeine classified as a drug?
 Where could an athlete access caffeine?
 How is caffeine thought to enhance performance?
 For each of the benefits of caffeine listed in the article,
suggest types of athletes for whom the benefit would be
particularly relevant.
 Identify reasons why athletes might choose not to use
caffeine prior to an event.

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