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Report
Lightning and Surge Protection
according to IEC 62305
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO 16016
Lightning and Surge Protection
1
Damage due to
Lightning and
Surges
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO 16016
Lightning and Surge Protection
2
Danger due to Lightning Strokes
approx. 1,900,000 lightning strokes in Germany per year*
ABC Company
MCR
data
telephone
110 kV
mobile phone
400/230 V
TV
*Ref.: BLIDS, Siemens AG, Analysis of 2001 - 2005
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO 16016
Lightning and Surge Protection
3
Lightning flasches cloud to earth
Quelle: http://thunder.msfc.nasa.gov/images/HRFC_AnnualFlashRate_0.5.png
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO 16016
Lightning and Surge Protection
4
Branch-specific Costs caused by a
One-hour Loss of Production
Branch
Costs of a one-hour
loss of production
Paper
approx. 10,000 €
Brewery
approx.
10,000 €
Car Industry Supplier
approx.
12,500 €
Power Stations
approx.
90,000 €
Car Industry
(depending on the section)
approx.
250,000 €
Computing Centre
approx.
500,000 €
(the potential data loss can no
longer be quantified)
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO 16016
Lightning and Surge Protection
5
Generation and
Effects
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO 16016
Lightning and Surge Protection
6
Causes of Surges due to Lightning Discharges
Direct lightning strike:
2b
1 Striking of external lightning protection
2a
system, process structure (in industrial
plants), cables etc.
Voltage drop at the implse
1a earthing resistance R
st
1
Induced voltage
1b in loops
L1
L2
L3
PEN
20 kV
Distant lightning Strike:
2a
2c
2b
1b
Strike into mediumvoltage overhead lines
Surge travelling waves
on overhead lines
due to cloud-to-cloud
lightning
Rst
IT network
Fields of the
2c lightning strike
1a
power supply
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO 16016
Lightning and Surge Protection
7
Galvanic Coupling
Lightning Voltage for a System
Lightning Prot. Level
I
II
III - IV
Current amplitude kA
200
150
100
i
î
Ref.: IEC 62305
wave form 10 / 350 µs
ûE = î · Rst
EBB
Rst
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO 16016
Example:
ûE = 100 kA · 1  = 100 kV
Surge Protection
t
Influences on Electrical Installations
Causes of Surges
Direct lightning strike (LEMP)
•Galvanic coupling
•Inductive / Capacitive
coupling
Indirect lightning strike
• Conducted partial lightning
currents
• Inductive / Capacitive coupling
Surges (SEMP)
M
•
•
•
•
Switching operations
Earth faults / Short circuits
Tripping fuses
Parallel installation of power and IT conductor
systems
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO 16016
Lightning and Surge Protection
9
Lightning Current Parameters according to IEC 62305
Parameters
Lightning Protection Level
I
I (kA)
W/R (MJ/)
200
10
II
III-IV
150
100
5.6
2.5
Qs (As)
100
75
50
Q long (As)
200
150
100
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO 16016
Lightning and Surge Protection
10
International
Standardisation
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO 16016
Lightning and Surge Protection
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IEC 62305 International lightning protection standard
IEC 62305-1
General Principles
IEC 62305-2
Risk Management
IEC 62305-3
Physical Damage to
Structures and Life Hazard
IEC 62305-4
Electrical and Electronic
Systems
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO 16016
Lightning and Surge Protection
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IEC 62305 International lightning protection standard
62305-1
General Principles
62305-2
Risk
62305-3
Physical damage
and life hazard
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO 16016
62305-4
Electrical- and
electronic systems
Lightning and Surge Protection
13
IEC 62305-2 Risk Management
By working through series of formulae the process
allows the user to decide what protection is required.
The actual risk (R) must be below the tolerable level
(Rt).
The ultimate protection may be the installation of a
LPS system. Direct strike lightning arresters (LEMP) and
surge arresters (SEMP).
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO 16016
Lightning and Surge Protection
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IEC 62305-3 Physical damage to structures and
life hazard
Introduction
a) External LPS (air termination system, down
contuctor‘s, earth termination system).
b) An internal LPS (preventing dangerous sparking
using equipotential bonding or separation
distance (hence electrical insulation) between
external LPS and internal metalwork.
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO 16016
Lightning and Surge Protection
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IEC 62305-4 Electrical- and electronic systems
within structures
Scope:
Provides information for design, installation, inspection,
maintenance and testing of a LEMP protection system (LPM) for
electrical and electronic systems within a structure able to
reduce risk of permanent failure due to LEMP.
Basic protection measures in a LPM system
– Earthing and Bonding
– Magnetic shielding and line routing
– Direct strike and surge protection
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO 16016
Lightning and Surge Protection
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Standardisation of Surge Protective Devices
IEC 61643-1
Performance Requirements of Surge Protective Devices
for Low-Voltage Power Supply Systems
Class I
Protection Against
Direct Lightning
Currents
(Lightning Current
Arrester)
