Chapter 8 Lecture Managing Your Weight © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Learning Outcomes • Explain why obesity is both a worldwide trend and a serious concern in America. • Discuss four effects of body weight on wellness. • List reasons why some diets work but most fail. • Describe three major eating disorders. • Define metabolic rate, set point, and energy balance, and relate them to body weight and weight maintenance. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Learning Outcomes continued • Choose a realistic target weight based on your metabolic rate, activity level, eating habits, and environment. • Create a behavior change plan for long-term weight management, and list several effective tips that can help with weight management. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Weight Management Concepts • Overweight – Having a BMI of 25 to 29, or having a body weight more than 10% above recommended levels • Obese – Having a BMI of 30 or more, or having a body weight more than 20% above recommended levels • Underweight – Having a BMI below 18.5, or having a body weight at least 10% less than recommended levels © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Key Points in Weight Management • Successful changes to diet and exercise cannot be short-term fixes. • Your overall percentage of body fat is more important than your weight or weight loss. • "Healthy weight loss" means slow, sustained loss of fat. • Energy balance is achieved when long-term weight management balances calories consumed with calories expended. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Why Is Obesity on the Rise? • Worldwide trend: – "Globesity" is reaching epidemic rates due to diets high in processed fats, meats, sugars, and refined starches, combined with more sedentary lifestyles. • Energy imbalance is common in America due to: – Overconsumption – Too little exercise – Hereditary factors – Limited non-exercise activity, such the activity described in the human "fidget factor" – Demographic and lifestyle factors © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The Rise of Obesity: Men © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The Rise of Obesity: Women © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Obesity Rates for Children on the Rise © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Changes in Obesity Rates across America © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Changes in Portion Size © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. How Body Weight Affects Wellness • High BMI and abdominal fat are associated with higher chronic disease risk. • Body weight: – Can promote or diminish fitness – Can have social consequences – Can influence risks for chronic diseases – Affects life expectancy • Metabolic syndrome: – Condition marked by high blood pressure, cholesterol, and abdominal fat deposits, along with insulin resistance © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Body Weight and the Risks for Chronic Disease © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Fitness and Mortality Rates © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Why Most Diets Don't Succeed • Diets often lead to weight cycling (repeatedly losing and then gaining back weight). – Yo-yo dieting refers to following a series of diets and gaining back the weight lost on each. – Rigid diets are restrictive, unpleasant, and discouraging. – Flexible diets tend to be more effective and better at encouraging changes in long-term eating habits. • Our bodies produce powerful appetite stimulants. • Most diet products and plans are ineffective. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Weight Cycling Example: Kirstie Alley © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Best Diet Plan 1. Why do you think the Weight Watchers program has been so successful? What role does social support play in the program? 2. What are some recommendations or strategies for those who want to lose weight but cannot afford Weight Watchers? © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. What Are Eating Disorders? • Disordered eating is abnormal consumption of food that diminishes wellness but usually doesn't last a long time. • Eating disorders are disturbed patterns of eating that result in serious medical problems and are long lasting. • Body dysmorphic disorder is a psychological syndrome in which a person becomes obsessed with a perceived physical defect. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. What Are Eating Disorders? continued • Three common eating disorders: – Anorexia nervosa – Bulimia nervosa – Binge eating disorder (BED) • Eating disorders have distinctive symptoms and identifiable features. • Eating disorders can be effectively treated through medical and psychological therapies. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. EDNOS: A Dangerous Eating Disorder 1. Discuss the signs and symptoms of EDNOS. 2. Discuss types of treatment used to treat EDNOS. 3. What are your reactions to the method of having the women in the treatment clinic eat foods that may not be the healthiest (i.e., pizza, Chinese food)? In your opinion, is this the best method of treatment? Why or why not? © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Thinking Patterns Associated with Healthy and Disordered Eating © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Anorexia Nervosa: Severe Weight Loss © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Key Concepts in Achieving Weight Goals • Recognize the role of metabolic rate: – Basal metabolic rate (BMR) – Resting metabolic rate (RMR) • Recognize your body's set point—a preprogrammed weight that your body returns to easily when you gain or lose small amounts of weight. • Balance your energy equation—or to lose or gain weight, "unbalance" that equation. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Balance Your Energy Equation © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Keeping It Off 1. Discuss the practical methods used for keeping weight off. 2. Discuss psychological factors or contributors for the inability to maintain weight loss. 3. What tips would you give someone who wanted to lose weight safely and to maintain weight loss? © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. How Can I Create a Behavior Change Plan for Weight Management? • Assess your current weight and choose a realistic goal. • Contemplate weight management. • Prepare for better weight management: – Think about your beliefs and attitudes. – Consider your goals. – Identify your barriers to change. – Visualize new behaviors. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. How to Determine Your Own BMI © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. How Can I Create a Behavior Change Plan for Weight Management? continued • Take action: – Commit to your goals. – Set up a system of support. – Improve your action plan. • Establish a regular exercise program. • Achieve weight maintenance. • Take lessons from successful weight maintainers. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Calories Burned through Activity © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.