QuaLitative and Mixed Methods

Report
Produced by the Applied Research Center and
the Alvin Sherman Library
Video: 10 min.50 sec.
Theory Use in Qualitative Methods


The definition of theory remains the same but is
typically applied differently in qualitative methods:
The theory provides a broad explanation of behavior
and attitudes
 Establish a theoretical lens (i.e., orienting lens)
○ Feminist perspective
○ Racialized discourse
○ Critical theory
 Starts with an endpoint - a theory that is generated
(inductive)
 No theory is employed (the inquiry is developed explicitly
from participants as seen in phenomenological approaches)
Theory
Use inLens
Qualitative Methods
Theoretical


The definition of theory remains the same but is
typically applied differently in qualitative methods:
The theory provides a broad explanation of behavior
and attitudes
 Establish a theoretical lens (i.e., orienting lens)
○ Feminist perspective
○ Racialized discourse
○ Critical theory
 Starts with an endpoint - a theory that is generated
(inductive)
 No theory is employed (the inquiry is developed explicitly
from participants as seen in phenomenological approaches)
Theory
Use–inGrounded
QualitativeTheory
Methods
Inductive


The definition of theory remains the same but is
typically applied differently in qualitative methods:
The theory provides a broad explanation of behavior
and attitudes
 Establish a theoretical lens (i.e., orienting lens)
○ Feminist perspective
○ Racialized discourse
○ Critical theory
 Starts with an endpoint - a theory that is generated
(inductive)
 No theory is employed (the inquiry is developed explicitly
from participants as seen in phenomenological approaches)
Theory
Use in Qualitative Methods
No Theory


The definition of theory remains the same but is
typically applied differently in qualitative methods:
The theory provides a broad explanation of behavior
and attitudes
 Establish a theoretical lens (i.e., orienting lens)
○ Feminist perspective
○ Racialized discourse
○ Critical theory
 Starts with an endpoint - a theory that is generated
(inductive)
 No theory is employed (the inquiry is developed explicitly
from participants as seen in phenomenological approaches)
Paradigms, Theoretical Lens,
Theory
Use
in
Qualitative
Methods
Foundational Theory
Sometimes referred to as:
 “Paradigms” of social science
 Theoretical lens
 Foundational theory (same as theoretical
lens)
○ Conflict theory
○ Marxist theory
○ Structural functionalism
○ Symbolic interaction
○ Feminist perspective
○ Racialized discourse
○ Critical theory
○ Queer theory
○ Disability inquiry
Theory Use in Qualitative
Methods (cont.)
Applications
 Theoretical lens or foundational theory
 Grounded theory
 Does NOT include initial a priori presentation
of one of the “big” foundational theories

Critical-reflexive theory
Types of Theories

Theories can be broken down into types:
 Grand theory
 Mid-range theory
 Micro-level theory
Examples of Types of
Types of Theories
Theories

Theories can be broken down into types:
 Grand theory
 Mid-range theory
 Micro-level theory
Type
Psychology
Social/Educational
Psychodynamic theory
Social construction
Mid-range theory
Five stage theory
Social interaction
Micro-level theory
Individual formation
theory
Phenomenology
Grand theory
More Examples of Theories Used
for Qualitative Methods

