Well Child & Teen Assessment Tools

Report
February and March 2014
» Review current recommendations for well child
& teen care
» Discuss feedback obtained from HFHT Nurses,
Mental Health Counsellors, Dietitians and
Physicians
» Explore HFHT version of well child & teen
assessments using the HFHT well child & teen
resource guides highlighting “hot topics”
» Break
» Small group tool exploration PSS or P&P
» “Preventive health care visits are recommended
every one to two years”…we know that this is
not currently routine practice in Hamilton
» College of Family Physicians of Canada as well
as the Canadian Pediatric Society currently
support use of the Greig Health Record (2010)
» “Given the evolving nature of evidence and
changing recommendations the Grieg Health
Record is meant to be used as a guide only”
http://www.cps.ca/tools-outils/greig-health-record
» Many of the items on the Greig Health Record
have already been discussed repeatedly in the
Rourke (examples: water and sun safety, dental
care, second hand smoke and smoke detectors)
» There are many more “pressing issues” or “hot
topics” affecting our youth and their families
which are not found/highlighted in the Greig
(examples: child mental health (age 6-9), sexual
orientation, gender identity, finances, energy
drinks, and teen specific- future goals, cell
phone, other addictions
» Given the large amount of feedback from HFHT staff we
have revised the Grieg and created two templates
(instead of 3) one for children 6-12 and one for teens
13-17
» Like the Greig, these templates are to be used as a
guide only, you may use them as often as you need and
as thoroughly as you need
» Also like the Greig, there are resource guides available
to provide you with background information for each of
the template questions
» Currently 5 practices are piloting the templates, looking
at when they could/should be used and how
According to the Childhood Obesity Foundation:
» There has “been a dramatic increase in unhealthy
weights in children. In 1978, only 15% of children
were overweight or obese. By 2007, Statistics
Canada found that 29% of adolescents had
unhealthy weights.”
» “Most adolescents do not outgrow this problem
and in fact, many continue to gain excess weight.”
» “If current trends continue, by 2040, up to 70% of
adults aged 40 years will be either overweight or
obese.”
http://www.childhoodobesityfoundation.ca/statistics
“Of 51 922 Canadian youth in grades 6 to 12, 50.9% spent more than 2
hours per day in screen-based behaviours. The average daily screen
time was 7.8 (± 2.3) hours” http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/publicat/cdic-mcbc/31-4/assets/pdf/cdicmcbc-31-4-ar-01-eng.pdf
“Just under 7% of Canadian children and youth achieve the guideline of
60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) per day at
least 6 days a week.” http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/82-625-x/2011001/article/11553-eng.htm
So what can we do about increasing BMIs and
rates of child obesity?
» Take Weights AND Lengths/Heights (both) routinely at baby, child
and teen visits. This include well baby/child/teen visits as well as
visits for other appointments (e.g. ear infection visits we do
weights for medication calculation but not lengths)
» Utilize WHO Growth Charts for 0-2 looking at Weights-for-Lengths
and how the child is trending, and WHO Growth Charts 2-19 for
BMIs and how the child is trending
» Refer the family to office Dietitian if the Weight-for-Length or BMI
is over the 85th% or when growth is significantly trending away
from their usual curve
» Utilize the Nutrition and Healthy Lifestyle section of the Well Child
and Well Teen guides.
» EQAO testing results for 2012-2013
Hamilton
Wentworth
District
School Board
(120 schools)
http://eqaoweb.eqao.com/eqaoweborgprofile/ResultsPage.aspx?Lang=E&mySearch=Hamilton
» Ontario trends over the past year:
˃ 68% of grade 3 students are meeting the provincial standards (B- to
B+) for reading; up 7% from 5 years ago
˃ 77% of grade 6 students are meeting the provincial standards for
reading; up 8% from 5 years ago
˃ The ability for grade 3 & 6 students to communicate well has improved
by 9% over the past 5yrs.
˃ Math scores have decreased over the past 5yrs – 67% of grade 3
students and 57% of grade 6 students are meeting the provincial
standards compared to 70% & 63% respectively from 2008
˃ More students continue to not meet the grade 6 math standards
despite meeting the standards in grade 3.
