4. SECTION B: SOCIAL ISSUES IN THE UK Study Theme 2: Wealth and Health in the UK Learning Intentions: • Understand that inequality in health exists • Be able to give specific examples as evidence that inequality in health exists • Start making links to what you have already learnt about income inequality Pupil as Teacher A volunteer(s) has to summarise the last lesson and question the class on what was studied. Evidence of Inequality in Health • The gap in life expectancy at birth between Kensington and Chelsea • • • • • and Glasgow is to 13.5 years for males and from 11.8 years for females. This meant boys born in Glasgow between 2008 and 2010 could expect to live until 71.6 years. Girls born in the city at the same time had a life expectancy of 78 years. The ONS said this suggested "that health inequalities across the UK are increasing". The latest ONS analysis shows that under 18 conception rates were highest in the most deprived parts of England in 2009–11. Males in the most advantaged areas can expect to live 19 years longer in ‘Good’ health than those in the least advantaged areas. Taken to extremes a Glaswegian man can expect to receive £50,000 less in state pension than a man from Harrow, comparing the place in Scotland with the lowest life expectancy with England's longest-lived area. ONS - Health Inequality STOP! Write down 3 key facts about life expectancy in the UK Life expectancy for both males and females in Kensington and Chelsea is the highest in the UK. North/South Divide Scotland • Life expectancy shows a growing north-south divide • Men in London can live up to 14 years longer than their • • • • Glaswegian counterparts Glasgow is on a par with life expectancy in Albania and Palestine Women continue to have a longer life expectancy than men, although in some parts of the country the gap between the sexes is narrowing fast. London has had the biggest increase in life expectancy* However, the figures reveal huge differences between the rich and poor parts of the capital. Life expectancy at birth for males in Kensington and Chelsea is 85, but just a few miles away in Lewisham and Newham male life expectancy is less than 77. STOP! Write down 3 key facts about the North South Divide Scotland • Glasgow remains the local authority with the worst record on both male and female life expectancy, although it did see a rise from 71 to 72 for males between 2007-2010 • Glasgow also has remarkably lower life expectancy for males than other areas in Scotland, such as Edinburgh where it is 77. • Inequalities in health outcomes are apparent between areas with different levels of deprivation, with premature mortality from cancer and from coronary heart disease higher for those living in the most deprived areas. • Between 2000 and 2009, Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) mortality rates in the under 75s fell by 45% in Scotland overall, but only by 36% in the most deprived areas. 1. What place in Scotland has the lowest life expectancy? 2. Provide statistics on life expectancy to make a comparison between two cities in Scotland. Health Inequalities: Research British Medical Journal (BMJ), said: "The last time in the long economic record that inequalities were almost as high was in the lead up to the economic crash of 1929 and the economic depression of the 1930s," researchers said. Marmot Review 2010 for England said People with higher socioeconomic position in society: have a greater array of life chances and more opportunities to lead a flourishing life. They also have better health. The two are linked: the more favoured people are, socially and economically, the better their health. UCL 2012 study Health inequalities in London are severe, between London boroughs there are life expectancy gaps of 9 years for men. : Audit Scotland Report This infographic shows evidence that wealth impacts health in Scotland. Summary: The Audit Scotland report, Health inequalities in Scotland says that while overall health has improved in the past 50 years, deep-seated inequalities remain. Deprivation is the key determinant, although age, gender and ethnicity are also factors. Equally Well 2008 • Scotland's health is improving. But there are big differences • • • • between rich and poor. In 2006, men could on average expect 67.9 years of healthy life and women 69 years. In the most deprived 15% of areas in Scotland, though, men could only expect 57.3 years of healthy life and women 59 years.* More babies born to mothers living in the most deprived fifth of areas have a low birth weight than those born to mothers living in the most affluent areas: 9% compared to 5%. People struggling with poverty and low income have poorer mental health and wellbeing than those with higher incomes. There are large and increasing inequalities in deaths amongst young adults due to drugs, alcohol, violence and suicide. These are just a few examples; there are many others detailed throughout this report. Equally Well Review 2014 • The Task Force heard evidence that while the health of Scotland is improving, it is doing so more slowly than other European countries. • It heard evidence that a new approach to health inequalities has to be widely adopted to accompany actions which address the wider inequalities in society. • The Task Force also heard evidence that despite many similarities, Glasgow and the West of Scotland were experiencing many more deaths than comparable cities and regions in the UK. Inequality in Happiness • Blackpool is the place with the highest use of antidepressants • • • • in England. The lowest rates of antidepressant use are predominantly in London* Blackpool also emerged as England's unhappiest place in the well-being survey data, with 36% of adult residents giving a score of 6/10 or less when asked to rate how happy they were the day before. Well-being statistics released last week showed islands in north of Scotland to be least anxious Leicestershire, inner London, Middlesbrough, South Ayrshire and Peterborough most anxious Children and Health • Children who have a healthy start in life, especially the early years, grow up to be healthier adults.* • However, an Audit Commission report, Giving Children a Healthy Start, says that the health outcomes for under-5s have improved only marginally since 1999. • The inequalities gap between under-5s from rich and poor families has barely changed over the last decade, and despite the government investing £10.9bn. • Proportionately, 12 times more children in the most disadvantaged 10% of small neighbourhoods are being looked after in care than in the most advantaged 10%.* Impact of Inequality The ever-increasing gulf between rich and poor in Britain is costing the economy more than £39bn a year, according to a report by the Equality Trust thinktank. The effects of inequality can be measured in financial terms through its impact on health, wellbeing and crime rates, according to statisticians at the independent campaign group. In a more equal UK, people could expect an extra eight and a half months of healthy life expectancy while rates of poor mental health could improve by 5%, valued at £24bn. Create an infographic which clearly shows links between poverty and poor health. REFLECT Finally, what can we conclude? HOMEWORK • You are the a government minister responsible for the economy and you have to prepare for a debate with the health minister in Parliament. • You have been presented with the infographic showing the link between poverty and poor health. • You need to prepare an alternative argument, what other factors can you come up with as causes for poor health.