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POWERPOINT® LECTURE SLIDE PRESENTATION
by LYNN CIALDELLA, MA, MBA, The University of Texas at Austin
UNIT 1
6
PART A
Communication,
Integration,
and Homeostasis
HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY
AN INTEGRATED APPROACH
DEE UNGLAUB SILVERTHORN
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
FOURTH EDITION
About this Chapter
 Cell-to-cell communication
 Signal pathways
 Novel signal molecules
 Modulation of signal pathways
 Control pathways
 Response loops
 Feedback loops
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Cell-to-Cell Communication: Overview
 Physiological signals
 Electrical signals
 Changes in cell’s membrane potential
 Chemical signals
 Secreted by cells into ECF
 Responsible for most communication within the
body
 Target cells, or targets, receive signals
 Four basic methods of communication
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Cell-to-Cell Communication: Methods
Direct contact and local
cell-to-cell
communication
Gap junctions transfer
both chemical and
electrical signals
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Figure 6-1a
Cell-to-Cell Communication: Methods
Direct contact and
local cell-to-cell
communication
CAMs transfer
signals in both
directions
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Figure 6-1b
Cell-to-Cell Communication: Methods
Paracrine and autocrine are chemical signals
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Figure 6-1c
Cell-to-Cell Communication: Methods
Long distance cell-to-cell communication
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Figure 6-2a
Cell-to-Cell Communication: Methods
Neurotransmitters have a rapid effect
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Figure 6-2b
Cell-to-Cell Communication: Methods
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Figure 6-2c
Signal Pathways: Overview
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Figure 6-3
Signal Pathways: Receptor locations
Target cell receptors
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Figure 6-4 (1 of 2)
Signal Pathways: Receptor locations
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Figure 6-4 (2 of 2)
Signal Pathways: Membrane Receptors
Four categories of membrane receptors
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Figure 6-5
Signal Pathways: Signal Amplification
Transducers convert extracellular signals into
intracellular messages which create a response
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Figure 6-7
Signal Pathway: Biological Signal Transduction
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Figure 6-8
Signal Pathway: Signal Transduction
Steps of a cascade
Steps of signal
transduction
pathway form a
cascade
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Figure 6-9
Signal Pathway: Receptor Enzymes
Tyrosine kinase, an example of receptor-enzyme
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Figure 6-10
Signal Pathway: GPCR
 Membrane-spanning proteins
 Cytoplasmic tail linked to G protein, a three-part
transducer molecule
 When G proteins are activated, they
 Open ion channels in the membrane
 Alter enzyme activity on the cytoplasmic side of the
membrane
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
GPCR: Adenylyl Cyclase-cAMP
The G
proteincoupled
adenylyl
cyclasecAMP
system
G proteincoupled
receptor
1
One signal
molecule
2
Adenylyl
cyclase
1 Signal molecule binds to
G protein-linked receptor,
which activates the G protein.
2 G protein turns on adenylyl
cyclase, an amplifier enzyme.
3
ATP
3 Adenylyl cyclase converts
ATP to cyclic AMP.
G protein
cAMP
4
4 cAMP activates protein
kinase A.
5
5 Protein kinase A
phosphorylates other
proteins, leading ultimately
to a cellular response.
Protein
kinase A
Phosphorylated
protein
Cell
response
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Figure 6-11
GPCR: Adenylyl Cyclase-cAMP
G proteincoupled
receptor
1
One signal
molecule
1 Signal molecule binds to
G protein-linked receptor,
which activates the G protein.
G protein
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Figure 6-11, step 1
GPCR: Adenylyl Cyclase-cAMP
G proteincoupled
receptor
1
One signal
molecule
Adenylyl
cyclase
2
1 Signal molecule binds to
G protein-linked receptor,
which activates the G protein.
2 G protein turns on adenylyl
cyclase, an amplifier enzyme.
G protein
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 6-11, steps 1–2
GPCR: Adenylyl Cyclase-cAMP
G proteincoupled
receptor
1
One signal
molecule
2
Adenylyl
cyclase
1 Signal molecule binds to
G protein-linked receptor,
which activates the G protein.