˃ 71% of grade 9 students are enrolled in Academic math and 84% of
those students are able maintain provincial standards
˃ 29% of grade 9 students are enrolled in Applied math, 44% are
meeting provincial standards
» Provincial high school drop out rates
Data produced by Statistics Canada. Labour Force Survey 2012. Ottawa: Statistics Canada, 2012
» Unemployment rate (in %) for 25- to 29-yearolds, by educational attainment;
Year - 2012
Canada
Ontario
All levels of education
7.4
7.9
> High school
16.4
19.6
High school
8.8
10.2
College or Trade
6.2
6.5
University
5.8
6.2
Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey. Updated May 1, 2013.
As per the Ontario Ministry of Education “Bullying is typically a form of
repeated and aggressive behaviour directed at an individual or individuals that
is intended to cause (or should be known to cause) fear and distress and/or
harm to another person's body, feelings, self-esteem, or reputation. Bullying
occurs in a context where there is a real or perceived power imbalance.
Bullying can take many forms. It can be:
» physical – hitting, shoving, stealing, or damaging property
» verbal – name calling, mocking, or making sexist, racist, or homophobic
comments
» social – excluding others from a group or spreading gossip or rumours
about them
» written – writing notes or signs that are hurtful or insulting
» electronic (commonly known as cyber-bullying) – spreading rumours and
hurtful comments through the use of e-mail, cell phones (e.g., text
messaging) and on social media sites.
http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/safeschools/bullying.html
As per Prevnet:
Emotional & Behavioural Signs of Being Bullied
Afraid to go to school or other activities
-Appears anxious or fearful
Low self-esteem and makes negative comments
-Appears unhappy, irritable
Injuries, bruising, damaged clothing or articles
-Trouble sleeping, nightmares
May appear isolated from the peer group
-Threats to hurt themselves or others
Complains of feeling unwell (headaches and stomach aches)
Lower interest in activities and lower performance at school
Loses things, needs money, reports being hungry after school
Relationship Signs of Being Bullied
-Parents may be overprotective, restrictive
-Siblings may bully child at home
-Few friends at school or in neighbourhood
-Lonely and isolated at school
-Teachers may be unaware of child's strengths and challenges and therefore
unresponsive to needs
-Few opportunities to shine and show talents at home, school or in the community
(positive power)
*Prevnet also includes signs of bullying others*
http://www.prevnet.ca/bullying/signs
Hamilton – Presence of children
within couple families
»
»
Among couples (married and
common-law) in the census
metropolitan area of Hamilton, 48.3%
were couples with children aged 24
and under at home. In comparison,
46.9% of couples in Canada had
children aged 24 and under at home.
Among couples with children aged 24
and under at home in the census
metropolitan area of Hamilton, 88.6%
were intact families, in which all
children were the biological or
adopted children of both parents;
while 11.4% were stepfamilies, where
at least one child was the biological or
adopted child of only one married
spouse or common-law partner. For
Canada as a whole in 2011, 12.6% of
couples with children aged 24 and
under were stepfamilies.
http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2011/assa/fogs-spg/Facts-cma-eng.cfm?LANG=Eng&GC=537
» Single parent families
˃ In Hamilton, 71.7% of census families were married couples in 2011, while
10.8% were common-law-couples and 17.5% were lone-parent families.
Married-couple families
Common-law-couple
families
Lone-parent families
number
%
number
%
number
%
% change,
census
families,
2006 to
2011
Geographic
name
Total
families
Canada
9,389,695
6,293,950
67.0
1,567,905
16.7
1,527,840
16.3
5.5
Ontario
3,612,205
2,612,890
72.3
394,670
10.9
604,645
16.7
5.5
Hamilton
202,895
145,480
71.7
21,980
10.8
35,430
17.5
3.6
http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2011/as-sa/fogs-spg/Facts-cma-eng.cfm?LANG=Eng&GC=537
2012 Statistics
Canada LowIncome Cut-Off
Income
Family
(before
Size
taxes)
1
$23,647
2
$29,440
3
$36,193
4
$43,942
5
$49,839
6
$56,209
7+
$62,581
http://www.sprc.hamilton.on.ca/wp-content/uploads/2009/04/Incomes-and-Poverty-in-Hamilton-Full-Report-April-2009.pdf
http://www.hamilton.ca/CultureandRecreation/Recreation/Information/RecreationFeeAssistanceProgram.htm
Temper Tamers- Lynwood Charlton Centre - Does your child (7 - 12 years old)
have problems with temper or anger? This 10 week program includes a parent
orientation and parent-child sessions to help with child anger management
issues.
