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prepared by Mark Hollier,
Georgia Perimeter College Clarkston Campus
CHAPTER
9
Muscles and
Muscle Tissue
© Annie Leibovitz/Contact Press Images
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Which of the following is not a prefix used
to refer to muscle?
a)
b)
c)
d)
Mys
Myo
Sarco
Lemma
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Which of the following is not a prefix used
to refer to muscle?
a)
b)
c)
d)
Mys
Myo
Sarco
Lemma
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Of the following muscle types, which is the
only one subject to conscious control?
a)
b)
c)
d)
Smooth
Skeletal
Cardiac
All of these muscle types are subject to conscious
control.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Of the following muscle types, which is the
only one subject to conscious control?
a)
b)
c)
d)
Smooth
Skeletal
Cardiac
All of these muscle types are subject to conscious
control.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Which of the following muscular functions
serves a metabolic function?
a)
b)
c)
d)
Movement
Posture maintenance
Joint stabilization
Heat generation
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Which of the following muscular functions
serves a metabolic function?
a)
b)
c)
d)
Movement
Posture maintenance
Joint stabilization
Heat generation
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
In order to receive a signal to contract, each
skeletal muscle must be served by
a(n) ________.
a)
b)
c)
d)
artery
nerve
vein
ligament
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
In order to receive a signal to contract, each
skeletal muscle must be served by
a(n) ________.
a)
b)
c)
d)
artery
nerve
vein
ligament
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
The elastic components of muscle consist
of which elements?
a)
b)
c)
d)
Tendon, epimysium, muscle fiber
Bone, perimysium, blood vessel
Fascicle, bone, blood vessel
Tendon, epimysium, perimysium, endomysium
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
The elastic components of muscle consist
of which elements?
a)
b)
c)
d)
Tendon, epimysium, muscle fiber
Bone, perimysium, blood vessel
Fascicle, bone, blood vessel
Tendon, epimysium, perimysium, endomysium
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Which of the following components
accounts for the bulk of muscle fiber
volume (upto 80%)?
a)
b)
c)
d)
Glycosomes
Mitochondria
Myofibrils
Sarcoplasm
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Which of the following components
accounts for the bulk of muscle fiber
volume (upto 80%)?
a)
b)
c)
d)
Glycosomes
Mitochondria
Myofibrils
Sarcoplasm
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
The thin filaments are not comprised of
which of the following components?
a)
b)
c)
d)
Actin
Titin
Troponin
Tropomyosin
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
The thin filaments are not comprised of
which of the following components?
a)
b)
c)
d)
Actin
Titin
Troponin
Tropomyosin
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
What would happen to intracellular calcium
levels if a skeletal muscle fiber were treated
with a calcium channel–blocking drug that
acts only on the SR?
a)
b)
c)
d)
Intracellular calcium levels would increase.
Intracellular calcium levels would decrease.
Intracellular calcium levels would be unchanged.
The muscle fiber would shrink.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
What would happen to intracellular calcium
levels if a skeletal muscle fiber were treated
with a calcium channel–blocking drug that
acts only on the SR?
a)
b)
c)
d)
Intracellular calcium levels would increase.
Intracellular calcium levels would decrease.
Intracellular calcium levels would be unchanged.
The muscle fiber would shrink.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
What is the significance of the muscle fiber
triad relationship?
a)
b)
c)
d)
The terminal cisterns subdivide the sarcolemma.
The T tubules bring calcium to the sarcoplasmic
reticulum.
The sarcoplasmic reticulum transfers calcium to the
T tubules.
The T tubules conduct electrical impulses that
stimulate calcium release from the sarcoplasmic
reticulum.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
What is the significance of the muscle fiber
triad relationship?
a)
b)
c)
d)
The terminal cisterns subdivide the sarcolemma.
The T tubules bring calcium to the sarcoplasmic
reticulum.
The sarcoplasmic reticulum transfers calcium to the
T tubules.
