426.13_Final_Present..

Report
Near Earth Asteroid
Detection System
Technology Validation Mission
Design Review
AERO 426 – Space Systems Design
Advisor
Dr. Hyland
Project Manager Assistant Project Manager
Jesus Orozco
Jeff Campbell
1
Table of Contents
Overview…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3
Background Information………………………………………………………………………………….... 4
Mission Statement………………………………………………………………………………………….. 8
Requirements……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 9
Design Results……………………………………………………………………………………………… 11
Mission Overview……………………………………………………………………………………………14
Observation Candidates…………………………………………………………………………………....15
Light Gathering Optics……………………………………………………………………………………... 22
Formation………………………………………………………………………………………………….....30
GNC & Communication…………………………………………………………………………………..... 39
Propulsion…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 48
Power & Thermal…………………………………………………………………………………………… 52
Structures………………………………………………………………………………………………….... 60
Mass Estimate…………………………………………………………………………………………….... 69
Budget & Schedule………………………………………………………………………………………….70
Conclusions……………………………………………………………………………………………….....73
Appendix I: References…………………………………………………………………………………..... 75
Appendix II: Asteroid Occultations………………………………………………………………………... 78
2
Overview
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Background Information
Mission Statement
Introduction
Requirements
Mission Overview
Observation Candidates & Performance Evaluation Group
Light Gathering Optics Design Group
Formation Design Group
GNC & Communications Group
Propulsion Group
Power & Thermal Group
Structures Group
Budget & Schedule
Conclusions
3
Background Information
• Many objects hit Earth all the time
• Sometimes these objects are large enough we
can notice them and they can cause damages
– Chelyanbinsk February 15, 2013
4
Conventional Method of
Observing
Basic technique:
A set of observers note the time and
duration that a star disappears from sight.
Then plot the ground track of the asteroid
during the occultations and get the asteroid
shape (silhouette)
This seems very straightforward, so what’s left to
learn?
Answer: The simple technique assumes the asteroid
is big enough (10s to 100s of km) to cast a sharp
shadow. “Small” asteroids (like Apophis) may create
“interference patterns”, not well defined shadows!
5
5
NEA Detection Summary
Diameter(m) >1000
1000-140
140-40
40-1
Distance
(km) for
which F>100
(=0.5 m)
>20 million
< 20
million,
> 400,000
<400,000
(Lunar orbit)
>32,000
(GEO orbit)
<32,000
>20
H (mag)
17.75
17.75-22.0
22.0-24.75
>24.75
N estimated 966
`14,000
~285,000
??
N observed
899
4,557
2,259
1,685
O/E
93%
~33%
~1%
??
Only 1% detected, and if you wait for sharp shadows, it’s
probably too late
6
Stellar Occultation
System
Array of light collecting
apertures, each equipped
with a photo detector
Distant
star
Shadow pattern
Resolved
silhouette
I k  k  1,..., N   Measurements
of intensities relative to ambient
intensity  U k  xk 
Phase
Retrieval
algorithm
2
U  x
Huygens
Fresnel
Inversion
7
Mission Statement
The mission objective is to validate
advanced stellar occultation technology
capable of detecting small, potentially
hazardous Near Earth Asteroids.
8
Top-Level Requirements
• Address the complete system, including the
CubeSats, their formation, data links, ground
system, etc.
• Each CubeSat must host a 10cm diameter
telescope and light intensity detector.
• Assume visible light with wavelength centered at 0.5
µm
• Plan for a minimum of 12 and a maximum of 96
CubeSats.
• Ground station in CS
9
Top-Level Requirements
• Deploy the CubeSats in LEO with orbit lifetime no
greater than 18 months
• CubeSat array must be capable of recording the
shadow pattern of a 40m asteroid at 1 AU distance
• Intensity detectors should be capable of recording light
from a 12th magnitude star with Signal-to-Noise Ratio
(SNR) of at least 10. (~80 observations possible).
• Obtain silhouette of asteroids in the 40 to 140m range
with at least 10 pixels across.
• Cost < $15M
10
