Corn Stalks As A Revenue Source Why and How? Don McCabe Ontario Federation of Agriculture Blue Water Corridor Conference A Bi-National Approach to Innovation and Collaboration Bi-National Clusters: Focus on Bio-industrial Innovation June 11, 2014 Sarnia Definition of a Farmer • • • • • • • Cash crop Corn, soybeans, wheat farmer Beef farmer Fruit and vegetable producer Egg producer Pineapple plantation Or…….. Definition of a Farmer • Manager of carbon and nitrogen cycles with input from the water cycle to produce starch, oil, protein, fuel, fiber and energy for world wide consumers at the highest quality. The Canadian Biosphere What Saved Mankind? Introduction of Technology Everything in this slide has a price point to market Combine and Head (AGCO) Corn (CBOT) Stalks and Cobs (Value chain cooperative or commodity pricing?) http://www.biobasedsociety.eu/2013/02/respe ctful-treatment-of-thecomplexity-of-biomass/ Biomass can be integrated sustainably into the existing fossil-based Chemistry Value Chain Bio-based Feedstocks - can be blended into current refinery products as biofuels (eg. ethanol) - can replace existing primary chemicals for the production of polymers and higher value added chemicals Processed Biomass - can be used in finished products that are used in manufacturing and assembly Fossil-based Feedstock Refiner End User Primary Chemicals Polymers & Chemicals Finished Products Bio-based Feedstock Processed Biomass Manufacturing & Assembly Amount of Sustainably Harvestable Ag Residue in 4 County Area Amount of Sustainably Harvestable Corn Stover (dry tonnes) Amount of Sustainably Harvestable Wheat Straw(dry tonnes) 800,000 500,000 700,000 450,000 400,000 350,000 500,000 tonnes tonnes 600,000 400,000 300,000 300,000 250,000 200,000 150,000 200,000 100,000 100,000 50,000 0 0 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Chatham-Kent Lambton Middlesex Huron 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011* 2012* *Preliminary Chatham-Kent Lambton Middlesex Huron Assumptions For the Cellulosic Sugar Plant • 250,000 tonnes/yr of corn stover • 115,000 tonnes of sugar produced with 90,000 tonnes/yr of lignin • Capital cost of the plant = $70 Million (1/2 financed over 10 years) Supply Co-op: Direct Sale Pricing Option Corn Stover Cost Estimates ($/dry tonne) Grain corn yield Stover moisture Stover removal rate Stover removed 8x4x3 foot bale weight Harvest costs Discbine/stalk chop Rake Large square baling Stack end of field Storage end of field Nutrient replacement Production management issues (15%) Transportation 75 km Administration Stover cost sub-total 165 bu/ac 30% 30% 0.88 dry tonnes/ac 371 kg $/dry tonne 20.45 9.09 43.14 5.39 8.00 11.57 14.65 15.97 1.00 129.27 Stover sold at FULL cost to the sugar company Financial Model for Corn Stover Supply Co-op General Parameters Plant biomass capacity (tonnes/year) Unit capacity cost ($/tonne/year) Debt to equity ratio Interest rate (%) Loan repayment period (years) Price of cellulosic sugar ($/tonne) Price of lignin co-products ($/tonne) Cost of corn stover ($/dry tonne) Production and Revenue Cellulosic sugar production (tonnes/year) Lignin production (tonnes/year) Cellulosic sugar revenue (M $/yr) Lignin revenue (M $/yr) Total revenue (M $/yr) Cost Items Operating costs Corn stover cost (M $/yr) Operating costs (M $/yr) Financing costs Total capital cost (M $) Initial loan (M $) Initial equity (M $) Interest (M $/yr) Loan repayment (M $/yr) Sub-total financing costs (M $/yr) Net income (M $/yr) Income tax (M $/yr) Return on equity (%) Value 250,000 $280.00 1.00 5.00% 10.00 $400.00 $40.00 $129.27 Value 115,000 90,000 $46.00 $3.60 $49.60 Value $32.32 $10.00 $70.00 $35.00 $35.00 $1.03 $3.50 $4.53 $2.75 $1.25 4.29% Effect of Grain Corn Yield on ROE and Cost of Stover in a Supply Co-op Sensitivity Analysis: Corn Stover Supply Chain Costs (From Glenn Farris AGCO) Top 4 highest supply chain cost influencer related to baling operation 10 out of 15 top supply chain cost influencers related to feedstock supply operations (i.e., Production-specific parameters) decrease by ~$22/std. Mg increase by ~$29/std. Mg Bale density alone can decrease supply chain cost by ~$8/std. Mg Bale density alone can increase supply chain cost by ~$9/std. Mg Effect of Harvest Activities on ROE and Cost of Stover in a Supply Co-op Stover Supply Compared to a Bioprocessing Co-op • The Bioprocessing Co-op now sets the ROI at 15% • Calculations are done now to maintain producer/investor ROI • The price paid for stover is now calculated out to meet the ROI Financial Model for Bioprocessing Co-op General Parameters Plant biomass capacity (tonnes/year) Unit capacity cost ($/tonne/year) Debt to equity ratio Interest rate (%) Loan repayment period (years) Price of cellulosic sugar ($/tonne) Price of lignin coproductsproducts ($/tonne) Cost of corn stover ($/tonne) Production and Revenue Cellulosic sugar production (tonnes/year) Lignin coproduct production (tonnes/year) Cellulosic sugar revenue ($ million/year) Lingin revenue ($ million/year) Total revenue ($ million/year) Cost Items Operating costs Corn stover cost (M $/yr) Operating costs (M $/yr) Financing costs Total capital cost (M $) Initial loan (M $) Initial equity (M $) Interest (M $/year) Loan repayment (M $/yr) Sub-total financing costs (M $/yr) Net income (M $/yr) Income tax (M $/yr) Return on equity (%) Value 250,000 $280.00 1.00 5.00% 10.00 $400.00 $40.00 $110.52 Value 115,000 90,000 $46.00 $3.60 $49.60 Value $27.63 $10.00 $70.00 $35.00 $35.00 $1.03 $3.50 $4.53 $7.44 $2.19 15.00% Effect of Sugar Price on Cost of Stover in a Bioprocessing Co-op Effect of Sugar Yield on Cost of Stover in a Bioprocessing Co-op Fossil Based • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Can we do it? Sarnia BioHybrid Cluster Air Products BP Energy CF Industries DuPont Ethyl Corporation Exxon-Mobil LANXESS NOVA Chemicals Ontario Power Generation Pembina Praxair Royal Dutch Shell Styrolution Suncor Energy TransAlta Energy • • • • • • • • • "Based on the first term of funding it is evident that BIC is becoming an organization that will create a legacy for Canada in the bioindustrial and bioinnovation sectors." Mayor Mike Bradley Sarnia, Ontario • Bio/Renewable Based Sandy Marshall BioAmber Cargill Enbridge Greenfield Ethanol Methes Energy KmX Solutions4CO2 Suncor Ethanol Woodland Biofuels •80% of Ontario soybeans and corn within 200km 24 Development of a Business Case for a Cornstalks to Bioprocessing Venture • Agronomic benefits possible with corn stover removal • Model of bioprocessing co-op helps to derisk project • Need for a cellulosic sugar mill http://www.ofa.on.ca/uploads/userfiles/ files/cornstalkreport-final.pdf Summary • The opportunity is here • Companies are looking at Ontario • Sugar from biomass is a new commodity and investment opportunity • Supply to logistics means numerous regional locations will be needed with local economic impact http://www.ofa.on.ca/uploads/userfiles /files/cornstalkreport-final.pdf When Will We Reach Our Potential?