COPEing with Impulsive and Forgetful Children: Visual Strategies for Improving
Self-Control McMaster Children’s Hospital, Chedoke - This single session
workshop will help caregivers understand how they can use visual strategies to
help their child (including children with ADHD) gain better self control.
Parenting Your Anxious Child McMaster Children’s Hospital, Chedoke- This
workshop will provide examples and strategies for parents/caregivers that may
be useful in parenting their “anxious” child.
COPEing with 3 to 12 year olds Behaviour McMaster Children’s Hospital –
Chedoke - Using problem solving discussions, video tapes and homework
projects, this 8-week evidence based program teaches parents skills to
strengthen relationships and increase cooperation with their children.
http://www.communityed.ca/docs/Parent/Course%20Flyers/hamilton/growing-together-guide-2014-jan-aug.pdf
COPEing with 3 to 12 year olds with ADHD McMaster Children’s Hospital –
Chedoke - Caregivers meet once weekly for 2 hours for 8 weeks. Using problem
solving discussions, videos and homework projects, caregivers learn evidence
based skills to strengthen relationships, reduce oppositional behaviours and
increase cooperation.
Parent Support Workshops John Howard Society - This is a four session
workshop designed to offer parents and caregivers with youth aged 12-17yrs the
opportunity to: share their concerns and to meet other parents/caregivers
facing similar issues, learn realistic and practical approaches for addressing
challenges faced in raising adolescents today and to increase their knowledge of
relevant resources. ** No Cost**
COPEing with Teens McMaster Children’s Hospital – Chedoke - Caregivers meet
once weekly for 2 hours for 8 weeks. Using problem solving discussions, and
videos, caregivers learn evidence based skills to strengthen relationships, reduce
conflict, increase cooperation and restore communication.
http://www.communityed.ca/docs/Parent/Course%20Flyers/hamilton/growing-together-guide-2014-jan-aug.pdf
Managing Meltdowns McMaster Children’s Hospital – Chedoke - Meeting
weekly for six weeks, this is an educational group for caregivers of
children/teens 4 to 18 years with difficult and explosive behaviours. This group
focuses on spirited temperments, coping strategies and collaborative problem
solving.
Positive Discipline McMaster Children’s Hospital – Chedoke- Participants will
learn evidence-based positive parenting strategies in this one session workshop.
Incredible Years for Parents of Children ages 5-12 – City of Hamilton, Public
Health Services. Call (905) 540-5018 for information or to register. The Incredible
Years is a free parenting program for parents and caregivers of children 3-12
years of age. During this 12-week program, you will learn how to build a
positive relationship with your child and how to deal with challenging
behaviours. To learn more about the Incredible Years program, visit
http://www.incredibleyears.com/ Topics include: Play, Praise & Rewards,
Limit Setting , Handling Misbehaviour
http://www.communityed.ca/docs/Parent/Course%20Flyers/hamilton/growing-together-guide-2014-jan-aug.pdf
As per the Canadian Sleep Society
-”As children grow and develop, the amount of sleep needed changes. The time
spent in sleep decreases from 10-11 hours for school-aged children to
approximately 9 hours of sleep for teenagers.
-Poor sleep can affect a child’s mood, behaviour and ability to learn.
-Children are not always like adults when they are tired. Sometimes children who do
not get enough sleep do not look tired. Children may show their fatigue in different
ways. Children who do not sleep well may have poor behaviour, be aggressive or
show short attention spans. Children who are difficult to awaken in the morning and
slow to become alert may not be getting enough sleep. There are of course other
reasons that children have these same problems, but poor sleep should be
considered.