Design Results
•
•
•
•
•
Two satellite designs: Optic and Master
15 Optic Satellites, 1 Master
Y-formation in Low Earth Orbit at 450km
Independent Pegasus Launch
Deployable Cassegrain Optic with
photodiode
11
Optic Satellite
Master Satellite
12
13
Mission Overview
•
•
•
•
•
Planning & Development
Production
Initial Launch
Normal Mission Operations
End-of-life Disposal
14
Observation Candidates
Technical Group Lead
John Maksimik
Team Members
Ramon Calzada
Kimberly Ellsworth
Jordan Heard
Kristin Nichols
Jesus Orozco
15
Observation Candidates
• Technology: occultation of asteroid within 40 -140 m diameter
• Technology Validation: Most known occultations involve large
asteroids
– Although the technology will be validated on larger asteroids, the array
is sized for 40 – 140 m
• Instead of occulting a large asteroid, we will occult the first
ripple coming off of the shadow of the asteroid
– Use the shadow data to determine the distance to the asteroid and the
diameter of the asteroid
– Adequate SNR is necessary to observe the shadow ripples
16
Shadow Ripple
• The length of the first ripple is proportional to  where  is the
distance to the asteroid and  is the wavelength.
• The intensity height of the first ripple is used to find the size of the
asteroid.
• Occultations by the Moon are also possible.
Intensity
Length
17
Signal to Noise Ratio
• Constant
array width
of 3.75km
• Dark count
of 365kHz
total
*Diameter- circular
distance around array
18
List of Asteroids
Asteroid
Date
Diameter
Ripple Length
Star Magnitude
241 Germania
22 Jan 2014
184 km
427 m
9.4
7 Iris
27 Jan 2014
253 km
432 m
8.7
194 Prokne
4 Feb 2014
167 km
434 m
9.2
51 Nemausa
23 Mar 2014
166 km
397 m
9.7
172 Baucis
24 Mar 2014
67 km
435 m
6.7
51 Nemausa
28 Mar 2014
166 km
404 m
7.7
776 Berbericia
21 Apr 2014
150 km
504 m
10.1
105 Artemis
3 May 2014
116 km
410 m
7.7
34 Circe
4 May 2014
117 km
383 m
7.4
206 Hersilia
7 May 2014
94 km
409 m
7.5
19
List of Asteroids
Asteroid
Date
Diameter
Ripple Length
Star Magnitude
451 Patientia
12 May 2014
235 km
445 m
8.5
13 Egeria
1 Jun 2014
215 km
374 m
9.6
103 Hera
30 Jun 2014
83 km
358 m
6.1
386 Siegena
2 Aug 2014
208 km
409 m
9.8
409 Aspasia
21 Aug 2014
183 km
365 m
10.4
81 Terpsichore
4 Oct 2014
134 km
389 m
11.0
270 Anahita
7 Oct 2014
47 km
279 m
9.9
238 Hypatia
24 Nov 2014
169 km
401 m
11.0
7 Iris
28 Nov 2014
253 km
431 m
10.1
3 Juno
28 Nov 2014
290 km
346 m
9.0
702 Alauda
18 Dec 2014
219 km
425 m
6.2
20
241 Germania
Ripple length: 427 m
Date: 22 Jan 2014
Caribbean, Mexico
Star: TYC 1354-00434-1 mag
9.4
Diameter: 184 km
21
Light Gathering Optics
Technical Group Lead
Chris McCrory
Team Members
Emily Boster
Jeffrey Campbell
Daniel Charles
Joseph Duggan
Vianni Ricano
22
Solid works model
23
Zemacs Optical Design
• Boom Length
• Secondary diameter
• Primary Mirror
Diameter
• Radii of curvature of
primary and
secondary mirrors
• Focal Length
• Spot Diagram
• Distance between
primary and focal
plane
24
Cassegrain Telescope
Mirror Type
Diameter
Radius of Curvature
Primary Mirror
7.0 cm
-64.7421 cm
Secondary Mirror
.52 cm
-5.0125 cm
Distance Between Mirrors: 30.0 cm
Distance Between Primary and Photodiode: 3.0 cm
Focal Length: 6.0 m
11/26/2013
25
Spot Diagrams
Radius
235.7 μm
26
SensL MiniSM Silicon
Photomultiplier 30035 series
•
Avalanche Photodiode set in Geiger mode
Spectral Range
400-1000 nm
Peak Wavelength
500 nm
Bandwidth
20 MHz
Dark Count Rate
365 kHz
Dark Current
100 nA
Active Area
3X3 mm2
Operating Temperature Range
0 C - +30 C
Power Requirements
+5V
Price per Unit
$ 700
Total Price (15 optic sats)
$ 10,500
27
Photomultiplier
Weight
70 g
Dimensions (H X W X L)
45 X 35 X40 mm3
• Built in Peltier
thermoelectric
cooling system
• Coaxial Cable
28
Formation Design Group
Technical Group Lead
Joshua Kinsey
Team Members
Hope Russell
Candace Hernandez
Jose Long
Brian Musslewhite
Brigid Flood
29
Formation
10 pixels
120
°
120
°
120
°
10 pixels
30
Euler Hill Reference
Frame
31
Euler Hill Approximation
Non-dimensionalized equations of motion for the perturbing
force in the local Hill frame:
2
d 2u
dv
1  P 
 2  3u 