2 G protein turns on adenylyl
cyclase, an amplifier enzyme.
ATP
3
3 Adenylyl cyclase converts
ATP to cyclic AMP.
G protein
cAMP
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 6-11, steps 1–3
GPCR: Adenylyl Cyclase-cAMP
G proteincoupled
receptor
1
One signal
molecule
2
Adenylyl
cyclase
1 Signal molecule binds to
G protein-linked receptor,
which activates the G protein.
2 G protein turns on adenylyl
cyclase, an amplifier enzyme.
3
ATP
3 Adenylyl cyclase converts
ATP to cyclic AMP.
G protein
cAMP
4
Protein
kinase A
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4 cAMP activates protein
kinase A.
Figure 6-11, steps 1–4
GPCR: Adenylyl Cyclase-cAMP
G proteincoupled
receptor
1
One signal
molecule
2
Adenylyl
cyclase
1 Signal molecule binds to
G protein-linked receptor,
which activates the G protein.
2 G protein turns on adenylyl
cyclase, an amplifier enzyme.
3
ATP
3 Adenylyl cyclase converts
ATP to cyclic AMP.
G protein
cAMP
4
4 cAMP activates protein
kinase A.
5
5 Protein kinase A
phosphorylates other
proteins, leading ultimately
to a cellular response.
Protein
kinase A
Phosphorylated
protein
Cell
response
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 6-11, steps 1–5
GPCR: The Phospholipase C System
Signal
molecule
Extracellular
fluid
1
Membrane phospholipid
Cell
membrane
3
2
PL-C
4
DAG
PK-C
Receptor
Protein + Pi
IP3
G protein
Intracellular
fluid
5
Ca2+ stores
Phosphorylated
protein
Ca2+
ER
Cellular
response
1 Signal molecule 2
activates receptor
and associated
G protein.
G protein activates 3 PL-C converts membrane 4
phospholipase C
phospholipids into
(PL-C), an amplifier
diacylglycerol (DAG), which
enzyme.
remains in the membrane,
and IP3, which diffuses
into the cytoplasm.
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KEY
PL-C
DAG
PK-C
IP3
ER
=
=
=
=
phospholipase C
diacylglycerol
protein kinase C
inositol
trisphosphate
= endoplasmic
reticulum
DAG activates protein 5
kinase C (PK-C), which
phosphorylates
proteins.
IP3 causes release
of Ca2+ from
organelles,
creating a
Ca2+ signal.
Figure 6-12
GPCR: The Phospholipase C System
Signal
molecule
Extracellular
fluid
1
Cell
membrane
Receptor
Intracellular
fluid
G protein
KEY
PL-C
DAG
PK-C
IP3
ER
=
=
=
=
phospholipase C
diacylglycerol
protein kinase C
inositol
trisphosphate
= endoplasmic
reticulum
1 Signal molecule
activates receptor
and associated
G protein.
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Figure 6-12, step 1
GPCR: The Phospholipase C System
Signal
molecule
Extracellular
fluid
1
Cell
membrane
2
PL-C
Receptor
Intracellular
fluid
G protein
KEY
PL-C
DAG
PK-C
IP3
ER
1 Signal molecule 2
activates receptor
and associated
G protein.
=
=
=
=
phospholipase C
diacylglycerol
protein kinase C
inositol
trisphosphate
= endoplasmic
reticulum
G protein activates
phospholipase C
(PL-C), an amplifier
enzyme.
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 6-12, steps 1–2
GPCR: The Phospholipase C System
Signal
molecule
Extracellular
fluid
1
Membrane phospholipid
3
2
PL-C
Receptor
G protein
Cell
membrane
DAG
Intracellular
fluid
IP3
KEY
PL-C
DAG
PK-C
IP3
ER
1 Signal molecule 2
activates receptor
and associated
G protein.
=
=
=
=
phospholipase C
diacylglycerol
protein kinase C
inositol
trisphosphate
= endoplasmic
reticulum
G protein activates 3 PL-C converts membrane
phospholipase C
phospholipids into
(PL-C), an amplifier
diacylglycerol (DAG), which
enzyme.
remains in the membrane,
and IP3, which diffuses
into the cytoplasm.