Some other symptoms of sleep disorders include, but are not limited to:
- nighttime bedwetting
- snoring
- extreme restlessness at night
- frequent nightmares
- other problems with falling asleep, staying asleep, waking too early or unusual
nighttime behaviours”
http://www.canadiansleepsociety.ca/Map/www/pdf/brochure/sleep_children.pdf
» Informal questions for child template
» PHQ2 and GAD2 for teen template
As per Child and Youth Mental Health Anxiety Tool Kit:
» “Taken together, anxiety disorders are the most common mental
illness in children and youth. Prevalence for having at least one
childhood anxiety disorder varies from 6 to 20% over several large
epidemiological studies (Costello et al., 2005).”
» “Often co-occurs with other medical and psychiatric conditions”
» “Girls more likely than boys to report anxiety disorder especially
specific phobia, panic disorder, agoraphobia and SAD”
» “Common presentations in anxious children: Prominent somatic
symptoms (e.g., stomach aches, headaches), Catastrophic
misinterpretation (e.g., “Let’s go see the doctor” interpreted as
“They are going to lock me in hospital”), Escape and avoidance
behaviours (e.g., school refusal), “Fight” (i.e., oppositional/
aggressive) response to avoid anxiety-provoking situation“
http://www.shared-care.ca/files/Anxiety_Overview_Revised_2013_April.pdf
As per Child and Youth Mental Health Anxiety Tool Kit:
“Different anxiety disorders include: Selective Mutism, Separation Anxiety,
Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Specific Phobias, Social Phobia, Obsessive
Compulsive Disorder, and Panic Attacks and Panic Disorder”
“Important to differentiate normal developmental fears from
pathological anxiety
Common fears at various ages:
0-1: Loss of support, strangers, loud noise
1-3: Parental separation, toilet, animals, dark
3-5: Separation, darkness, “bad people”
5-7: Being alone, supernatural, harm, dark
7-9: School, injury, appearance, death
Adolescence: Personal relations, appearance, school, future, safety,
world events, animals
http://www.shared-care.ca/files/Anxiety_Overview_Revised_2013_April.pdf
As per Child and Youth Mental Health Anxiety Tool Kit:
Depression (Mood Disorders)
» “Rare in children, Common in adolescents: 4-8%
» Male to female ratio 1:1 in childhood and 1:2 in
adolescence
» Youth depression is different than adult depression:
Reactive or irritable mood, Increased appetite more
common, Cutting/self-harm, Ask about school, peers
and home (Cheung)
» How depression differs from normal teen moods:
Persistent changes in mood, Mood changes not
precipitated by environment, Drastic changes in
academics, friendships, temper, and involvement in
activities (Cheung)”
http://www.shared-care.ca/files/Anxiety_Overview_Revised_201_April.pdf
As per Child and Youth Mental Health Anxiety Tool Kit:
“Bipolar Disorder:
» Bipolar disorder is rare in children. Even in youth it is rare compared to
depression. Regardless, it is always important to screen for mania by
asking about less need for sleep, grandiosity, etc. when meeting a child
or youth with depression
» When teens present with manic episodes, there is often a history of
previous depressive episodes.
» Children who are later diagnosed with bipolar disorder often have a
history of ADHD
Suicide:
» 15-20% of teenagers report suicidal ideation, 5% attempt suicide - More
attempts in females and more completions in males
» Asking about suicidal ideation does not increase suicidal ideation or
suicides
http://www.shared-care.ca/files/Anxiety_Overview_Revised_201_April.pdf
Both the Child and Teen tool ask
about Body Changes/Puberty,
Body Image/Dieting and Gender
Identity, Sexual Orientation
» Body changes and puberty can begin to be
discussed in the Child Assessement.
˃ SOGC states children (even as early as 6-8) should receive basic, age
appropriate, information related to puberty.
˃ Some changes may include; Female- Menstrual Issues (starting usually
10.8-14.5 years old), breast changes, pubic/underarm hair, acne; MalePenile enlargement, testicular volume increase, scrotal changes,
pubic/underarm hair, acne
˃ Precocious puberty- The appearance of physical signs of puberty before
the age of 7 or 8 in females and 9 in boys.
