Edexcel BTEC Level 1/2 First Award in Engineering Revision Guide and information What to expect / Important Information Date of Examination: Wednesday 22nd January Examination duration: 1 Hour Format of Examination: The exam will be online, requiring you to answer questions on a computer. The questions will vary in style, some being multiple choice, some connecting answers to each other and other requiring extended written answers. This examination counts for 25% of your entire grade, and so is extremely important! By securing a good grade now, you will have one less examination to worry about in June/July when you sit your GCSE examinations. Remember there are 3 sections that the questions in the examination can come from. We have covered all of these in detail during our examination preparation, and will continue to do work on this until the examination date. Topics / Content Learning aim A: Know about engineering processes used to produce modern engineered products Topic A1: Engineering sectors and products - Types of products from the following engineering sectors: ● aerospace, automotive, communications, electrical/electronic, mechanical, biomedical, chemical. Topic A2: Mechanical and electrical/electronic engineering processes Processes including health and safety issues, characteristics, applications and advantages/disadvantages of the following engineering processes: ● machining – turning, milling, drilling ● forming – casting, forging ● fabrication – welding, shearing ● electrical/electronic – PCB manufacture, surface mount technology. Topic A3: Scales of production Characteristics and advantages/disadvantages of the following scales of production used in engineering manufacture: ● one-off/jobbing production ● batch production ● mass production ● continuous production. Topic A4: Modern production methods Applications and advantages/disadvantages of the following modern production methods for production/assembly lines: ● robots ● Computer Numerically Controlled (CNC) machinery. Topics / Content Topic A1: Engineering sectors and products - Types of products from the following engineering sectors: Aerospace Engineering Aerospace engineering is the primary branch of engineering concerned with the research, design, development, construction, testing, science and technology of aircraft and spacecraft. It is divided into two major and overlapping branches: aeronautical engineering and astronautical engineering. The aeronautics deals with aircraft that operate in Earth's atmosphere, and the astronautics deals with spacecraft's that operate outside the Earth's atmosphere. Aerospace engineering deals with the design, construction, and study of the science behind the forces and physical properties of aircraft, rockets, flying craft, and spacecraft. The field also covers their aerodynamic characteristics and behaviors, airfoil, control surfaces, lift, drag, and other properties. Aeronautical engineering was the original term for the field. As flight technology advanced to include craft operating in outer space, the broader term "aerospace engineering" has largely replaced it in common usage. Products made in this sector include all forms of aircraft and spacecraft. Topics / Content Topic A1: Engineering sectors and products - Types of products from the following engineering sectors: Automotive Engineering Modern automotive engineering, along with aerospace engineering and marine engineering, is a branch of vehicle engineering, incorporating elements of mechanical, electrical, electronic, software and safety engineering as applied to the design, manufacture and operation of motorcycles, automobiles, buses and trucks and their respective engineering subsystems. The automotive industry is a term that covers a wide range of companies and organisations involved in the design, development, manufacture, marketing, and selling of motor vehicles, towed vehicles, motorcycles and mopeds. It is one of the world's most important economic sectors by revenue. Topics / Content Topic A1: Engineering sectors and products - Types of products from the following engineering sectors: Communications Engineering Telecommunications engineering, or telecom engineering, is an engineering discipline that brings together electrical engineering with computer science to enhance telecommunication systems. The work ranges from basic circuit design to strategic mass developments. A telecommunication engineer is responsible for designing and overseeing the installation of telecommunications equipment and facilities, such as complex electronic switching systems, copper wire telephone facilities, and fiber optics. Telecommunication is a diverse field of engineering which is connected to electronics, civil, structural, and electrical engineering. Ultimately, telecom engineers are responsible for providing the method for customers to have telephone and high-speed data services. Telecom engineers use a variety of equipment and transport media available from a multitude of manufacturers to design the telecom network infrastructure. The most common media, often referred to as plant in the telecom industry, used by telecommunications companies today are copper, coaxial cable, fiber, and radio. Telecom engineers are often expected, as most engineers are, to provide the best solution possible for the lowest cost to the company. This often leads to creative solutions to problems that often would have been designed differently without the budget constraints dictated by modern society. In the earlier days of the telecom industry, massive amounts of cable were placed that were never used or have been replaced by modern technology such as fiber optic cable and digital multiplexing techniques. Telecom engineers are also responsible for overseeing the companies' records of equipment and facility assets. Their work directly impacts assigning appropriate accounting codes for taxes and maintenance purposes, budgeting and overseeing projects. Topics / Content Topic A1: Engineering sectors and products - Types of products from the following engineering sectors: Electronic / Electrical Engineering Electrical engineering is a field of engineering that generally deals with the study and application of electricity, electronics, and electromagnetism. This field first became an identifiable occupation in the latter half of the 19th century after commercialisation of the electric telegraph, the