### PHEOCC - KHS Science

```sCiEnCe
• The goal of science is to better
understand the world around us by:
– questioning
– performing experiments
– check the results of other experiments
– testing the predictions of current theories.
• Scientists, everyday people, and
even KHS students use THE SCIENTIFIC
METHOD to help solve problems
SCIENTIFIC
METHOD
“PHEOCC”
6 easy steps on to find answers
in life and solve problems using
the scientific method !
HEOCC
• State the problem
– Are there any previous events or
observations that led you to this
problem?
– Written as a question
• Gather information on the
problem - research
P
EOCC
Develop a proposed solution to the
problem
- Be specific
- Use an if….then….because
Incorrect: “I think the temperature will
change.”
Correct: “If I do a sundance then
temperature will rise by 10 degrees
Celsius in 60 seconds because..”
Hypothesis: 3 Types of Variables
• Independent Variable
• Dependent Variable
Temperature (Celsius)
– Manipulated (changed)
– What you control in the
experiment
– X axis
Water - Control Setup
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
-5
0
5
10
15 20 25
Time (min)
30
35
40
45
– Response to what you
changed (I.V.)
Constant variables- remain the
same throughout the entire
– Data collected
experiment
– Y axis
-Used as a comparison
-Experiment MUST have these
PH
OCC
• Collect and record data
• Step by step process
PHE
CC
• What happened?
• Begin analyzing the data
• Make inferences
• Charts and Graphs
EXAMPLE OF DATA ANALYZED
Height (inches)
Growth Rate of Child
80
60
40
20
0
dependent
6
7
8
9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
Age (yrs)
• Dependent variable? Why?
Independent variable? Why?
• What could be a constant here?
• Observations? Inferences?
• What did you find out
PHEO
HMMMm…..
– More tests?
– Discover a new problem?
Why or why not?
• Discuss data or graphs
C
PHEOC
• Publish results
• Display information
• This is how scientists develop new
theories and laws
Scientific Laws and Theories
〉Theories: explain why something
happens
〉Supported by large amounts of evidence
from investigations
〉Example:
〉Laws: explain how something works.
〉Have never been proven wrong
〉Predicts events
〉Example: Laws of motion
Scientific Laws and Theories
• Experimental results support laws and
theories.
– Scientific theories are always being
questioned and examined. To be valid, a
theory/law must:
• explain observations
• be repeatable
• be predictable
• falsifiable
END RESULT OF USING THE
SCIENTIFIC METHOD
• You may develop a new theory or law and
become famous! (Darwin, Newton, Bohr)
• You may develop new questions and
inquiries
• You may simply solve a daily problem
• Hopefully something was learned
```