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Report
Role of Power Electronics for
Safety and Conservation of
Electrical Energy
Ramjee Lal Meena
Department of Electrical Engineering
Delhi Technological University,
Delhi-42
ORGANISATION OF THE
PRESENTATION
•
•
•
•
•
•
Introduction to Power Electronics
Power Semiconductor Device (PDS)
Power Converter
Power Processor
Advantage of Power Electronics
Applications of Power Electronics for Electrical
Energy
Contd.
2
Contd.
• Emphasis of applications of Power
Electronics in the area of Safety,
Conservation, Power Quality and
Renewable Sources
• Practical possible use of PE at home
• Trends of Power Electronics
• NaMPET : GOI Mission
3
Power Electronics
• Power Electronics is the electronics
applied to conversion and control of
electrical power.
• Range of Power Scale
Milliwatts(mW)
Megawatts(MW)
Gigawatts(GW)
• The primary task of Power Electronics is to process
and control flow of electrical energy by supplying
voltages and currents in a form that is optimally
suited for user loads
4
Power Semiconductor Devices
• Power Diode
– Uni-polar,
– uncontrolled,
– switching device
– used in applications such as rectification
and
– circuit directional current control.
5
SCR: Silicon Controlled Rectifier
6
SCR: Silicon Controlled Rectifier
•This semi-controlled device turns on when a gate
pulse is present and the anode is positive compared
to the cathode.
• When a gate pulse is present, the device operates
like a standard diode.
•When the anode is negative compared to the
cathode, the device turns off and blocks positive or
negative voltages present.
• The gate voltage does not allow the device to turn
off
7
Gate Turn Off Thyristor
•The GTO, unlike an SCR, can be turned on and off with a gate
pulse.
•One issue with the device is that turn off gate voltages are usually
larger and require more current than turn on levels.
•These devices, because of developments in IGCT technology are
not very popular in the power electronics realm.
•They are considered controlled, uni-polar and bi-polar voltage
blocking
8
TRIAC
•The TRIAC is a device that is
essentially an integrated pair of
SCR connected in inverse-parallel
on the same chip.[
9
Power Transistors
•Power BJT
•Power MOSFET
•IGBT( Insulated Gate Bipolar
Transistor )
10
Power Converter
11
Power Processor
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14
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16
17
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20
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Advantages of PE
• High Efficiency
•High Reliability
•Low Maintenance
•Fast dynamic response ( ms, µs)
•Small size
•Low Cost (Mass Production)
23
24
THE ITIC CURVE
250
200
0 .5 C YC L E
150
100
50
+-- 1 0 %
0
RA TE D
A CC E P TA B L E
V O L TA G E
POWER
8 .3 3 m s
P E R C E N T C H A N G E IN B U S V O L T A G E
O VERVO LT AG E CO NDI T I O NS
- 50
UNDERVO LT AG E CO NDI T IO NS
- 100
0.0001
0.001
0.01
0.1
1
10
100
1000
TIM E IN S E CO N DS
25
FRIENDS
• The word FRIENDS stands for Flexible
Reliable and Intelligent Electrical eNergy
Delivery Systems
• Problem of Safety, Conservation and poor
power quality can be solved by power
electronics based FRIENDS devices
• Main FRIENDS devices
• Static Current Limiter (SCL)
• Static Circuit Breaker (SCB)
• Static Transfer Switch (STS)
26
General concept of FRIENDS
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FRIENDS Network
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Quality Control Center
29
GTO-based SCL topology
ZnO Arrester
Iz
Ii
Let-Through Reactor
Inductor
Isw
If
Load Side
Supply Side
Back-to-back GTO Switch
30
GTO and VCB based SCB topology
ZnO Arrester
Iz
Ib
High-Speed
VCB
Isw
If
Load Side
Supply Side
Back-to-back GTO Switch
31
Thyristor based STS topology
Preferred
Source
Iz1
Zf
Alternative
Source
ZnO
ipp
Is1
FAULT
Zf
Tan
Tpp
ipn
Iz2
ZnO
iap
Tpn
Sw1
Ia
Critical
Load
ian
Tap
Sw2
Is2
Thyristor based STS topology
Preferred
Source
Iz1
Zf
Alternative
Source
ZnO
ipp
Is1
FAULT
Zf
Tan
Tpp
ipn
Iz2
ZnO
iap
Tpn
Sw1
Ia
Critical
Load
ian
Tap
Sw2
Is2
•
NaMPET: National Mission on
Power
Electronics
Technology
NaMPET is a national mission programme launched in November
2004 by the Department of Information Technology(DIT) under
Ministry of Communications & Information Technology, Government
of India.
• This five year programme is implemented through the Nodal Centre at
the Centre for Development of Advanced Computing,
Thiruvananthapuram.
• Premier Academic Institutions in the country, Manufacturing
Industries and User Industries of Power Electronics Systems
participate in this programme.
• A National Steering Committee comprising of eminent experts from
different agencies and institutions in India guides the activities of
NaMPET.
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NaMPET: Vision
• To provide the country with capability to become a
dominant player in Power Electronics Technology at the
international level.
• This is a National level R&D Programme facilitating
Research, Development, Deployment and
Commercialization of Power Electronics Technology by
enhancing the indigenous R&D expertise and
infrastructure in the country with active participation from
academic institutions and industries.
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NaMPET: Focus Areas
•
Power Quality Improvement / Smart power for
Digital Economy.
•Electric traction / Electric & Hybrid Electric
Vehicles / Automotive Electronics.
•Distributed power generation / Renewable energy
and Micro generator control.
•Advanced Magnetics / Energy Storage Systems.
•New topologies for Converter / Inverter
applications.
•New generation sensors for PE applications.
•Modeling / Simulation packages.
•Standard PE module with the state of the art
developments
Conclusions
The main contributions of the Power Electronics
and FRIENDS Devices for Safety, conservation and
improving the power quality can be summarized as
follows:
• Protection both appliance and life against
Fault and unhealthy conditions of Electrical
Energy System
• Mitigation of voltage sags and swells
• Power supply of different reliability
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Conclusions
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•
•
•
contd.
Interface to dispersed generation systems
Flexibility in Configuration of the System
Load Leveling and Energy Conservation
NaMPET: Vision
38
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