Class II
Protection Against
Indirect Lightning
Effects
(Surge Arrester)
Class III
Protection Against
Switching
Overvoltages
(Surge Arrester)
(10/350 µs)
(8/20 µs)
(1.2/50 µs; 8/20 µs)
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO 16016
Lightning and Surge Protection
17
External Lightning
Protection System
Air Termination System
Downconductor
Earth Termination System
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Lightning and Surge Protection
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External Lightning Protection System
air termination system
down conductor
earth termination system
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO 16016
Lightning and Surge Protection
19
EMC-orientated
Lightning Protection
Zones Concept
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO 16016
Lightning and Surge Protection
20
EMC-Orientated Lightning Protection Zones Concept
LEMP
LPZ 0 A
air-termination system
LPZ 0 B
M
LPZ 0 A
LPZ 1
downconductor
system
LEMP
spatial shield
air ventilation
terminal device
LPZ 3
LPZ 2
LEMP
LPZ 0 B
power
supply
system
LPZ 2
SEMP
IT
system
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO 16016
Lightning equipotential bonding
Lightning current arrester
(SPD Type 1)
Local equipotential bonding
Surge arrester
(SPD Type 2, SPD Type 3)
LPZ 1
LPZ 0 C
steel reinforcement
Lightning and Surge Protection
foundation earthing
electrode
21
Internal Lightning
Protection
Lightning Equipotential Bonding
Surge Protection
Coordination
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO 16016
Lightning and Surge Protection
22
Internal Lightning Protection System
Based on IEC 62305-4
Equipotential Bonding at the Boundary of LPZ
Equipotential bonding for all metal parts and supply lines (e.g. metal
pipes, electrical power or data lines) which are entering at the
boundary of an internal LPZ shall be carried out at equipotential
bonding bars which are installed as closely as possible to the point of
entry.
SPDs with suitable power carrying capacity for electrical power and
data lines at the point of entry into the LPZ have always to be installed.
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO 16016
Lightning and Surge Protection
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Lightning Equipotential Bonding
for incoming Lines
lightning equipotential bonding
EBB
LPZ 1
external lightning protection system
LPZ 0
power
supply
water
M
gas
heating
cathodic protected tank pipe
foundation earthing electrode
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO 16016
Lightning and Surge Protection
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Lightning current
arrester
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO 16016
Lightning and Surge Protection
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Internal Lightning Protection
Surge Protective Devices
Based on IEC 62305-4
Surge protective devices for lightning equipotential bonding must be
capable of safely controlling the partial lightning currents to be
expected to flow through them.
For this purpose, surge protective devices are chosen according to the
requirements on site and installed in accordance with IEC 60364-5-53
The residual voltage at the surge protective device installed into the
building, has to be coordinated with the impulse withstand capability of
the installation.
Surge protective devices Class I to be installed at the entry of the
building, keep a significant part of the power of lightning currents away
from the inside of the building.
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO 16016
Lightning and Surge Protection
26
What is a Lightning Current Arrester installed into
a Power Supply System supposed to perform?
Discharging of lightning currents several times without desctruction of
the equipment.
= Discharge capacity 100 kA (10/350 µs)
Providing of a lower voltage protection level than the voltage strength
of the downstream installation.
Extinguishing or limiting of mains follow currents.
Ensuring of the energy coordination to downstream surge protective
devices and/or terminal equipment.
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO 16016
Lightning and Surge Protection
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1 Test Impulse Curent for Lightning Current Arresters
2 Test Impulse Current for Surge Arresters
1
2
10/350
8/20
i max. [kA]
100
5
Q [As]
50
0.1
W/R [J/]
2.5 · 106
0.4 · 103
Standard
IEC
62305-1
EN
60060-2
100 kA
Wave form µs]
I (kA) 80 kA
60 kA
50 kA
40 kA
1
20 kA
2
20 µs
200 µs
350 µs
600 µs
800 µs
1000 µs
t (µs)
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO 16016
Lightning and Surge Protection
28
Overvoltage Categories according to IEC 60364-4-44
Use of Surge Protective Devices (SPD)
rated voltage
withstand voltage 6 kV
4 kV
voltage protection
level
 2.5kV
2.5 kV household appliances
1.5 kV sensitive devices
 1.5 kV
terminal
device
SDB
SE
M
230/400 V
SPD Type
(SPD class)
1
(I)
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO 16016
2
(II)
3
(III)
Lightning and Surge Protection
3
(IV)
29
Surge Protection
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO 16016
Lightning and Surge Protection
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What is a Surge Arrester installed into a Power
Supply System supposed to perform?
Discharging of impulse currents (8/20 µs) several times
without destroying the terminal equipment
= 20 x nominal discharge capacity 5 - 20 kA (8/20 µs)
Voltage protection level lower than the electrical strength of the
downstream terminal devices
= Voltage protection level  1,500 V
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO 16016
