Strain of Changing Disciplinary Traditions Child care and guidance practices have changed through the years Parents who depend on child care want to be assured that their children will receive proper guidance Early Pioneers John Comenius (1592-1670) The desire to learn can be excited by teachers, if they are gentle and persuasive and do not alienate their pupils from them by roughness. Johann Pestalozzi (1746-1827) Teachers need to look first at the system if there are behavioral problems. Robert Owen (1771–1858) Punishment is never required, and should be avoided as much as giving poison in their food. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Early Pioneers Friedrich Froebel (1782-1852) Father of Kindergarten The teacher should see the natural impulses of the child not as a tendency toward evil but as the source and motivation for human development that with guidance leads to character in the adult. Maria Montessori (1870–1952) Children educate themselves through absorption in meaningful tasks. In this process they learn both self-discipline and responsible decision making. John Dewey (1859–1952) Out of the occupation, out of doing things that are to produce results, and out of doing these things in a social and cooperative way, there is born a discipline of its own kind and type. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. th Mid-20 -Century Influences Jean Piaget (1896-1980) Constructivism The modern ideal is cooperation—respect for the individual and for general opinion as elaborated in free discussion. Alfred Adler (1870-1937) Healthy development of the child results in an adult ability for interconnectedness with social groups, to the benefit of both society and the individual. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. th Mid-20 -Century Influences Self Psychologists (1960s-1970s) The developing self is the dynamic in human behavior. Schools must address not just academics, but also the selfconcepts of learners. Rudolph Dreikurs (1897-1972) Teachers need to be leaders, not bosses. When their attempts to achieve social acceptance fail, children show antisocial behavior for a purpose, to achieve any of four mistaken goals. Haim Ginott (1922-1973) The “psychology of acceptance” means that the teacher’s task is to build and maintain positive relations with each child. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Discipline Trends in the 1980s Emphasis on academic programming with younger children lent itself to tightly controlled classrooms (Elkind). Obedience-based disciplines Effects on children: humiliation, stigmatism, ‘winners’ and ‘losers’ Effects on teachers: reduced ability to use professional judgement Effects on parents: discourages involvement in school if parent disagrees with policy Keeping guidance alive: Early childhood education Conflict resolution movement Developmentally Appropriate Practice (DAP) ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Guidance Practice Today Guidance means teaching children to learn from their mistakes, rather than punishing children for making mistakes. A guidance approach teaches children democratic life skills—the skills individuals need to function as productive citizens and healthy individuals. Democratic life skills include the ability to: see oneself as a worthy individual and capable member of the group. express strong emotions in nonhurting ways. make decisions ethically and intelligently. work cooperatively in groups to recognize and resolve common problems. be understanding of human qualities and characteristics in others. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Parent-Teacher Relations Positive parent-teacher relations contribute at a fundamental level to the success of the guidance approach. Froebel—mothers should take leadership in organizing kindergartens Montessori—teachers as model for children and parents alike Child study movement—nursery schools administered by parents Head Start—home visits, classroom volunteering Public schools—individual relationships between teachers and parents for those with older children, ECFE for those with younger kids ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Social Constructivist View Alfred Adler’s analysis of behavior. Human beings are capable of working cooperatively, living together peacefully, striving for selfimprovement and self-fulfillment, and contributing to the common welfare of the community Effective Interpersonal Skills Carl Rogers’ theory of personality is based on humane and ethical treatment of persons To reach full potential, human beings must have positive regard from others that eventually leads to the development of positive self-regard Robert Carkhuff and George Gazda refined Rogers’ theories into practical, hands-on techniques beneficial to therapists and educators Predetermined Stages of Mental Growth Jean Piaget’s theory Children’s mental development proceeds in distinct stages qualitatively different from the thinking of adults Like John Dewey and Maria Montessori, Piaget believed that early learning experiences have tremendous impact on children’s long-term cognitive development Zone of Proximal Development Identified by Lev Vygotsky Believed adults play an important role in children’s development and learning Scaffolding Constructivists hold the Piagetian view that… Children construct their own learning from innate cognitive structures and external experiences INTERNAL LEARNING EXTERNAL STRUCTURES EXPERIENCES Montessori Montessori Maturationists believe… Internal predispositions Physiological characteristics are inherited traits Essential psychological makeup of a human being is inborn Behaviorists believe… Environment is the primary determinant of human behavior Objectively observable behavior constitutes the essential psychological makeup of a human being Bronfenbrenner Concept of Citizenship Being cooperative Having sense of fair play Respecting rights of others Initiative and self-reliance self-starter, lifelong learner, creative problem-solver Responsible work habits established habits of promptness, effort, and pride Sense of loyalty recognizes that sometimes one’s own immediate interests and desires may need to be pushed aside for the good of the community Autocracy control by a single person having unlimited power Anarchy absence of any form of control chaos and disorder Democracy principles of social equality and respect for the individual within a cohesive community Persistence and Patience A gentle rippling stream etches deep patterns in solid rock Pounding on rocks with a sledge hammer changes the shape of rocks quickly, but causes a lot of damage in the process Persistence and patience are key to success in positive guidance!