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Year 11 DP Chemistry Rob Slider Units Volume (V) Pressure (P) Temperature (T) SI unit: m3 SI unit: Pa (pascal) SI unit: K (Kelvin) 1m3 = 1000 dm3 = 1000L atm (atmosphere) – the pressure acting on an object on Earth (standard pressure) K = 0C + 273 1atm = 1.013 x 105 Pa Absolute zero = 0K or -2730C 1kPa = 103 Pa F.P. (water) = 273K or 00C 1dm3 = 1000cm3 = 1000mL 1atm = 101.3 kPa 0C = K - 273 Avogadro’s Hypothesis Law of Combining Gas Volumes The volume of gases taking part in a chemical reaction show simple whole number ratios to one another when those volumes are measured at the same temperature (T) and pressure (P) Avogadro’s Law When gases are at the same T & P, theMolar same volume of anyof gasahas the same amount of particles (moles) Volume Gas: At stp, 1 mole of any gas occupies 22.4dm3 Example Practice Problem The molar ratio of the following reaction to The molar and volume ratios of the following (stp is 273K and 101.3kPa) produce ammonia gas is 1:3:2. reaction are 2:1:2 since the reactants and products are gases. N2(g) + 3H2(g) -----> 2NH3(g) 2H2(g) + O2(g) -----> 2H2O(g) Since all the reactants and products are gases, the mole ratio is the same as the ratio of the So, if there is 50mL of hydrogen gas, what are volumes of gases. the volumes of oxygen gas and water vapour? So, 50mL of hydrogen gas would react with 10mL of nitrogen gas reacts with 50 x ½ = 25mL oxygen gas to produce 10 x 3 = 30mL of hydrogen gas to produce 50mL of water vapour 10 x 2 = 20mL ammonia gas Note all of the reactants/products are gases Exercises 1 1. Find the volume occupied by 8g of oxygen gas at STP. 5.6 dm3 2. How many cm3 are there, at STP, in 1.72 g of phosphorous pentoxide (P2O5)? 271 cm3 3. What is the mass of 3.2 dm3 of nitrogen gas measured at STP? 4.0 g 4. Find the mass of 275 cm3 of phosphorous trichloride gas 1.69 g measured at STP. Boyle’s Law (P vs V) At constant temperature: Volume of a given quantity of gas is inversely proportional to pressure: V= 1/P (E.g. if the volume of a gas is doubled, its pressure is halved.) OR The product of a gas’s volume and its pressure is a constant : PV = constant, PV = k So, at constant temperature for a given quantity of gas : PiVi = PfVf where, Pi and Vi are the initial pressure and volume, Pf and Vf are the final pressure and volume. Note: pressures and volumes must be in the same units of measurement on each side. Ideal vs. Real gases All gases approximate Boyle's Law at high temperatures and low pressures. Ideal Gas - a hypothetical gas which obeys Boyle's Law at all temperatures and pressures Real Gas - approaches Boyle's Law behaviour as the temperature is raised or the pressure lowered. Boyle’s Law – inversely proportional Note how the volume changes in relation to the pressure exerted on a gas. At a given temperature, this relationship is predictable for an ideal gas. Twice the pressure (P2) = half the volume (V2) Boyle’s Law - Graph P vs V gives a parabolic shape V vs 1/P gives a linear shape Exercises 2 1. A sample of 200 cm3 of a gas has a pressure of 1.00 atm. The pressure is increased to 1.10 atm at a constant temperature. Find the new volume of the gas. 182 cm3 2. 180 mL of a gas is compressed to 135 mL with no change in temperature. If the original pressure was 1.05 x 105 Pa, what is the new pressure? 1.40 x 105 Pa 3. 2.70 dm3 of gas was originally at a pressure of 1.20 atm. Under constant temperature conditions, what pressure in kPa would be needed to change the volume to 2.50 dm3? 131 kPa Charles’ Law (T vs V) At constant pressure, Volume of a given quantity of gas is directly proportional to the absolute temperature : Vα T (in Kelvin) (E.g. if the temperature (K) is doubled, the volume of gas is also doubled.) OR The ratio of its volume and the absolute temperature is a constant : V/T = constant, V/T = k So, at constant pressure: Vi/Ti = Vf/Tf where, Ti and Vi are the initial temperature and volume, Tf and Vf are the final temperature and volume. Note: Ti and Tf must be in Kelvin NOT Celsius. (temperature in Kelvin = temperature in Celsius + 273) (approximately) Ideal vs. Real gases All gases approximate Charles' Law at high temperatures and low pressures. Well above it’s condensation point, the volume of a real gas decreases linearly as it is cooled at constant pressure. However, as the gas approaches the condensation point, the decrease in volume slows down. At condensation, the gas turns to a liquid and, therefore, does not obey Charles’ Law Absolute zero (OK) is the temperature where the volume of a gas would theoretically be zero if it did not condense. Same pressure Note how the volume changes in relation to temperature with constant pressure applied Increase the temperature and the volume goes up At a given pressure, the pressure is directly proportional to the volume. (As temperature goes up, so does the pressure) Try this: fill a balloon with air, then put it in the freezer. What happened? How does this demonstrate Charles’ Law? Charles Law - Graph Volume is directly proportional to absolute temperature (linear) Extrapolate this relationship back to absolute zero where the volume of a gas is theoretically zero and all molecular motion stops. Is this possible? Exercises 3 1. A given sample of gas has a volume of 5.0 m3 at a temperature of -230C. What volume would it occupy at 300 K assuming the pressure remains constant? 