 Fx
2
df
df
rc m  2 
2
d 2v
du
1  P 
2 

 Fy
2
df
df rc m  2 
2
d 2w
1  P 
w 

 Fz
2
df
rc m  2 
Solution for Force Free Motion and Impulse Conditions:
sin f
 u  f    4  3cos f




cos f
u
f



  3sin f
 v  f    6  f  sin f  2 1  cos f



 v  f    6 1  cos f
 2sin f

  
w
f



 
0
0
 w  f   

 
0
0
where f  f  f 0 , and f 0  f  t 0  .
0 2 1  cos f
0


2sin f
0
0
1 4 sin f  3 f
0
0
4 cos f  3
0
0
0
cos f
0
0
 sin f
0   u  f0  


0   u  f 0  

0   v  f0  


 v f0  
0 


  w  f0  
sin f 


cos f   w   f 0  
32
Euler Hill Approximation
u  f   4 u  f 0   2v   f 0   (3u  f 0   2v   f 0  )cos f  u   f 0  sin f
u   f   u   f 0  cos f   3u  f 0   2v   f 0   sin f
v  f   2u   f 0   v  f 0    6u  f 0   3v   f 0   f  2u   f 0  cos f   6u  f 0   4v   f 0   sin f
v   f     6u  f 0   3v   f 0     6u  f 0   4v   f 0   cos f  2u   f 0  sin f
w  f   w  f 0  cos f  w   f 0  sin f
w   f   w   f 0  cos f  w  f 0  sin f
33
Formation Deployment
120°
120°
120°
34
Cube Sate Delta-V
Calculation
Deployment ΔV vs. Asteroid Radius
80
Asteroid radius, a (m)
70
60
50
40
30
20
Delta-V, Inner Circle
10
Delta-V, Outer Circle
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
ΔV (m/s)
Thruster Specs
• Propellant volume = 95 cm3
• Propellant density = 0.556 g/cm3
• Isp = 65 sec
• Maximum Mass (full Cube Sat) = 4 kg
 Δvmax = 8.411 m/s
35
Station Keeping
• Perturbations for LEO orbits
– Atmospheric Drag
– J2 Effect
• Only J2 Effect considered for station keeping
calculations
• Orbit eccentricity determined by Maximum
Radial Component of Formation Width
divided by Nominal Orbit Radius
• Delta-Vs for 1 year is 0.0496km/s
• Δm/m = .00036%
36
Deployment Vehicle
Delta-V Calculation
• Assumed a simple two body rendezvous
problem and a designed elliptical orbit
a
b
• Calculated using conservation of energy:
 2  2
− =
2 