Professionalisation theory by Elliot
Freidson

Labelling theory by Scheff

Negotiated order theory by Strauss
The Inductive Logic of Research
in Qualitative Methods
Researcher poses generalizations,or theories, and
compares to past experiences and literature
Researcher looks for broad patterns, generalizations,
or theories from themes or categories
Researcher analyzes data to form themes or
categories
Researcher asks open-ended questions of participants
or records fieldnotes
Researcher gathers information
The Inductive Logic of Research
Researcher
Gathers
Information
in Qualitative
Methods
Researcher gathers information
The Inductive
Logic of Research
Open-Ended
Questions
and
in Qualitative Methods
Fieldnotes
Researcher asks open-ended questions of participants
or records fieldnotes
Researcher gathers information
The Inductive Logic of Research
Analyze
DataMethods
to Form Themes
in Qualitative
Researcher analyzes data to form themes or
categories
Researcher asks open-ended questions of participants
or records fieldnotes
Researcher gathers information
The Inductive Logic of Research
Look
for Broad
Patterns
in Qualitative
Methods
Researcher looks for broad patterns, generalizations,
or theories from themes or categories
Researcher asks open-ended questions of participants
or records fieldnotes
Researcher asks open-ended questions of participants
or records fieldnotes
Researcher gathers information
The Inductive Logic of Research
Pose
Generalizations
or Theories
in Qualitative
Methods
Researcher poses generalizations,or theories, and
compares to past experiences and literature
Researcher looks for broad patterns, generalizations,
or theories from themes or categories
Researcher analyzes data to form themes or
categories
Researcher asks open-ended questions of participants
or records fieldnotes
Researcher gathers information
Example of a Theoretical
Lens
Qualitative example with a theoretical lens: Haldenby, A. M., Berman, H., & Forchuk, C. (2007).
Homelessness and health in adolescents. Qualitative Health Research, 17(9), 1232–1244.
Data Used to Generate Theory
Harley, A. E., Buckworth, J., Katz, M. L., Willis, S. K., Odoms-Young, & Heaney, C. A. (2009). Developing long-term
physical activity participation: A grounded theory study with African American women. Health Education & Behavior
, 36(1).
Use of Theory in Mixed Methods

Mixed methods studies may:
 Include theory deductively (theory testing)
○ Quantitatively oriented
 Include theory inductively (an emerging
pattern)
○ Qualitatively oriented
 Use a theoretical lens and framework to
guide the study
○ Emphasis is equal between QUAL and QUAN
Lit Review and Theoretical
Perspective in Mixed Methods
Parmelee, J. H., Perkins, S. C., & Sayre, J. J. (2007). “What about people our age?” Applying qualitative and quantitative
methods to uncover how political ads alienate college students. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 1(2), 183–199
Placement
Citationof Theory
Chapter 1: and
Placement

Chapter 1: Introduction
 A brief introduction to the theory can be placed in
the Introduction

Chapter 2: Literature Review
 A separate section (usually in the early parts of Ch.
2) should be devoted to the identification and
description of the theory
Citation – cite the original source of a theory.


Example – Smith and Wadestein (2009) used the Social
Learning Theory as the theoretical framework in their study.
The citation would look something like this: “…Bandura’s
(1977) social learning theory was used as the
theoretical…”
Placement
Citationof Theory
Chapter 2: and
Placement

Chapter 1: Introduction
 A brief introduction to the theory can be placed in
the Introduction

Chapter 2: Literature Review
 A separate section (usually in the early parts of Ch.
2) should be devoted to the identification and
description of the theory
Citation – cite the original source of a theory.


Example – Smith and Wadestein (2009) used the Social
Learning Theory as the theoretical framework in their study.
The citation would look something like this: “…Bandura’s
(1977) social learning theory was used as the
theoretical…”
Placement
Citation and Citation

Chapter 1: Introduction
 A brief introduction to the theory can be placed in the
Introduction

Chapter 2: Literature Review
 A separate section (usually in the early parts of Ch.
2) should be devoted to the identification and
description of the theory
Citation – cite the original source of a theory.


Example – Smith and Wadestein (2009) used the social
learning theory as the theoretical framework in their study.
The text citation would look something like this “…Bandura’s
(1977) social learning theory was used as the theoretical…”
Selected
References

Anfara, V., & Mertz, N. T. (2006). Theoretical frameworks in
qualitative research. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Creswell, J. W. (2009). Research design: Quantitative,
qualitative, and mixed method approaches. Thousand Oaks,
CA: Sage.

Reeves, S., Albert, M., Kuper, A., & Hodges, B. D. (2008).
Why use theories in qualitative research? British Medical
Journal, (337:a949), 631-634. doi:10.1136/bmj.a949

Scott, G., & Garner, R. (2013). Doing qualitative research:
Designs, methods, and techniques. Boston, MA: Pearson.

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