INFORMATION PROCESSING: Learning & Memory Learning is any change in the content or organization of long-term memory or behavior caused by experience Consumer behavior is largely learned behavior. Cognitive vs. Behavioral Learning Behavioral Learning: things in the environment influence learning 2 approaches: - Classical conditioning - Pavlov - passive, reaction focused (if this stimulus, then this cognition & response) - Operant conditioning - Skinner - Active (if this behavior, then this cognition & response) Cognitive Learning: - involves processing information purposeful learning or learning through experience e.g., iconic, reasoning, vicarious Behavioral Learning: Classical Conditioning • association of stimuli whereby “natural” responses of one stimulus are transferred to a “neutral” stimulus Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) (meat, popular music) Conditioned Stimulus (CS) (bell, pen) Unconditioned Response (UCR) (saliva, positive emotion) Conditioned Response (CR) (saliva, positive emotion) Occurs based on the learning of the association between the bell and the meat Requirements for CC: 1. CS must precede UCS: show product prior to UCS 2. Product must be paired consistently with UCS (repetition) 3. CS and UCS must be relevant to the consumer The Classical Conditioning Framework Elicits Olympics (unconditioned stimulus) Positive Affect (unconditioned response) Paired via Advertising Brand that is paired with the Olympics (conditioned stimulus) Positive Affect (conditioned response) Elicits Food Conditioning • Preschool children • Specific location with rotating light and song for snack time • Eventually associated the light and song with snack time and eating • After lunch one day, turned the light on and played the song • Children started eating again How does this relate to healthy eating behavior? Food conditioning issues? reward, guilt, punishment, comfort Behavioral Learning: Operant Conditioning Operant/Instrumental Conditioning Concerned w/changing the frequency of a behavior by changing the consequences associated with the behavior Positive Reinforcement – reward strengthens response Negative Reinforcement – removal of negative event avoids negative outcome Extinction – positive event removed and weakens response Punishment – negative events follow a response Cognitive Learning Iconic Rote Learning: Learning a concept or the association between two or more concepts in the absence of conditioning. Repetition is critical to “getting” the link. Observational/Vicarious Learning/Modeling: Involves observing the outcomes of others’ behaviors and adjusting behavior accordingly. Consumers can also use imagery to anticipate the outcome of various courses of action “Imagine yourself on the beach of this secluded island …”). Fear Appeals: “This could happen to you …” Analytical Reasoning: The most complex form of cognitive learning. Individuals engage in creative thinking to restructure and recombine existing information as well as new information to form new associations and concepts. Information from a credible source that contradicts or challenges one’s existing beliefs often triggers reasoning If you let me play … Role of Memory in Learning Memory – process of acquiring information and storing it over time so that it will be available when we need it Role of Memory in Learning STM: Miller’s Law: 7+/- 2 chunks • What’s a “chunk” of information? – It is possible to retain more information in short-term memory if it can be categorized in a meaningful way. • For example, try to remember the following letters: FCLJFRKJAIBBIDF Now, let’s rearrange those letters into more meaningful “chunks”: FBI CIA LBJ JFK FDR How easy it to remember this information now? return Building links in the consumer’s memory Schematic (semantic or associative) Memory Networks What are the first three things that come to mind when you see this logo? - For each of these things, name three things that come to mind. What comes to mind now? What are the first three things that come to mind when you see this logo? - For each of these things, name three things that come to mind. How many ads do you remember seeing in the last week? Von Restorff Effect: A unique item in a homogenous array is more easily remembered Response Environment: Memory is enhanced when recall conditions match learning conditions How do you minimize forgetting? Zeigarnik Effect: Occurs when somebody involved in a task is interrupted Affect: People recall more information when in a good mood Nostalgia • Marketers often evoke memories of the “good ol’ days” by marketing products with nostalgic images. Though it seems this strategy targets only middle-aged or older consumers, it can be used toward college students. • What “retro brands” are targeted to you? Were these brands that were once used by your parents? • What newer brands focus on nostalgia, even though they never existed before?