• Delta-V values ranged from 350.332 m/s
to 350.362 m/s
GNC & Communications
Techincal Group Lead
Josh Jennings
Team Members
Chris Cederberg
Ken Cundiff
Nicholas Gawloski
Kristina Loftin
Michael Young
38
GNC – Control Package
• Blue Canyon XACT
– Complete GNC Package
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Reaction Wheels
Torque Rods
Sun Sensors
Star Tracker
IMU
Magnetometer
GPS
– Pointing Accuracy: 0.007 °
– $110,000 (with GPS)
– Whole system not flight tested, just the
star tracker
Blue Canyon
XACT
39
GNC – Control Package
• Issues
– Very expensive; propagated over many craft
– Need extremely high pointing accuracy
• Conclusions
– XACT meets minimum specifications
– Will use XACT for GNC
40
GNC – Dynamics Control
Verification
• Control Response from Simulink
– PID Control using Reaction Wheels in XACT
– Rotated to some arbitrary angles
• Shows ability of XACT Reaction Wheels to change orientation of 3U cubesat
• Does not factor in environmental disturbances
41
Telecommunications
• Downlink: Mother Sat to Earth
– S-Band Transmitter w/ patch antenna
•
•
•
•
•
Gain: 8 dBi
Beamwidth: 60°
2.4 - 2.483 GHz
1 Mbps
Link Margin: 6.1 dB
Power
Transmitting Power
System Losses
Antana Gain
EIRP (Effective Isotropic Radiaded Power)
Frequency (S-Band)
Free Space Loss (max distance 1944 km)
Atm/Prec Losses
System Noise Temperature
Total Propagation Loss
Receive Antenna Gain
System losses
Eb/No
Minumum for 10e-5 BER
Margin
2W
2 dB
8 dB
9 dB
2.44 GHz
166 dB
1 dB
26 dbk
193 dB
31.5 dB
2 dB
14.1 dB
9.6 dB
4.5
42 dB
Telecommunications
• Uplink: Earth to Mother Sat
– ISIS VHF downlink / UHF uplink Full Duplex
Transceiver
• Frequency
– UHF: 400-450 MHz
» 9600 bps
– Deployable UHF/VHF antenna
• UHF Gain: -6 dBi
43
Link Budget
Uplink
Transmitting Power
5W
System Losses
Antana Gain
EIRP (Effective Isotropic Radiaded Power)
3 dB
16.4 dB
20.4 dB
Frequency (S-Band)
Data Rate
Free Space Loss (max distance 1944 km)
Atm/Prec Losses
System Noise Temperature
Total Propagation Loss
425 MHz
9600 kbps
166 dB
1 dB
26 dbk
193 dB
Receive Antenna Gain
System losses
Eb/No
Minumum for 10e-5 BER
Margin
-6 dB
2 dB
24.3 dB
9.6 dB
14.7 dB
44
Telecommunication
• Crosslink: Eye Sat to Mother Sat
– ISIS UHF downlink / VHF uplink Full Duplex
Transceiver
• Frequency
– UHF: 400-450 MHz
» 9600 bps
– VFH: 130-160 MHz
» 1200 bps
– Deployable UHF/VHF antenna
• UHF Gain: -6 dBi
• VHF Gain: -5 dBi
45
Link Budget Cross Link
UHF/VHF
Crosslink UHF
Transmitting Power
System Losses
Antana Gain
EIRP (Effective Isotropic Radiaded
Power)
Frequency (UHF)
Data Rate
Free Space Loss (max distance 5 km)
Atm/Prec Losses
System Noise Temperature
Total Propagation Loss
Receive Antenna Gain
System losses
Eb/No
Minumum for 10e-5 BER
Margin
500 mW
3 dB
-6 dB
-12 dB
425 MHz
9600 kbps
98 dB
0 dB
26 dbk
124 dB
-6 dB
2 dB
43.8 dB
9.6 dB
34.2 dB
Crosslink VHF
Transmitting Power
System Losses
Antana Gain
EIRP (Effective Isotropic Radiaded
Power)
Frequency (VHF)
Data Rate
Free Space Loss (max distance 5 km)
Atm/Prec Losses