˃ Sexual Maturity Rating scale included in the Tanner/Greig Health Record
Resource
˃ The term “Puberty” refers to a stage of biological maturation where a boy
or girl becomes capable of reproduction
˃ Median age for first experience with sexual intercourse is 17, although 5%
of boys and 1% of girls will have had intercourse by their 12 th birthday
http://www.sexualityandu.ca/health-care-professionals/sexuality-and-child-development
» Body Image and Dieting can also be affected by
body changes and puberty.
˃ As they go through puberty, it is typical for young people to
develop a heightened, at times seemingly obsessive,
preoccupation with their physical appearance. Anxiety over
physical appearance can lead to feelings of inadequacy (SOGC).
˃ Parents play an important role in promoting a positive body image
in their children (SOGC).
˃ Canadian data, from 2001, states that nearly one-half of Ontario
teenagers (12 to 18 years) attending public school feel unhappy
about their weight; additionally, Canadian cross-sectional data
suggests that more than one in five teenage girls are ‘on a diet’ at
any given time.
http://www.cps.ca/documents/position/dieting-adolescence
Risk Factors
Individual factors
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Female
Overweight and obesity
Body image dissatisfaction and distortion
Low self-esteem
Low sense of control over life
Psychiatric symptoms: depression and anxiety
Vegetarianism
Early puberty
Environmental factors
•
•
•
•
Weight-related teasing
Poor involvement in school
Peer group endorsement of dieting
Involvement in weight-related sports
Family factors
•
•
•
•
•
Low family connectedness
Absence of positive adult role models
Parental dieting
Parental endorsement or encouragement to diet
Parental criticism of child’s weight
Other factors
• Certain chronic illnesses, especially diabetes
• Presence of other risk behaviors:
• smoking
• substance use
• unprotected sex
http://www.cps.ca/documents/position/dieting-adolescence
Gender Identity is linked to a persons’ sense of self, and the
sense of being male or female. Gender dysphoria refers to the
unhappiness that some people feel with their physical sex &/or
gender role. People’s gender identity may be different from
their birth-assigned sex, and may include:
˃ Transgender: People whose life experience includes existing in more than one gender.
This may include people who identify as transsexual, and people who describe themselves
as being on a “gender spectrum” or as living outside the categories of “man” or “woman.”
˃ Transsexual: People who were identified at birth as one sex, but who identify themselves
differently. They may seek or undergo one or more medical treatments to align their bodies
with their internally felt identity, such as hormone therapy, sex-reassignment surgery or
other procedures.
˃ Intersex: People who are not easily classified as “male” or “female,” based on their
physical characteristics at birth or after puberty. This word replaces the inappropriate term
“hermaphrodite.”
˃ Crossdresser: A person who, for emotional and psychological well-being, dresses in
clothing usually associated with the “opposite” sex.
˃ Trans: An umbrella term used to describe individuals who, to varying degrees, do not
conform to what society usually defines as a man or a woman.
http://www.ohrc.on.ca/en/gender-identity-and-gender-expression-brochure
» Approximately 1 in 11,000 men (0.009%) and 1 in 30,000
women (0.003%) seek treatment for gender dysphoria at
specialized clinics
» It is important to note that many gender-variant people
are comfortable with their gender identity
» Gender dysphoria in adolescence may be accompanied by
depressed mood, anxiety, and behaviour problems
» The Standards of Care as outlined by the World
Professional Association for Transgender Health clearly
recommends against physical interventions before the
age of 16. They recommend that surgery only be
performed after the age of 18 and after the individual has
lived in their desired gender role for at least two years
http://www.cpa.ca/docs/File/Publications/FactSheets/PsychologyWorksFactSheet_GenderDysphoriaInAdolescentsAndAdults.pdf
Basic Categories of Sexual Orientation (refers to romantic and/or
sexual attraction to men, women or both sexes)
» Heterosexual
A male who is romantically and/or sexually attracted to females
A female who is romantically and/or sexually attracted to males
» Gay
A male who is romantically and/or sexually attracted to males
» Lesbian
A female who is romantically and/or sexually attracted to females
» Bisexual
A male or female who is romantically and/or sexually attracted to both
males and females
» Queer and Questioning
Some people do not think of their own sexual orientation in terms of
the categories of heterosexual, gay, lesbian or bisexual. Some people
will find that none of these categories seem to fit for them.