The T tubules conduct electrical impulses that
stimulate calcium release from the
sarcoplasmic reticulum.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
During a muscle contraction, the sliding
filament theory would be apparent in a
sarcomere because ______.
a)
b)
c)
d)
the I bands get longer
the A bands get shorter
the H zone becomes less obvious and the Z
discs move closer together
the Z discs get pulled closer to the I bands and the
H zone becomes more obvious
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
During a muscle contraction, the sliding
filament theory would be apparent in a
sarcomere because ______.
a)
b)
c)
d)
the I bands get longer
the A bands get shorter
the H zone becomes less obvious and the Z
discs move closer together
the Z discs get pulled closer to the I bands and the
H zone becomes more obvious
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
At the neuromuscular junction, the muscle
contraction initiation event is ______.
a)
b)
c)
d)
a release of calcium ions from the sarcoplasmic
reticulum
conduction of an electrical impulse down the T
tubules
binding of acetylcholine to membrane receptors on
the sarcolemma
sliding of actin and myosin filaments past each
other
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
At the neuromuscular junction, the muscle
contraction initiation event is ______.
a)
b)
c)
d)
a release of calcium ions from the sarcoplasmic
reticulum
conduction of an electrical impulse down the T
tubules
binding of acetylcholine to membrane receptors
on the sarcolemma
sliding of actin and myosin filaments past each
other
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
What would be the first response of a
muscle fiber treated with an
acetylcholinesterase inhibitor?
a)
b)
c)
d)
The muscle fiber would continue to contract in
the absence of additional nervous system
stimulation.
The muscle fiber would be nonresponsive to
acetylcholine.
Acetylcholine would be retained in the axon
terminal.
The muscle fiber would continuously contract for a
prolonged period of time.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
What would be the first response of a
muscle fiber treated with an
acetylcholinesterase inhibitor?
a)
b)
c)
d)
The muscle fiber would continue to contract in
the absence of additional nervous system
stimulation.
The muscle fiber would be nonresponsive to
acetylcholine.
Acetylcholine would be retained in the axon
terminal.
The muscle fiber would continuously contract for a
prolonged period of time.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
In a muscle fiber, the key intracellular event
that stimulates muscle contraction is known
as ______.
a)
b)
c)
d)
polarization
depolarization
repolarization
potential
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
In a muscle fiber, the key intracellular event
that stimulates muscle contraction is known
as ______.
a)
b)
c)
d)
polarization
depolarization
repolarization
potential
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
During depolarization, the sarcolemma is
most permeable to ______.
a)
b)
c)
d)
sodium ions
potassium ions
calcium ions
chloride ions
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
During depolarization, the sarcolemma is
most permeable to ______.
a)
b)
c)
d)
sodium ions
potassium ions
calcium ions
chloride ions
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
The time period between action potential
initiation and mechanical activity of a
muscle fiber is called the ______.
a)
b)
c)
d)
latent period
refractory period
action potential
excitation period
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
The time period between action potential
initiation and mechanical activity of a
muscle fiber is called the ______.
a)
b)
c)
d)
latent period
refractory period
action potential
excitation period
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
What is calcium's function during muscle
contraction?
a)
b)
c)
d)
Calcium binds to troponin, changing its shape
and removing the blocking action of
tropomyosin.
Calcium binds to troponin to prevent myosin from
attaching to actin.
Calcium depolarizes the muscle fiber.
Calcium flows down the T tubules to stimulate the
influx of sodium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
What is calcium's function during muscle
contraction?
a)
b)
c)
d)
Calcium binds to troponin, changing its shape
and removing the blocking action of
tropomyosin.
Calcium binds to troponin to prevent myosin from
attaching to actin.
Calcium depolarizes the muscle fiber.
Calcium flows down the T tubules to stimulate the
influx of sodium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Corpses usually exhibit rigor mortis
because ______.
a)
b)
c)
d)
ATP hydrolysis is stimulating myosin head
attachment to actin
a lack of ATP hydrolysis prevents myosin head
detachment from actin
calcium stores become deficient
sodium stores become deficient
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Corpses usually exhibit rigor mortis
because ______.
a)
b)
c)
d)
ATP hydrolysis is stimulating myosin head
attachment to actin
a lack of ATP hydrolysis prevents myosin head
detachment from actin
calcium stores become deficient
sodium stores become deficient
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Small precise movements are controlled by
______ motor units.
a)
b)
c)
d)
small
large
many
few
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Small precise movements are controlled by
______ motor units.
a)
b)
c)
d)
small
large
many
few
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
A muscle contraction increases in strength
up to a point because ______.
a)
b)
c)
d)
stronger stimuli inhibit motor unit activation
recruitment occurs and more motor units
respond to stronger stimuli
more calcium is available in the sarcoplasm
additional neurons begin stimulating each muscle
fiber
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
A muscle contraction increases in strength
up to a point because ______.
a)
b)
c)
d)
stronger stimuli inhibit motor unit activation
recruitment occurs and more motor units
respond to stronger stimuli
more calcium is available in the sarcoplasm
additional neurons begin stimulating each muscle
fiber
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Isometric contractions come into play when
an individual is ________.
a)
b)
c)
d)
jumping
walking uphill
moving a heavy object
maintaining an upright posture
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Isometric contractions come into play when
an individual is ________.