System Noise Temperature
Total Propagation Loss
Receive Antenna Gain
System losses
Eb/No
Minumum for 10e-5 BER
Margin
500 mW
3 dB
-5 dB
-11 dB
425 MHz
9600 kbps
98 dB
0 dB
26 dbk
124 dB
-5 dB
2 dB
52.8 dB
9.6 dB
43.2 dB
46
Propulsion
Technical Group Lead
Evan Siracki
Team Members
Fernando Aguilera
John Albers
Randall Reams
Nicholas Matcek
James Kim
47
Launch Vehicle
Pegasus XL
•
•
•
•
443 kg payload into LEO
Launch cost - $11 million
Diameter - 1.27 m
88% success rate
– 100% success rate since
1996.
• Allows for direct insertion
into orbit
48
CubeSat Propulsion
• Most of the cubesats currently in orbit do not
have an active propulsion system. However, in
order to keep our cubesats in formation small
amounts of thrust are required to compensate
for translational perturbations. This is necessary
to allow for formation flying.
49
VACCO Micro-Thruster
• VACCO/JPL Butane Micro-Thruster
– Cold gas thruster
– 5 multi-directional thrusters, ideal for translational perturbation
corrections
– Low power consumption: 100mW-4W peak
– Low mass: 509g (50 g of propellant)
– Low Isp: 70s
– Vacuum tested but not flight tested
50
Power & Thermal
Technical Group Lead
Haylie Peterson
Team Members
Jeff Ham
Jonathan Lagrone
Lisa Malone
Evan Marcotte
Michael Wilkinson
51
Power Estimate
Technical Teams
Power Required
(Optic)
Power Required
(Communication)
Propulsion
2 watts
2 watts
GNC
2 watts
2 watts
Telecommunications
2 watts
7 watts
Optics
2.5 watts
2.5 watts
Optic Boom
15 watts
0 watts
CPU
0.3 watts
0.3 watts
Total Power
24.3 watts
14.3 watts
• All calculations based on peak power required
52
BP4 Battery Pack
• Easily fits in CubeSat
• Provides enough power for internal components
• Battery is rated for 30 W maximum.
53
P31US Power Module
• 6 User-controlled output controls
• Photovoltaic power conversion up to 30 W
• Can accommodate panels with up to 7
solar cells in a string
54
CPU-NanoMind A712D
• ARM7 processor - 8-40 Mhz
• RTC - real time clock w/backup
power keeps time 30-60 minutes
without external power
• MicroSD socket for up to 2GB
storage
• On-board magnetometer
• 6x sun-sensor inputs
55
P110 Series GaAs
Solar Panels
• $2800/panel
• Gallium Arsenide
• Tends to have less noise than
silicon (especially at high
frequencies)
• Emit light efficiently
• Highly resistive (due to wide
bandgap)
• High-cost, high-efficiency
• Specifications per panel
• 30% efficiency
• Up to 2.4 Watts absorption per orbit
• Operational temperature: -40 C to +85
C
• Compatibility: GomSpace NanoPower
P31US power supply
56
THERMAL PROTECTION
MULTI-LAYER INSULATION
Max Thickness = 1mm
• For thermal protection of the internal components of the CubeSat, we chose
Multi-Layer Insulation with Kapton film for the outer layer and multiple layers
of, a Dacron web, a Mylar film, and Deposited Aluminum in series for 2-35
layers.
• With the thermal protection the maximum temperature inside the CubeSat is
355.9 K and minimum temperature 273.3 K, assuming the heat given off by
internal components is 15 W.
57