telephone, and electric power distribution and use. It now covers a wide range of subfields including electronics, digital computers, power engineering, telecommunications, control systems, RF engineering, and signal processing. Electrical engineering may include electronic engineering. Electrical engineering is considered to deal with the problems associated with systems such as electric power transmission and electrical machines, whereas electronic engineering deals with the study of electronic systems including computers, communication systems, integrated circuits, and radar. Topics / Content Topic A1: Engineering sectors and products - Types of products from the following engineering sectors: Mechanical Engineering Mechanical engineering is a discipline of engineering that applies the principles of engineering, physics and materials science for analysis, design, manufacturing, and maintenance of mechanical systems. It is the branch of engineering that involves the production and usage of heat and mechanical power for the design, production, and operation of machines and tools. It is one of the oldest and broadest engineering disciplines. The engineering field requires an understanding of core concepts including mechanics, kinematics, thermodynamics, materials science, structural analysis, and electricity. Mechanical engineers use these core principles along with tools like computer-aided engineering, and product lifecycle management to design and analyze manufacturing plants, industrial equipment and machinery, heating and cooling systems, transport systems, aircraft, watercraft, robotics, medical devices, weapons, and others. Mechanical engineering emerged as a field during the industrial revolution in Europe in the 18th century; however, its development can be traced back several thousand years around the world. Mechanical engineering science emerged in the 19th century as a result of developments in the field of physics. The field has continually evolved to incorporate advancements in technology, and mechanical engineers today are pursuing developments in such fields as composites, mechatronics, and nanotechnology. Mechanical engineering overlaps with aerospace engineering, metallurgical engineering, civil engineering, electrical engineering, petroleum engineering, manufacturing engineering, chemical engineering, and other engineering disciplines to varying amounts. Mechanical engineers may also work in the field of Biomedical engineering, specifically with biomechanics, transport phenomena, biomechatronics, bionanotechnology and modeling of biological systems, like soft tissue mechanics. Topics / Content Topic A1: Engineering sectors and products - Types of products from the following engineering sectors: Biomedical Engineering Biomedical engineering (BME) is the application of engineering principles and design concepts to medicine and biology for healthcare purposes (e.g. diagnostic or therapeutic). This field seeks to close the gap between engineering and medicine: It combines the design and problem solving skills of engineering with medical and biological sciences to advance healthcare treatment, including diagnosis, monitoring, and therapy. Biomedical engineering has only recently emerged as its own study, compared to many other engineering fields. Such an evolution is common as a new field transitions from being an interdisciplinary specialisation among already-established fields, to being considered a field in itself. Much of the work in biomedical engineering consists of research and development, spanning a broad array of subfields (see below). Prominent biomedical engineering applications include the development of biocompatible prostheses, various diagnostic and therapeutic medical devices ranging from clinical equipment to micro-implants, common imaging equipment such as MRIs and EEGs, regenerative tissue growth, pharmaceutical drugs and therapeutic biologicals. Topics / Content Topic A1: Engineering sectors and products - Types of products from the following engineering sectors: Chemical Engineering Chemical engineering is a branch of engineering that applies the physical sciences (e.g., chemistry and physics) and/or life sciences (e.g.biology, microbiology and biochemistry) together with mathematics and economics to production, transformation, transportation and proper usage of molecules, chemicals, materials and energy. Modern chemical engineers are concerned with processes that convert raw-materials or chemicals into more useful or valuable forms. In addition, they are also concerned with pioneering valuable materials and related techniques – which are often essential to related fields such as nanotechnology, fuel cells and bioengineering. Within chemical engineering, two broad subgroups include design, manufacture, and operation of plants and machinery in industrial chemical and related processes ("chemical process engineers") and development of new or adapted substances for products ranging from foods and beverages to cosmetics to cleaners to pharmaceutical ingredients, among many other products ("chemical product engineers"). Topics / Content Topic A2: Mechanical and electrical/electronic engineering processes including health and safety issues, characteristics, applications and advantages/disadvantages of the following engineering processes: Milling is the machining process of using rotary cutters to remove material from a work piece advancing (or feeding) in a direction at an angle with the axis of the tool. It covers a wide variety of different operations and machines, on scales from small individual parts to large, heavy-duty gang milling operations. It is one of the most commonly used processes in industry and machine shops today for machining parts to precise sizes and shapes. Topics / Content Topic A2: Mechanical and electrical/electronic engineering processes including health and safety issues, characteristics, applications and advantages/disadvantages of the following engineering processes: Turning can be done manually, in a traditional form of lathe, which frequently requires continuous supervision by the operator, or by using an automated lathe which does not. Today the most common type of such automation is computer numerical control, better known as CNC. (CNC is also commonly used with many other types of machining besides turning.) When turning, a piece of relatively rigid material (such as wood, metal, plastic, or stone) is rotated and a cutting tool is traversed along 1, 2, or 3 axes of motion to produce precise diameters and depths. Turning can be either on the outside of the cylinder or on the inside (also known as boring) to produce tubular components to various geometries. Although now quite rare, early lathes could even be used to produce complex geometric figures. The turning processes are typically carried out on a lathe, considered to be the oldest machine tools, and can be of four different types such as straight turning, taper turning, profiling or external grooving. Those types of turning processes can produce various shapes of materials such as straight,conical, curved, or grooved workpiece. In general, turning uses simple single-point cutting tools. Each group of workpiece materials has an optimum set of tools angles which have been developed through the years. Topics / Content Topic A2: Mechanical and electrical/electronic engineering processes including health and safety issues, characteristics, applications and advantages/disadvantages of the following engineering processes: Drilling engineers design and implement procedures to drill wells as safely and economically as possible. They work closely with the drilling contractor, service contractors, and compliance personnel, as well as with geologists and other technical specialists. The drilling engineer has the responsibility for ensuring that costs are minimized while getting information to evaluate the formations penetrated, protecting the health and safety of workers and other personnel, and protecting the environment. Exceptionally, specially-shaped bits can cut holes of non-circular cross-section; a square cross-section is possible. A drill is a tool fitted with a cutting tool attachment or driving tool attachment, usually a drill bit or driver bit, used for boring holes in various materials or fastening various materials together with the use of fasteners. The attachment is gripped by a chuck at one end of the drill and rotated while pressed against the target material. The tip, and sometimes edges, of the cutting tool does the work of cutting into the target material. Drills are commonly used in woodworking, metalworking, construction and do-it-yourself projects. Specially designed drills are also used in medicine, space missions and other applications. Drills are available with a wide variety of performance characteristics, such as power and capacity. Topics / Content Topic A2: Mechanical and electrical/electronic engineering processes including health and safety issues, characteristics, applications and advantages/disadvantages of the following engineering processes: Casting is a manufacturing process by which a liquid material is usually poured into a mold, which contains a hollow cavity of the desired shape, and then allowed to solidify. The solidified part is also known as a casting, which is ejected or broken out of the mold to complete the process. Casting materials are usually metals or various cold setting materials that cure after mixing two or more components together; examples are epoxy, concrete, plaster and clay. Casting is most often used for making complex shapes that would be otherwise difficult or uneconomical to make by other methods. Topics / Content Topic A2: Mechanical and electrical/electronic engineering processes including health and safety issues, characteristics, applications and advantages/disadvantages of the following engineering processes: Forging is a manufacturing process involving the shaping of metal using localised compressive forces. Forging is often classified according to the temperature at which it is performed: "cold", "warm", or "hot" forging. Forged parts can range in weight from less than a kilogram to 580 metric tons. Forged parts usually require further processing to achieve a finished part. Forging as an art form started with the desire to produce decorative objects from precious metals. Today, forging is a major world-wide industry that has significantly contributed to humanity's development. Forging can produce a piece that is stronger than an equivalent cast or machined part. As the metal is shaped during the forging process, its internal grain deforms to follow the general shape of the part. As a result, the grain is continuous throughout the part, giving rise to a piece with improved strength characteristics. Some metals may be forged cold, but iron and steel are almost always hot forged. Hot forging prevents the work hardening that would result from cold forging, which would increase the difficulty of performing secondary machining operations on the piece. Also, while work hardening may be desirable in some circumstances, other methods of hardening the piece, such as heat treating, are generally more economical and more controllable. Production forging involves significant capital expenditure for machinery, tooling, facilities and personnel. In the case of hot forging, a high-temperature furnace (sometimes referred to as the forge) is required to heat ingots or billets. Owing to the massiveness of large forging hammers and presses and the parts they can produce, as well as the dangers inherent in working with hot metal, a special building is frequently required to house the operation. In the case of drop forging operations, provisions must be made to absorb the shock and vibration generated by the hammer. Most forging operations use metal-forming dies, which must be precisely machined and carefully heat-treated to correctly shape the work piece, as well as to withstand the tremendous forces involved. Topics / Content Topic A2: Mechanical and electrical/electronic engineering processes including health and safety issues, characteristics, applications and advantages/disadvantages of the following engineering processes: Welding is a fabrication or sculptural process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing coalescence. This is often done by melting the work pieces and adding a filler material to form a pool of molten material (the weld pool) that cools to become a strong joint, with pressure sometimes used in conjunction with heat, or by itself, to produce the weld. Many different energy sources can be used for welding, including a gas flame, an electric arc, a laser, an electron beam, friction, and ultrasound. While often an industrial process, welding may be