a)
b)
c)
d)
jumping
walking uphill
moving a heavy object
maintaining an upright posture
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
A sprinter is likely to depend on _________
respiration to generate ATP, and a Tour de
France cyclist is likely to rely on
__________ respiration.
a)
b)
c)
d)
anaerobic; aerobic
aerobic; anaerobic
aerobic; aerobic
anaerobic; anaerobic
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
A sprinter is likely to depend on _________
respiration to generate ATP, and a Tour de
France cyclist is likely to rely on
__________ respiration.
a)
b)
c)
d)
anaerobic; aerobic
aerobic; anaerobic
aerobic; aerobic
anaerobic; anaerobic
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Which of the following is not a fatigueproducing factor in moderate exercise?
a)
b)
c)
d)
Potassium imbalances
Lack of ATP
Inorganic phosphate accumulation
Damage to the SR
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Which of the following is not a fatigueproducing factor in moderate exercise?
a)
b)
c)
d)
Potassium imbalances
Lack of ATP
Inorganic phosphate accumulation
Damage to the SR
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Theoretically, contraction would not occur
if _______.
a)
b)
c)
d)
Z discs contact the thick myofilaments
actin and myosin filaments do not overlap
both A and B
neither A nor B
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Theoretically, contraction would not occur
if _______.
a)
b)
c)
d)
Z discs contact the thick myofilaments
actin and myosin filaments do not overlap
both A and B
neither A nor B
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Sprinters typically possess more ______
muscle fibers.
a)
b)
c)
d)
slow glycolytic
fast glycolytic
slow oxidative
fast oxidative
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Sprinters typically possess more ______
muscle fibers.
a)
b)
c)
d)
slow glycolytic
fast glycolytic
slow oxidative
fast oxidative
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
What type of exercise can convert fast
oxidative fibers to fast glycolytic fibers?
a)
b)
c)
d)
Resistance exercise
Aerobic exercise
Both A and B
Muscle fibers cannot change type
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
What type of exercise can convert fast
oxidative fibers to fast glycolytic fibers?
a)
b)
c)
d)
Resistance exercise
Aerobic exercise
Both A and B
Muscle fibers cannot change type
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
A major difference between smooth muscle
fibers and skeletal muscle fibers in terms of
calcium influx is that ______.
a)
b)
c)
d)
smooth muscle fibers have a sarcoplasmic
reticulum
calcium ions are stored in the sarcoplasm of
smooth muscle
calcium ion influx occurs mostly from the
extracellular fluid in smooth muscle
smooth muscle contraction does not involve
calcium
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
A major difference between smooth muscle
fibers and skeletal muscle fibers in terms of
calcium influx is that ______.
a)
b)
c)
d)
smooth muscle fibers have a sarcoplasmic
reticulum
calcium ions are stored in the sarcoplasm of
smooth muscle
calcium ion influx occurs mostly from the
extracellular fluid in smooth muscle
smooth muscle contraction does not involve
calcium.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
A major cellular feature in smooth muscle
that contributes to its rhythmicity and ability
to participate in peristalsis is the presence
of ______.
a)
b)
c)
d)
troponin complex
gap junctions
varicosities
caveolae
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
A major cellular feature in smooth muscle
that contributes to its rhythmicity and ability
to participate in peristalsis is the presence
of ______.
a)
b)
c)
d)
troponin complex
gap junctions
varicosities
caveolae
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
The principal neurotransmitter of skeletal
muscle is acetylcholine. The major
neurotransmitter(s) of smooth muscle
is (are) _______.
a)
b)
c)
d)
acetylcholine
epinephrine
norepinephrine
all of the above
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
The principal neurotransmitter of skeletal
muscle is acetylcholine. The major
neurotransmitter(s) of smooth muscle
is (are) _______.
a)
b)
c)
d)
acetylcholine
epinephrine
norepinephrine
all of the above
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Electrical coupling by gap junctions is
present in ______.
a)
b)
c)
d)
multi unit smooth muscle
skeletal muscle
unitary smooth muscle
bi-unit smooth muscle
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Electrical coupling by gap junctions is
present in ______.
a)
b)
c)
d)
multi unit smooth muscle
skeletal muscle
unitary smooth muscle
bi-unit smooth muscle
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Injured cardiac muscle is repaired mostly
as _________.
a)
b)
c)
d)
scar tissue
smooth muscle
cardiac muscle
satellite cells.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Injured cardiac muscle is repaired mostly
as _________.
a)
b)
c)
d)
scar tissue
smooth muscle
cardiac muscle
satellite cells
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

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