http://www.sexualityandu.ca/sexual-health/sexual-orientation-and-coming-out
» Sexual orientation is not a diagnosis, and it is not the
practitioner’s job to discover what the adolescent’s
orientation is. The practitioner, rather, should create an
environment in which the adolescent feel they can discuss
any questions or worries they may have
» The best available Canadian statistics are from a 2003
British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey
˃
˃
˃
˃
1.5% of all boys identified themselves as bisexual, mostly homosexual or 100% homosexual
3.5% of sexually active boys said that they have had sex with someone of the same gender in the
past year
3% of girls identified as bisexual, mostly homosexual or 100% homosexual
6.4% of sexually active girls reported having had sex with someone of the same gender in the
past year
» American data is similar
˃
˃
1.1% of teens identified as gay or bisexual, but 4.5% stated that their main sexual attraction was
to individuals of the same sex
A Massachusetts study found that 2.5% of youth self-identified as gay, lesbian or bisexual
http://www.cps.ca/en/documents/position/sexual-orientation
Trampoline injuries are most common among children 5 to 14 years of age and
include: cuts and bruises, sprains and strains, broken bones, head injuries, and
though rare, injuries to the back and neck that have caused paralysis or death.
Is there a safe way to use a trampoline at home? No. Using a trampoline at home
is not a safe way for children and youth to play. Injuries can happen even when
adults are supervising. And safety enclosures (nets) around the trampoline do not
prevent all injuries.
Many injuries happen when: there is more than one child on the trampoline at
the same time, doing “tricks” such as flips or somersaults, landing hard or the
wrong way when jumping, or children are pushed or fall off the trampoline.
For these reasons, the Canadian Paediatric Society recommends: Parents should
not buy trampolines for their children or teens to use at home. Trampolines
should not be considered play equipment.
Some things about helmets you may not know:
-Different sports require different helmets (e.g. a bicycle helmet cannot
be used for skateboarding or hockey)
-Helmets come in different sizes (Have the child shake her head from
side to side and from front to back. The helmet should not move around
when she/he shakes her/his head)
-Bike helmets should be replaced after 5 years or after a crash where
the cyclist has hit their head
-Do not use second hand helmets where you do not know the helmet’s
crash history
-Do not wear baseball hats/hats/hair clips etc under your helmet as may
change the way the helmet fits
-Do not put stickers on your helmet as they could make the plastic weak
http://www.parachutecanada.org/injury-topics/topic/C8
Concussions:
» A concussion is a brain injury. Any blow to the head, face, neck
or to the body that causes a sudden shaking or jarring of the
brain inside the skull may cause a concussion.
» A concussion can result from any number of activities including
receiving a check in hockey, falling from a jungle gym, being in
a motor vehicle collision or slipping on an icy sidewalk.
» You do not need to lose consciousness to have had a
concussion.
http://www.parachutecanada.org/injury-topics/topic/C8
What are the signs and symptoms of a concussion?
» Symptoms usually last for seven to 10 days but may last for several
weeks to several months in some people.
» Physical: headache, nausea or vomiting, dizziness, blurred vision, fatigue
or low energy, sensitivity to light or noise, loss of consciousness
» Cognitive (thinking): general confusion or fogginess, difficulty
concentrating, difficulty remembering
» Emotional: .more emotional, irritability, sadness, nervousness or anxiety
THE SIX STEPS TO RETURN TO PLAY INCLUDE: (Min 1 day per step)
1. No activity, mental and physical rest until symptom-free
2. Light aerobic activity like walking or stationary cycling
3. Sport-specific activity like skating or running
4. Training drills without body contact
5. Training drills with body contact — only once cleared by a
physician
6. Game play
http://www.parachutecanada.org/downloads/resources/Concussion_supplement_e06-handout.pdf
»
»
»
»
Greig Health Record
HFHT 6-12 Well Child Resource Guide
HFHT 13-17 Well Teen Resource Guide
Canadian Physical Activity and Sedentary
Behaviour Guidelines ages 5-11 and 12-17

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