performed in many different environments, including open air, under water and in outer space. Welding is a potentially hazardous undertaking and precautions are required to avoid burns, electric shock, vision damage, inhalation of poisonous gases and fumes, and exposure to intense ultraviolet radiation. Topics / Content Topic A2: Mechanical and electrical/electronic engineering processes including health and safety issues, characteristics, applications and advantages/disadvantages of the following engineering processes: Shearing, also known as die cutting, is a process which cuts stock without the formation of chips or the use of burning or melting. Strictly speaking, if the cutting blades are straight the process is called shearing; if the cutting blades are curved then they are shearing-type operations. The most commonly sheared materials are in the form of sheet metal or plates, however rods can also be sheared. Shearing-type operations include: blanking, piercing, roll slitting, and trimming. It is used in metalworking and also with paper and plastics. Topics / Content Topic A2: Mechanical and electrical/electronic engineering processes including health and safety issues, characteristics, applications and advantages/disadvantages of the following engineering processes: Electronic circuits in schools and industry are normally manufactured through the use of PCBs (Printed Circuit Boards). The boards are made from glass reinforced plastic with copper tracks in the place of wires. Components are fixed in position by drilling holes through the board, locating the components and then soldering them in place. The copper tracks link the components together forming a circuit. The animation shows the components arranged on the 'component side' of the PCB and as it rotates, the copper tracks are also shown. Surface-mount technology (SMT) is a method for producing electronic circuits in which the components are mounted or placed directly onto the surface of printed circuit boards (PCBs). An electronic device so made is called a surface-mount device (SMD). In the industry it has largely replaced the through-hole technology construction method of fitting components with wire leads into holes in the circuit board. Both technologies can be used on the same board for components not suited to surface mounting such as large transformers and heat-sinked power semiconductors. An SMT component is usually smaller than its through-hole counterpart because it has either smaller leads or no leads at all. It may have short pins or leads of various styles, flat contacts, a matrix of solder balls (BGAs), or terminations on the body of the component. http://www.technologystudent.com/pcb/PCB3A.htm Topics / Content Topic A3: Scales of production Characteristics and advantages/disadvantages of the following scales of production used in engineering manufacture: One-off production In one-off production a single product is designed and made to a client's specification. Labour and material costs are high, and a high level of design and manufacturing skills are needed. An example of one-off production would be a made-to-measure wedding dress. Batch production In batch production set quantities of a product are manufactured to order. Batch production requires a high level of design, pattern making and sampling skills. Materials are cost-effective and manufacturing costs are lower than one-off production. Garments are designed to fit a range of standard sizes and shapes. The quantity varies from a set of four cushions made by a designer/maker to 20,000 jumpers made for a department store. Mass production Mass production of textiles products in a factory Mass production is the industrial-scale manufacture of large quantities of products, usually on a production line. Standardised production methods mean it is suitable for products that rarely need to be redesigned. Mass production is used for products that are needed in very large numbers, eg socks or jeans. Often, products are made overseas where labour costs are lower. Continuous PRODUCTION LINE SET UP 2. PRODUCTION LINE SPLIT INTO SEPARATE OPERATIONS. UNSKILLED AND SEMI SKILLED WORKFORCE REQUIRED. 3. PRODUCTION LINE RUNS 24 HOURS A DAY 365 DAYS A YEAR. 4. HIGH LEVEL OF FINANCIAL INVESTMENT NEEDED AS SPECIALIST MACHINERY IS USUALLY REQUIRED. 5. QUALITY CONTROL AT EVERY STAGE. Topics / Content Topic A4: Modern production methods Applications and advantages/disadvantages of the following modern production methods for Production/assembly lines: An industrial robot is defined as an automatically controlled, reprogrammable, multipurpose manipulator programmable in three or more axes. The field of robotics may be more practically defined as the study, design and use of robot systems for manufacturing (a top-level definition relying on the prior definition of robot). Typical applications of robots include welding, painting, assembly, pick and place (such as packaging, palletising and SMT), product inspection, and testing; all accomplished with high endurance, speed, and precision. Topics / Content Topic A4: Modern production methods Applications and advantages/disadvantages of the following modern production methods for Production/assembly lines: Numerical control (NC) is the automation of machine tools that are operated by precisely programmed commands encoded on a storage medium, as opposed to controlled manually via hand wheels or levers, or mechanically automated via cams alone. Most NC today is computer numerical control(CNC), in which computers play an integral part of the control. In modern CNC systems, end-to-end component design is highly automated using computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing(CAM) programs. The programs produce a computer file that is interpreted to extract the commands needed to operate a particular machine via a post processor, and then loaded into the CNC machines for production. Since any particular component might require the use of a number of different tools – drills, saws, etc., modern machines often combine multiple tools into a single "cell". In other installations, a number of different machines are used with an external controller and human or robotic operators that move the component from machine to machine. In either case, the series of steps needed to produce any part is highly automated and produces a part that closely matches the original CAD design.