Risk Assessment
1. Solar panels could get hit by space debris and/or possibly fail
i. Moderate-low (0.4)
ii. To mitigate this there is some redundancy because there are several
solar panels on the cubeSat. Therefore, if one or two soalr panels fail
enough power can still be provided to the cubeSat
2. Tear in the MLI could cause internal temperatures to be higher or lower than
expected
i. Low-High (0.3)
ii. Using a thicker MLI would help prevent this if debris were to get
through the solar panels
3. If power module fails then the battery pack could become overcharged,
cause the batteries to heat up, and lower the battery life.
i. Low-High (0.3)
ii. Some power controls could be done by the CPU in case of an
emergency failure of the power module.
58
Structures Group
Technical Group Lead
Tanner Black
Team Members
Veronica Betts
Paden Coats
David Kostecka
Patrick Whalen
Taylor Yeary
59
Major Structural Decisions
Optics Satellite
Optics Satellite
Material
6000 series Aluminum
Weight
<300 grams
Dimensions
10 cm x 10 cm x 340 cm (per CubeSat-Reqs.pdf)
Telescope Support
Material
Graphite Epoxy Shell
Total Weight
<240 grams
Units
3
Collapsed Dimensions
88 mm x 88 mm x 69 mm
Extended Dimensions
88 mm x 88 mm x 203 mm
60
Major Structural Decisions
Master
Master Satellite
Material
6000 series Aluminum
Weight
<200 grams
Dimensions
10 cm x 10 cm x 200 cm (per CubeSat-Reqs.pdf)
61
Optics Satellite
Collapsed/Exploded
62
Optics Satellite Breakdown
Breakdown
1
11
10
9
8
2
7
6
5
4
3
1
Telescope Assembly
2
Satellite Structure
3
Thruster
4
GNC Components (Satellite as well)
5
Battery Pack
6
Transceiver
7
CPU
8
Optics Sensor
9
Large Optics Mirror
10
Telescope Motor
11
Threaded Rod for Motor
63
Master Satellite
Shown without wall structure for
easier viewing
64
Master Satellite Breakdown
Breakdown
1
1
Thruster
2
Telecommunication Units
3
Telecommunication Units
4
Telecommunication Units
4
5
Battery Pack
5
6
GNC Components
7
Satellite
2
3
6
7
65
Risk
• Telescope Motor Redundancy
– Risk: Medium – High (0.5)
– Mitigation: Multiple motors in case of failure
• Structural Failure of Telescope
– Risk: Low – Medium (0.2)
– Mitigation: Redundancy in Telescope satellites
• Component Placement
– Risk: Medium – Medium (0.3)
– Mitigation: Look into using bulkheads/dry bays to
separate contrasting components
66
Further Considerations
•
•
•
•
Loading Profiles
Structural Frequency Analysis
Detailed attachment design
Fabrication and Assembly Instructions
67
Satellite Masses
Optics Satellite
Master Satellite
System
Mass (grams)
System
Mass (grams)
Light Gathering/Optics
162
Structures
300
Structures
606.22
Propulsion
509
Propulsion
509
Power and Thermal
437
Power and Thermal
437
GNC/Communications
885
GNC/Communications
1015
Total
2,599.22
Total
2,261
68
Estimated Costs
Component Type
Cost (Optic/ Master)
CubeSat Frame
$7,500/$7500
Telecommunications
$17,776/$40,355
Control Package
$110,000/$110,000
Solar Panels
$38,663/$27,617
Power System
$9,383/$9,383
CPU
$6,554/$24,000
Optics
$10000/$0
Propulsion