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 6-12, steps 1–3
GPCR: The Phospholipase C System
Signal
molecule
Extracellular
fluid
1
Membrane phospholipid
Cell
membrane
3
2
PL-C
4
DAG
PK-C
Receptor
G protein
Protein + Pi
IP3
Phosphorylated
protein
Cellular
response
1 Signal molecule 2
activates receptor
and associated
G protein.
G protein activates 3 PL-C converts membrane 4
phospholipase C
phospholipids into
(PL-C), an amplifier
diacylglycerol (DAG), which
enzyme.
remains in the membrane,
and IP3, which diffuses
into the cytoplasm.
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
KEY
PL-C
DAG
PK-C
IP3
ER
Intracellular
fluid
=
=
=
=
phospholipase C
diacylglycerol
protein kinase C
inositol
trisphosphate
= endoplasmic
reticulum
DAG activates protein
kinase C (PK-C), which
phosphorylates
proteins.
Figure 6-12, steps 1–4
GPCR: The Phospholipase C System
Signal
molecule
Extracellular
fluid
1
Membrane phospholipid
Cell
membrane
3
2
PL-C
4
DAG
PK-C
Receptor
Protein + Pi
IP3
G protein
Intracellular
fluid
5
Ca2+ stores
Phosphorylated
protein
Ca2+
ER
Cellular
response
1 Signal molecule 2
activates receptor
and associated
G protein.
G protein activates 3 PL-C converts membrane 4
phospholipase C
phospholipids into
(PL-C), an amplifier
diacylglycerol (DAG), which
enzyme.
remains in the membrane,
and IP3, which diffuses
into the cytoplasm.
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
KEY
PL-C
DAG
PK-C
IP3
ER
=
=
=
=
phospholipase C
diacylglycerol
protein kinase C
inositol
trisphosphate
= endoplasmic
reticulum
DAG activates protein 5
kinase C (PK-C), which
phosphorylates
proteins.
IP3 causes release
of Ca2+ from
organelles,
creating a
Ca2+ signal.
Figure 6-12, steps 1–5
Signal Pathway: Receptor-Channel
How ions
create
electrical
signals
Ions
Extracellular
signal
molecules
1
Ion
channel
G proteincoupled
receptor
2
G protein
Change in membrane
permeability to
Na+, K+, Cl–
3
Intracellular
signal molecules
1 Receptor-channels open or
close in response to signal
molecule binding.
2 Some channels are directly
linked to G proteins.
3 Other ligand-gated channels
respond to intracellular
second messenger.
Creates electrical
signal
Voltage-sensitive
protein
Cellular
response
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Figure 6-13
Signal Pathway: Receptor-Channel
Ions
Extracellular
signal
molecules
1
1 Receptor-channels open or
close in response to signal
molecule binding.
Ion
channel
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Figure 6-13, step 1
Signal Pathway: Receptor-Channel
Ions
Extracellular
signal
molecules
1
Ion
channel
2
G proteincoupled
receptor
G protein
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1 Receptor-channels open or
close in response to signal
molecule binding.
2 Some channels are directly
linked to G proteins.
Figure 6-13, steps 1–2
Signal Pathway: Receptor-Channel
Ions
Extracellular
signal
molecules
1
Ion
channel
2
G proteincoupled
receptor
G protein
3
Intracellular
signal molecules
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
1 Receptor-channels open or
close in response to signal
molecule binding.
2 Some channels are directly
linked to G proteins.
3 Other ligand-gated channels
respond to intracellular
second messenger.
Figure 6-13, steps 1–3
Signal Pathway: Receptor-Channel
Ions
Extracellular
signal
molecules
1
Ion
channel
G proteincoupled
receptor
2
G protein
Change in membrane
permeability to
Na+, K+, Cl–
3
Intracellular
signal molecules
1 Receptor-channels open or
close in response to signal
molecule binding.
2 Some channels are directly
linked to G proteins.
3 Other ligand-gated channels
respond to intracellular
second messenger.
Creates electrical
signal
Voltage-sensitive
protein
Cellular
response
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 6-13
Signal Pathway: Signal Transduction
Summary map of signal transduction systems
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 6-14

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