6.0 m3 2. 360 cm3 of a gas is heated from 00C to 910C. Assuming no 480 cm3 pressure change, find the new volume. 3. When heated under constant pressure, the volume of a gas increased from 2.42 dm3 to 2.67 dm3. If the initial temperature was 190C, find the final temperature in 0C. 490C Gay-Lussac’s Law (P vs T) At constant volume, Pressure of a given quantity of gas is directly proportional to it’s temperature OR the ratio of pressure and temperature is equal to a constant p/T = k (a constant) So, at constant volume: pi/Ti = pf/Tf where, pi and Ti are the initial pressure and temperature, pf and Tf are the final pressure and temperature. Note: pressures and temperature (Kelvin) must be in the same units of measurement on each side. Gay-Lussac’s Law Note the effect that increased temperature has on the pressure of the container which is at constant volume. An increase in temperature leads to increased pressure Gay-Lussac - Graph Note how pressure increases as the temperature increases as the average kinetic energy of the particles exerts more force on a container of constant volume How does this photo relate to Gay-Lussac’s Law?? Exercises 4 1. At a given temperature of 70C, a sample of gas has a pressure of 1.40 atm. If it is heated to 320 K, while the volume stays constant, what would the new pressure be? 1.60 atm 2. The pressure of a gas is reduced from 102.5 kPa to 97.5 kPa. If the volume does not change, calculate the final temperature in Celsius if the initial temperature was 150C. 10C 3. A sample of gas has an initial temperature of 100C. If the pressure is doubled, find the resulting temperature in Celsius assuming constant volume. 0 293 C Combined Gas Law If we combine all three individual gas laws into one, we can show how pressure, temperature and volume are related in one equation. pi V i = Ti pf Vf Tf Temperature must be in Kelvin. Pressure and volume can be in any unit as long as they are the same on both sides of the equation. This equation can be used if there is more than one variable changing at once. Exercises 5 1. A gas sample of 32.0 cm3 has a pressure of 1.05 atm and a temperature of 27.00C. What would be the volume of the gas at a pressure of 1.12 atm and a temperature of 7.00C? 28 cm3 2. At 0.75 atm and -230C a gas has a volume of 100 cm3. Find the volume at STP. 3 82 cm 3. A sample of gas occupies 0.654 m3 at 1.14 atm and 90C. Calculate the volume at STP. 0.722 m3 4. When measured at 103.5 kPa and 22.00C, some gas has a volume of 232 mL. What would be the volume in litres at STP? 0.219 L Ideal Gas Law An Ideal Gas (perfect gas) is one which obeys Boyle's Law, Charles' Law and G-L’s Law exactly. An Ideal Gas obeys the Ideal Gas Law (General gas equation): PV = nRT where, P=pressure, V=volume, n=moles of gas, T=temperature, R=the gas constant (dependent on the units of pressure, temperature and volume) R = 8.314 J K-1 mol-1 R = 0.0821 L atm K-1 mol-1 P is in (Pa), V is in (m3), T is in (K) (note: J = m3Pa) P (atm), V (L), T (K) Presumptions – Is any gas ideal? Presumptions of an Ideal Gas according to Kinetic Theory of Gases: Real Gases deviate from Ideal Gas Behaviour because Gases consist of molecules which are in continuous random motion The volume of the molecules present is negligible relative to the total volume occupied by the gas Intermolecular forces are negligible Pressure is due to the gas molecules colliding with the walls of the container at low temperatures the gas molecules have less kinetic energy (move around less) so they do attract each other at high pressures the gas molecules are forced closer together so that the volume of the gas molecules becomes significant compared to the volume the gas occupies The Overall Presumption Under ordinary conditions, deviations from Ideal Gas behaviour are so slight that they can be neglected. A gas which deviates from Ideal Gas behaviour is called a non-ideal gas. Gas Law Summary Boyle’s Law PiVi = PfVf Gay-Lussac’s Law pi/Ti = pf/Tf Charles’ Law Vi/Ti = Vf/Tf Ideal Gas Law pV = nRT Exercises 6 1. 5 moles of a gas at 250C and 1.15 atm occupies what volume? 2. Magnesium reacts with hydrochloric acid to produce hydrogen gas and magnesium chloride What volume of gas is evolved at 273 K and 1 atm pressure when 0.623 g of Mg reacts with 27.3 cm3 of 1.25 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid. b) Calculate the volume occupied by the hydrogen gas evolved if it is collected at 220C and 1.12 atm pressure. c) If the actual volume of hydrogen collected was 342 cm3, what is the percentage yield? a)