Interrupts

Report
Monday March 10, 2014
- Interrupts, Cont’d
- Review for Midterm
- Continue Lab4
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Interrupts
Von Neumann
MSP430 Architecture
Instructions
and Data
Processing
Unit (CPU)
Input / Output
3
MSP430 Architecture
I/O
4
MSP430F5438A Architecture
Let’s take a closer look…
Mostly just adding more peripherals with each generation.
CPU doesn’t change much.
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Can I use a port to interrupt my program?
Yes!
How…?
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Maybe the User Guide is a good place to start…
I count three “and” qualifiers. Let’s take
Them one at a time, in reverse order…
…and by the way, what’s that?
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What has to happen for an interrupt to occur.
1. An interrupt has to be requested by the peripheral (IRQ).
2. The peripheral interrupt enable (PIE) bit must be set.
3. The General Interrupt Enable (GEI) bit must be set.
4. An Interrupt Service Routine (ISR) has to be run.
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Let’s tackle the hard part first:
1. An interrupt has to be requested by the peripheral.
2. The peripheral interrupt enable (PIE) bit must be set.
3. The General Interrupt Enable (GEI) bit must be set.
4. An Interrupt Service Routine (ISR) has to be run.
An ISR is a subroutine pointed to by the Interrupt Vector.
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Interrupt Vectors
Each peripheral device is assigned an address. It is device
dependent, hard-wired, not changeable. A vector is basically a pointer:
It points to an address.
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First, find it’s interrupt vector address.
0xFFD4
This memory location is very
special (if you’re Port2):
It is assigned to Port2 forever.
How do I know this…
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So which interrupt vector is mine?
Look at the Interrupt Vector Address Table:
Scrolling thru the table…
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Practical Consideration: How does CCS know this?
My_ISR:
<code>
RETI
Linker cmd file:
MEMORY
INT42
: origin = 0xFFD4, length = 0x0002
SECTION
Label must match
<code>
.sect “.int42”
.short My_ISR
PORT2
: { * ( .int42 ) } > INT42 type = VECT_INIT
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Let’s go back to the peripheral slide
0x5c2c: My_ISR
0x5c2e:
<code>
0x5c2c
0xFFD4
This memory location is very
special (if you’re Port2):
It is assigned to Port2 forever.
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What has to happen for an interrupt to occur.
1. An interrupt has to be requested by the peripheral (IRQ).
2. The peripheral interrupt enable (PIE) bit must be set.
3. The General Interrupt Enable (GEI) bit must be set.
4. An Interrupt Service Routine (ISR) has to be run.
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Step 1: Set the GIE
General Interrupt Enable must be set for any maskable
interrupt to be serviced.
Three ways to do it:
bis.w
#0x04,SR
OR…
eint
OR
They alldo the same thing
bis.w #GIE,SR
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OK, GIE set, what next?
Let’s look at the
Peripheral IE (PIE)
next…
Check!
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What has to happen for an interrupt to occur.
1. An interrupt has to be requested by the peripheral (IRQ).
2. The peripheral interrupt enable (PIE) bit must be set.
3. The General Interrupt Enable (GEI) bit must be set.
4. An Interrupt Service Routine (ISR) has to be run.
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Now that I’ve set the GIE, it looks like I need to get peripheral-specific.
TI calls them modules.
OK, so which module am I…?
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Looking further down the User Guide…
Device Specific?
That’s not
very helpful!
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Let’s look at the Digital I/O Section in the User’s Guide:
Getting closer…!
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Step 1: Set the GIE
Step 2: Set the PxIE
Peripheral Interrupt Enable must also be set for any maskable
interrupt to be serviced. Example: Set P2.6 IE:
Two ways to do it:
bis.w
#0x40,&P2IE
OR…
bis.w
#BIT6,&P2IE
They both do the same thing
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OK, GIE and PIE set, what next?
PIE Check!
GIE Check!
eint
;GIE set
bis.w #BIT6,&P2IE
;P2.6 IE set
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What has to happen for an interrupt to occur.
1. An interrupt has to be requested by the peripheral (IRQ).
2. The peripheral interrupt enable (PIE) bit must be set.
3. The General Interrupt Enable (GEI) bit must be set.
4. An Interrupt Service Routine (ISR) has to be run.
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Interrupt Request
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What has to happen for an interrupt to occur.
1. An interrupt has to be requested by the peripheral (IRQ).
2. The peripheral interrupt enable (PIE) bit must be set.
3. The General Interrupt Enable (GEI) bit must be set.
4. An Interrupt Service Routine (ISR) has to be run.
First.asm
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Interrupts
Processing an Interrupt…
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Processor completes execution of current instruction.
Master Clock (MCLK) started (if CPU was off).
Processor pushes Program Counter (PC) on stack.
Processor pushes Status Register (SR) on stack.
Interrupt w/highest priority is selected.
Interrupt request flag cleared (if single sourced).
Status Register is cleared:


Disables further maskable interrupts (GIE cleared)
Terminates low-power mode
8. Processor fetches interrupt vector and stores it in the
program counter.
9. User ISR must do the rest!
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Interrupts
Interrupt Vectors
0xFFFF
0xFFC0
0xFFBF
• The CPU must know where to fetch
the next instruction following an
interrupt.
• The address of an ISR is defined in
an interrupt vector.
16 vectors
• The MSP430 uses vectored (ISR Addresses)
interrupts where each ISR has its
own vector stored in a vector table
located at the end of program
memory.
• Note: The vector table is at a fixed
location (defined by the processor
data sheet), but the ISRs can be
located anywhere in memory.
Interrupt Vector Table
Program Code
0xC000
0xBFFF
0x0400
0x03FF
0x0200
0x01FF
0x0000
Stack
Input/Output
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Interrupt Process
Interrupt Flag
Ie, save
Activation
Record to
Stack
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Interrupts
Interrupt Flags
• Each interrupt has a flag that is raised (set) when the interrupt is pending.