Lightning and Surge Protection
31
Overvoltage Categories according to IEC 60364-4-44
Use of Surge Protective Devices (SPD)
rated voltage
withstand voltage 6 kV
4 kV
voltage protection
level
 2.5kV
2.5 kV household appliances
1.5 kV sensitive devices
 1.5 kV
terminal
device
SDB
SE
M
230/400 V
SPD Type
(SPD class)
1
(I)
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO 16016
2
(II)
3
(III)
Lightning and Surge Protection
3
(IV)
32
Coordination of
SPDs
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO 16016
Lightning and Surge Protection
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Energy Coordination of SPDs
Based on IEC 62305-4
As soon as two or more SPDs are connected in series, the coordination
of the SPDs and the equipment to be protected has to be checked.
Energy coordination is achieved as soon as the ratio of energy for all
impulse currents for each SPD is equal or less than corresponds to its
power withstand capability.
The power withstand capability can be determined
– by an electrical test according to IEC 61643-1,
– from the technical data of the manufacturer of the SPDs
Conclusion: The coordination of the SPDs can only be verified by
the manufacturer!
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO 16016
Lightning and Surge Protection
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Energy Coordination of Surge Protective Devices (SPDs)
input interference;
lightning impulse current 10/350 µs
residual interference
impulse current 8/20 µs
residual interference
uncritical for terminal
device
terminal
device
230 / 400 V
?
DEHNbloc® M
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO 16016
DEHNguard S
®
varistor
S 20 K 275
DEHNsafe
Lightning and Surge Protection
35
Energy Coordination
Overview: SPDs Type 1
SE
230/400 V
M
SDB
DEHNventil® M
DEHNventil® ZP
Red / Line Terminal Unit
Type 3
Combined SPD
Voltage protection level
 1.5 kV
DEHNbloc® M
DEHNgap M
Red / Line
Type 2
Red / Line
Terminal Unit
Type 3
DEHNbloc® H
Red / Line
Type 2
Red / Line
Terminal Unit
Type 3
Coordinated lightning
current arrester
Voltage protection level
 2.5 kV
Lightning current arrester
Voltage protection level  4 kV
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO 16016
Surge Protection
Examples of
Lightning current
and surge arrester
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO 16016
Lightning and Surge Protection
37
DEHNventil® M
Characteristics
Low voltage
protection level =
Protection for
terminal devices
Capable of carrying
lightning currents =
For use in lightning
protection level
Easy exchange of
protection modules ...
Plastic snap-in device
with “parking position“
= Quick installation
... due to module
releasing button
Leakage-current-free
operating state and
fault indication for
all protective circuits
Coding in base part
and protection
module =
Safe application
Remote signalling
contact as floating
changeover contact
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO 16016
Leakage-current-free
protective circuit =
Allows for use upstream
of meter panels
Lightning and Surge Protection
38
Coordinated lightning current arrester DEHNbloc M
Type: DB M 1 255 (FM) / Part No.: 961 120 (961 125)
Type of connection to earth
TN/TT 230/400 V a.c.
Coordinated, single-pole Type 1
lightning current arrester in
accordance with EN 61643-11
with a modular device design
Maximum continuous
operating voltage a.c.
UC = 255 V a.c.
RADAX-Flow technology
Encapsulated, non-exhausting
creepage spark gap
Follow current extinguishing
capability a.c.: up to 50 kArms
Directly coordinated to
DEHNguard S 275 (FM) surge
protective devices without
additional cable length
Lightning impulse current
(10/350 μs): 50 kA
Voltage protection level  2.5 kV
Optionally available with remote signalling contact for
central monitoring units (floating changeover contact)
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO 16016
Lightning and Surge Protection
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Red / Line
DEHNguard® M Family
SPD Type 2
DEHNguard® S (FM)
DEHNguard® M TN 275 (FM)
DEHNguard® M TT 2P 275 (FM)
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO 16016
Lightning and Surge Protection
DEHNguard® M TNC 275 (FM)
DEHNguard® M TNS 275 (FM)
DEHNguard® M TT 275 (FM)
40
DEHNguard M Family
Characteristics

High-capacity varistor-based SPD
- Nominal discharge current In (20x) = 20 kA (8/20 µs)
- Maximum discharge current Imax (1x) = 40 kA (8/20 µs)
- Low voltage protection level at In = 1.25 kV

High safety due to Thermo Dynamic Control
SPD controlling device

Operating state and fault indication of all
protective circuits, free of operating and
leakage currents

Energy coordinated within the
Red/Line product family

5 application-specific circuit types with and
without remote signalling contact
= 10 types of devices
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO 16016
Lightning and Surge Protection
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Surge Protective Device Type 3
Use in Distribution Boards / Switchgear Cabinets
SPS Protector
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO 16016
DEHNrail modular (FM)
Lightning and Surge Protection
DEHNrail M 4P 255
42
Characteristics of the
DEHNrail M (DR M ....) Series



Discharge current up to 8 kA
Different nominal voltages, from 24 V up to 230 V
Maximum operating current: 25 A

Low voltage protection level L to N and L/N to PE

Operating state and fault indication,
free of operating and leakage currents

© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO 16016
Lightning and Surge Protection
43

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