$17,250/$17,250
69
Estimated Costs
Specific Costs
Cost per T/N Satellite
$217,126
Cost per Optic Satellite
$236,105
Launch/Manufacturing Costs
$74,400/Satellite
Total Cost for the16 Satellites
$4,949,101
Launch Costs
$11,000,000
*These estimates are based on cubesat component
costs from various component vendors and
manufacturers.
70
Mission Schedule
Element
Typically Driven By
Date
Planning & Development
Funding constraints
System need date
Two years after start
Production
Funding constraints
Technology development
System need date
Three-Four years after start
Initial Launch
Launch availability
System need date
Five years after start
Normal Mission
Operations
Planned operational life
Satellite lifetime (18 months)
Six years after start
End-of-Life Disposal
Burn back to atmosphere
Seven years after start
1st Half
Start
1/1/14
Planning & Development
1/1/14 - 12/31/15
1st Half
1st Half
Production
1/1/16 - 6/1/17
1st Half
1st Half
1st Half
Initial
Launch
1/1/18 6/29/18
1st Half
Finish
End-of-Life 1/1/20
Disposal
7/1/19 1/1/20
Normal Mission Operations
1/1/18 - 12/31/19
71
Design Conclusions
• Mission Design: 15 Optic Satellites and 1 Master
• Optic satellite gathers occultation data, the
master satellite communicates data to Earth.
• Deployable Cassegrain Optics with photodiode
• Y-formation in Low Earth Orbit at 450km
• Independent Pegasus Launch
• Total Satellite Costs: $4,949,101 for 16 satellites
• Launch Costs: $11,000,000
72
Technology Validation
• NEA Occultation- Validate the use of
stellar occultation to characterize Near
Earth Asteroids
• Formation Flying of CubesatsDemonstrate the dynamics and feasibility
of the use of multiple cubesats working
together in formation in pursuit of a single
goal
73
Questions?
74
Appendix I
75
References
[1]
[2]
[3]
J. R. Wertz and W. J. Larson, Space Mission Analysis And Design, Hawthorn: Microcosm
Press, 2010.
"2014 Best Asteroid Occultation Events," 27 May 2013. [Online]. Available:
http://www.asteroidoccultation.com/2014-Best-Events.htm. [Accessed November 2013].
[4]
Wikipedia, "Pegasus (rocket)," [Online]. Available:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pegasus_(rocket).
J. Mueller, H. Richard and J. Ziemer, "SURVEY OF PROPULSION TECHNOLOGIES
APPLICABLE TO CUBESATS," [Online]. Available: http://trsnew.jpl.nasa.gov/dspace/bitstream/2014/41627/1/10-1646.pdf.
[5]
V. Industries, "A Micro-Propulsion Systems for CubeSats". Patent 6,334,301, 27 April 2006.
[6]
"HJOL.COM," Harold Johnson Optical Laboratories, [Online]. Available: http://www.hjol.com/.
[Accessed 29 November 2013].
76
Component Selection
Blue Canyon XACT (GNC Package)
http://bluecanyontech.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/BCT-XACT-datasheet-1.5.pdf
Deployable Antenna
http://www.cubesatshop.com/index.php?page=shop.product_details&flypage=flypage.tpl&product_id=66&cat
egory_id=6&option=com_virtuemart&Itemid=70
ISIS UHF downlink / VHF uplink Full Duplex Transceiver
http://www.cubesatshop.com/index.php?page=shop.product_details&flypage=flypage.tpl&product_id=11&cat
