PLC APPLICATIONS MODULE 3 Time sequence processes Learning Objectives • Analyze a control task that contains a time sequence processes. • Understand and use ON/OFF timer, Asynchronous pulse generator and weekly timer. • Develop control routines for time sequence process. What is a timer? • Its exactly what the word says... it is an instruction that waits a set amount of time before doing something. • Real time Applications: • Traffic signals. • Amusement rides • Industries Applications • Timers are very important for industrial applications as well as for both residential and commercial applications, Some examples of their use include: • Flashing light control and traffic light signals • Motor soft-start delay control: Instead of starting large electric motors by switching full power from a dead stop condition, reduced voltage can be switched for a "softer" start. • Conveyor belt sequence delay: especially when multiple conveyor belts are arranged to transport material • Subroutines that take place consecutively for specific time. • In some cases we can use events to estimate the condition of the system or simply we can use timers. Typical events used by a PLC include; • Time since an input turned on/off. • Count of occurred events. • The common theme for the mentioned events is that they are based upon one of two questions "How many?" or "How long?" Types of timers • ON-delay timer: • This type of timer simply "delays turning on". • The output of this timer is not switched on until a configured delay time has expired. • OFF-delay timer: • This type of timer is the opposite of the ondelay timer . • This timer simply "delays turning off". • The output of this timer stays high until a defined time has expired. ON/OFF delay timer • The ON/OFF delay timer can be thought as a combination of two timers ON delay timer and OFF delay timer. • basically it is used to set an output upon expiration of an ON time and then reset it again upon expiration of an OFF time. • In the above timing diagram for ON/OFF delay timer, since the ON delay time is 2 seconds for the timer, the output Q goes ON 2 seconds after switching ON I1 and it remains ON 3 seconds after switching OFF I1 because the OFF delay is 3 seconds. • If the switching ON time is less than the ON delay time the output stays OFF. Control task with an ON/OFF delay timer • A normally open PB and a normally closed PB are used to turn a motor ON and OFF respectively. • The motor starts rotating 10 seconds after the ON-PB is pressed, and it stops 15 seconds after the OFF-PB is pressed. I/O assignment Inputs Input Assigned address PB1 (N.O) I1 PB2 (N.C) I2 Output/s Output Assigned address M1 Q1 Latching relay is required in this example because PBs are used. Asynchronous pulse generator • A pulse wave or pulse train is a waveform that has a rectangular shape. • Pulse train is similar to a square wave, but does not have the symmetrical shape associated with a perfect square wave. • ON time is not necessarily equal to OFF time of the wave. Uses • Asynchronous pulse generator programming block is used to generate pulse train • The programmer can adjust both the ON time and the OFF time. • This programming block is very helpful in both time sequence processes and loop processes; a simple example is a traffic light signal. • Asynchronous pulse generator has two inputs - En & INV • En input is used to enable the pulse train at the output, when En is high the output goes high • The output remains at logic low as long as En input is low. • INV input can be used to invert the output signal. The input block INV only inverts the output signal if the block is enabled. • TH is the pulse width - output goes high • TL is the Inter-pulse width. - output goes low Blinking light • A selector switch (I4) is used to blink the green light (Q1) in the Edutrainer kit; the light goes ON for 3 seconds and it goes OFF for 4 seconds. This loop will continue until the system is turned off using the same selector switch. Draw the FBD for this system. Blinking light 2 • Change your program in the previous example so that the white light goes ON when the green light is OFF and white light turns OFF when the green light is ON. AND block is used to make sure that both outputs are initially OFF Weekly timer • In many applications there is a need to use real time clock routines • E.g school bell • periodic lubrication process for machines. • Weekly timer can be used to switch ON and switch OFF an output at certain times during the week days. • Each weekly timer is equipped with three options (cams). • You can configure the ON and OFF time for each individual cam. EXERCISE 1 • In a certain machine, lubrication pump (Q4) should work every day from 8:00 am till 8:30 am except on Fridays it shouldn’t work. On Tuesdays and Thursdays the pump should work one more time from 1:00 pm till 1:30 pm. Draw the FBD for this task.