Definition • Civil Liberties -- Rights that need protection from the government • Civil Rights -- Rights that need protection by the government The Civil Rights Movement Warm-Up Question Answer in 2-3 complete sentences • Are civil rights fairly given or must they be taken? What was life like before the Civil Rights movement? • Use the pictures in the following slides to make some statements describing life in the U.S. before the Civil Rights movement. Civil Rights on the Global Stage World War II and the Korean War • During World War II and the Korean War, racial minorities such as African-Americans, Hispanics, or Native Americans had made many gains. The U.S. military had needed their help and had allowed them to fight. Many came home heroes and earned respect. World War II and the Korean War • Most people believed America had fought those wars for democracy and freedom. Racial segregation started to seem un-American to many. People remembered that Hitler and the other “bad guys” had been racists. The Cold War • During the Cold War, America was trying to convince the world that it was better than the Soviet Union, racism made America look bad to the rest of the world. • Communists could use America’s racism as an example showing that the U.S. was evil. Television • With the arrival of television, Americans could watch the news every day. The nonviolent civil disobedience used by King made the civil rights protesters look like good people and made their opponents look hateful, violent, and ugly. People could also hear Dr. King’s inspiring speeches. He was a powerful speaker who knew how to change people’s hearts and minds. What is segregation? • Segregation is the separation of people according to race or ethnicity. • Segregation can be about separating AfricanAmericans from Whites, or about separating Hispanics from Whites. • Before 1950 segregation was common and normal in the U.S.A. Segregation deprived minorities of their rights. Two kinds of segregation • de jure segregation – Segregation by law • de facto segregation – Segregation without laws • Common in the South • Common in the North Examples Examples • Laws forbid AfricanAmericans from attending the same church, using the same swimming pool, eating in restaurants, or marrying White people. • Housing discrimination made segregation in the North. White community groups did not allow nonWhites to live in White neighborhoods. Every ethnic group had its own part of town. How were the Civil Rights taken? • Civil rights leaders used non-violent protests, civil disobedience, and legal action to change the U.S. non-violent protest Protests that are peaceful and passive in nature • Boycotts – Refusing to buy goods or services from a business in order to force it to change its policies • Hunger strikes – Refusing to eat anything in order to get attention for your cause • Petitions – Writing a letter to ask the government or a company to change its policy, and then getting as many people to sign it as possible. • Marches and demonstrations – Getting as many people as possible to gather in one place to get attention to your cause • Strikes – Refusing to work in order to force your managers or government to change their policies Civil disobedience • Breaking the law or causing a disturbance in order to get attention for your cause. Example • Sit ins • The protesters come into a place, sit down, and refuse to move. Legal action • Lawyers can challenge a law or policy in court. If they convince the judge that the law or policy is unconstitutional, then the judge will order them to change. • People can speak at government hearings or meetings and try to convince legislators to make new laws or repeal unfair ones. Key Victories that take place during the Civil Rights movement Linda Brown • In 1951, a girl named Linda Brown wanted to go to school. The white school was very close by, but the African-American school was far away. Her parents sued the Board of Education to try to force them to allow Linda to attend the white school. Linda Brown • In 1954, in the case of Brown v. Board of Education, the Supreme Court decided to hear Linda’s case. Chief Justice Earl Warren said that segregation in public schools is unconstitutional. He ordered all the schools to end segregation. Rosa Parks • In Alabama, the bus company had a rule that said all African-Americans had to sit in the back of the bus. • In 1955, Rosa Parks, an African-American women, was coming home from work and was very tired. The seats in the back were full, but the front seats were empty. She sat down in the front. When the bus driver ordered her to move, she refused. He called the police and they arrested her. Rosa Parks • The minister of Rosa’s church, Martin Luther King Jr., decided to get involved. He told the AfricanAmericans to stop riding the bus. For months, African-Americans walked or gave each other rides. The bus company was losing a lot of money because most of their passengers were African-Americans. Eventually, they were forced to change their rule. Then, in 1956, the Supreme Court declared segregation on public transportation unconstitutional. This success made MLK Jr. a household name across the U.S. College students in Greensboro • In 1960, many restaurants would not serve AfricanAmericans. To protest this, some AfricanAmerican college students in Greensboro, North Carolina decided to go to a lunch counter at a Woolworth’s Department store and order food. The servers refused to serve them, but the students refused to leave. College students in Greensboro • These lunch counter protests spread throughout the U.S. Many white students came along to support the African-Americans. College students in Greensboro • The students always stayed peaceful, even when attacked or arrested. This made them look good and made the racists look hateful and evil. This strategy was very successful for convincing White people to support civil rights for minorities. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. • Dr. King Jr. became a popular leader. He told people that AfricanAmericans could only end segregation by non-violent methods. • He organized a march in Birmingham, Alabama to protest against segregation. People came from all over the U.S. to join him. • Many whites also joined these marches, and most of the marchers were students. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. • Police attacked the marchers violently and the marchers didn’t fight back. People all over the nation watched it on television and started supporting the civil rights movement. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. • Dr. King’s biggest demonstration was in Washington, D.C. in 1963. 250,000 people came. King made a speech that was broadcasted on live television. That speech is called “I Have a Dream.” It is his most famous speech. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. • King met with President Kennedy and members of congress to convince them to pass new laws. They passed the 24th Amendment and the Voting Rights Act of 1965. These allowed African-Americans to vote and elect their own candidates without paying a poll tax and . Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. • In 1968, he travelled to Memphis, Tennessee to support some AfricanAmerican sanitation workers. They had stopped working to protest being treated unfairly by the city government. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. • Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. was assassinated while in Memphis. His death made him more popular and increased sympathy for AfricanAmericans, however. How did the Civil Rights Movement Change Your Life? Brown v. Board of Education • The Supreme Court decided that segregated schools were unconstitutional and ordered schools to accept racial minorities. • Think about it. – “Because of the Supreme Court’s decision in Brown v. Board…” – “If they hadn’t changed the rules, then I…” The Civil Rights Act of 1964 • Because of the Civil Rights movement, Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1964. This law ended all racial discrimination in public facilities such as restrooms, restaurants, buses, movie theaters, and swimming pools. • Think about it. – “If they hadn’t changed the rules, then I…” Immigration Reform • Before the Civil Rights Movement, American immigration laws were very racist. People who were not white were generally not allowed to come to the U.S. • The Civil Rights Movement led to the end of those racist immigration laws and gave us the open immigration laws we have today. • Think about it… – “If not for the changes in the immigration laws during the Civil Rights Movement, then I…” Lau v. Nichols • In 1967, schools had no ESOL classes, so immigrants could not learn English and be successful in school. • In the Supreme Court case Lau v. Nichols, the court decided that schools must provide special classes to help students who need to learn English. • Think about it… – “If not for the Supreme Court’s decision in Lau v. Nichols…” Look around you. • The America you see today is a product of the Civil Rights Movement. We all have better lives because of their sacrifices. Eyes on the Prize Video Questions 1. What is the difference between desegregation and integration? What is required for each? 2. Why was school desegregation so explosive? 3. The NAACP chose to contest segregation in federal courts. What myths did it force people to confront? What other avenues of protest were open to blacks in America? 4. How can a democracy ensure that it is not undermined by mob rule? 5. What is the role of the federal government in protecting the freedoms guaranteed to all American citizens when the state fails to do so? What role does the US Constitution play in protecting the rights of American citizens?