egory_id=5&option=com_virtuemart&Itemid=67
ISIS VHF downlink / UHF uplink Full Duplex Transceiver
http://www.cubesatshop.com/index.php?page=shop.product_details&flypage=flypage.tpl&product_id=73&cat
egory_id=5&option=com_virtuemart&Itemid=67
CubeSat S-Band Transmitter
http://www.clyde-space.com/cubesat_shop/communication_systems/301_cubesat-s-band-transmitter
S-Band Patch Antenna
http://www.clyde-space.com/cubesat_shop/communication_systems/302_s-band-patch-antenna
Components
http://gomspace.com/index.php?p=products
MLI
http://www.dunmore.com/products/multi-layer-films.html
77
Appendix II
78
7 Iris
Ripple length: 432 m
Date: 27 Jan 2014
N Brazil
Star: TYC 0590-01325-1 mag
8.7
79
Diameter: 253 km
194 Prokne
Ripple length: 434 m
Date: 4 Feb 2014
Brazil, Colombia
Star: TYC 0252-01354-1 mag
9.2
Diameter: 167 km
80
51 Nemausa
Ripple length: 397m
Date: 23 Mar 2014
Caribbean, Mexico
Star: HIP 31495 mag 9.7
Diameter: 166 km 81
172 Baucis
Ripple length: 435m
Date: 24 Mar 2014
Star: HIP 96111 mag 6.7
Diameter: 67 km
82
51 Nemausa
Ripple length: 404 m
Date: 28 Mar 2014
Star: HIP 32049 mag
7.7
Diameter: 166 km 83
776 Berbericia
Ripple length: 504m
Date: 21 Apr 2014
SE USA
Star: TYC 2426-01323-1 mag
10.1 Diameter: 150 km
84
105 Artemis
Ripple length: 410m
Date: 3 May 2014
NW Brazil, Peru
Star: HIP 106110 mag 7.7
Diameter: 116 km
85
34 Circe
Ripple length: 383 m
Date: 4 May 2014
Peru, Ecuador
Star: HIP 84647 mag 7.4
Diameter: 117 km 86
206 Hersilia
Ripple length: 409 m
Date: 7 May 2014
N Australia, Indonesia
Star: HIP 88855 mag 7.5
Diameter: 94 km 87
451 Patientia
Ripple length: 445 m
Date: 12 May 2014
Japan, China, India
Star: HIP 64387 mag 8.5
Diameter: 235 km 88
13 Egeria
Ripple length: 374 m
Date: 1 Jun 2014
New Guinea, N Australia
Star: TYC 7353-02144-1 mag 9.
Diameter: 215 km
89
103 Hera
Ripple length: 358 m
Date: 30 Jun 2014
Africa, Brazil, Bolivia, Chile
Star: HIP 91781 mag 6.1
Diameter: 83 km
90
386 Siegena
Ripple length: 409 m
Date: 2 Aug 2014
Taiwan, SE Asia
Star: TYC 0433-00335-1 mag 9.
Diameter: 208 km
91
409 Aspasia
Ripple length: 365 m
Date: 21 Aug 2014
Taiwan, SE Asia, India
Star: TYC 1137-00851-1 mag 10
Diameter: 183 km
92
81 Terpsichore
Ripple length: 389 m
Date: 4 Oct 2014
W USA, Hawaii
Star: TYC 2410-01358-1 mag 11
Diameter: 134 km
93
270 Anahita
Ripple length: 279 m
Date: 7 Oct 2014
Russia, Middle East, Africa
Star: HIP 113909 mag 9.9
Diameter: 47 km
94
238 Hypatia
Ripple length: 401 m
Date: 24 NOV 2014
Japan, China, SE Asia, South Af
Star: TYC 0157-01065-1 mag 11
95
Diameter: 169 km
7 Iris
Ripple length: 431 m
Date: 28 NOV 2014
Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador
Star: HIP 53745 mag 10.1
Diameter: 253 km
96
3 Juno
Ripple length: 346 m
Date: 28 NOV 2014
SE Asia, India, Middle East
Star: HIP 43790 mag 9.0
Diameter: 290 km
97
702 Alauda
Ripple length: 425 m
Date: 18 DEC 2014
East Australia
Star: HIP 13832 mag 6.2
Diameter: 219 km
98

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