Each interrupt flag has a corresponding enable bit – setting this bit allows a
hardware module to request an interrupt.
Most interrupts are maskable, which means they can only interrupt if
1) Individually enabled and
2) general interrupt enable (GIE) bit is set in the status register (SR).

Reset and Non-Maskable Interrupts (NMI) are reserved for system interrupts
such as power-up (PUC), external reset, oscillator fault, illegal flash access,
watchdog, and illegal instruction fetch.
Device Interrupt
Interrupt Enable
Interrupt MPU
General Interrupt Enable (GIE)
Reset / Non-Maskable (NMI)
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Interrupts
MSP430 Interrupt Vectors
INTERRUPT SOURCE
Power-up
External reset
Watchdog
NMI
Oscillator fault
Flash memory violation
Timer_B3
Timer_B3
INTERRUPT FLAG
PORIFG
RSTIFG
WDTIFG
NMIIFG
OFIFG
ACCDVIFG
TBCCR0 CCIFG
TBCCR1 CCIFG
TBCCR2 CCIFG, TBIFG
SYSTEM INTERRUPT
Non-Maskable
Interrupts
Reset
ADDRESS
SECTION
PRIORITY
0xFFFE
.reset
15, highest
Non-maskable
0xFFFC
.int14
14
Maskable
0xFFFA
.int13
13
0xFFF8
.int12
12
0xFFF6
.int11
11
Timers
Maskable
Watchdog Timer
WDTIFG
Maskable
0xFFF4
.int10
10
Timer_A3
Maskable
0xFFF2
.int09
9
Maskable
0xFFF0
.int08
8
USCI_A0/USCI_B0 Rx
TACCR0 CCIFG
TACCR1 CCIFG,
TACCR2 CCIFG, TAIFG
UCA0RXIFG, USB0RXIFG
Maskable
0xFFEE
.int07
7
USCI_Z0/USCI_B0 Tx
UCA0TXIFG, UCB0TXIFG
Maskable
0xFFEC
.int06
6
ADC10
ADC10IFG
Maskable
Ports
0xFFEA
.int05
5
0xFFE8
.int04
4
Timer_A3
I/O Port P2
P2IFG.0 – P2IFG.7
Maskable
0xFFE6
.int03
3
I/O Port P1
P1IFG.0 – P1IFG.7
Maskable
0xFFE4
.int02
2
0xFFE2
0xFFE0
.int01
.int00
1
0
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Interrupts
Interrupt Stack
Item 1
Item 2
SP
Prior to Interrupt
PC
add.w
jnc
add.w
r4,r7
main
#1,r6
add.w
r5,r6
Interrupt (hardware)
Item 1
Item 2
PC
SR
SP





Program Counter pushed on stack
Status Register pushed on stack
Interrupt vector moved to PC
Further interrupts disabled
Interrupt flag cleared
PC
xor.b
reti
#1,&P1OUT
Execute Interrupt Service Routine (ISR)
Item 1
Item 2
PC
SR
SP
Return from Interrupt (reti) PC
 Status Register popped from stack
 Program Counter popped from stack
add.w
jnc
add.w
r4,r7
main
#1,r6
add.w
r5,r6
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Reset Vector
Another way to figure out how to use interrupt vectors…just
look at the one that’s already in use by default in CCS when
you start an assembly-only project:
;------------------------------------------------------------------------------RESET
mov.w #__STACK_END,SP
; Initialize stackpointer
;------------------------------------------------------------------------------; Main loop here
;-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
;------------------------------------------------------------------------------;
Interrupt Vectors
;------------------------------------------------------------------------------.sect ".reset"
; MSP430 RESET Vector
.short RESET
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Interrupt Service Routine
Return From Interrupt
• Single operand instructions:
Mnemonic
Operation
Description
PUSH(.B or .W) src
SP-2SP, src@SP
Push byte/word source on stack
CALL
dsttmp ,SP-2SP,
PC@SP, tmpPC
Subroutine call to destination
TOSSR, SP+2SP
TOSPC, SP+2SP
Return from interrupt
dst
RETI
• Emulated instructions:
Mnemonic
Operation
Emulation
Description
RET
@SPPC
SP+2SP
MOV @SP+,PC
Return from subroutine
POP(.B or .W) dst
@SPtemp
SP+2SP
tempdst
MOV(.B or .W) @SP+,dst
Pop byte/word from stack to
destination
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Interrupt Service Routine
Interrupt Latency
• The time between the interrupt request and the start
of the ISR is called latency
– MSP430 requires 6 clock cycles before the ISR begins
executing
– An ISR may be interrupted if interrupts are enabled in the
ISR
• Well-written ISRs:
– Should be short and fast – get in and get out
– Require a balance between doing very little – thereby
leaving the background code with lots of processing – and
doing a lot and leaving the background code with nothing
to do
• Applications that use interrupts should:
– Disable interrupts as little as possible
– Respond to interrupts as quickly as possible
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Multi-Source Interrupt Handlers
8 Interrupt Flags
1 Vector Address
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Multi-Source Interrupt Handlers
IRQ[7:0] 8-bit bus shared by Port2 Interrupt Vector
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Multi-Source Interrupt Handlers
Solution: poll the interrupt flags to determine
which port issued the interrupt.
For example:
port2_ISR:
bit.b
#BIT6,&P2IFG
; S1 Interrupt?
jz
end
; if not, exit
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