Art of South and Southeast Asia Things to get: - Your China/Korea reading homework - Blank white sheet of paper from the front of the room - Notebook paper Things to do: - Be seated IN YOUR ASSIGNED SEAT with the items above PRIOR TO the bell ringing. Art of South and Southeast Asia Opener ◦ Complete a “A Draw a…” Dive your paper into two even sections Fold “hamburger” style On the left: draw an image of a Hindu god Label important characteristics On the right: draw an image of a Seated Buddha Label important characteristics If time allows, please use color. Remember: it’s about content accuracy and NOT being Picasso… or Eakins… or Homer... Objectives Describe the art and architecture of the Indus civilization Explain how Buddhist beliefs were reflected in the art and architecture of ancient India and Southeast Asia Explain how Hindu beliefs were reflected in art and architecture in ancient India and Southeast Asia Identify the materials and formal strategies ancient Indian and Southeast Asian artists employed to represent Hindu and Buddhist themes Differentiate between southern and northern style Hindu temples Describe Southeast Asia’s contributions to Hindu and Buddhist art and architecture Discuss the influence trade exerted on art and architecture in ancient India and Southeast Asia Identify examples of intercultural contact within India and Southeast Asia, and between Asian and other ancient civilizations. Themes to Consider Narrative in Art Human Body in Art Architecture of Sacred Spaces Portrayal of Nature Questions to Consider What is the importance of the commissioning of the artwork? How can art be used to establish social control and political authority? South and Southeast Asia: Indus Valley Civilization Mohenjo-daro and Harappa Urban Commercially enterprising Aligned to compass pts. No designated palaces/temples Art objects not found ◦ Mostly small/utilitarian Robed Male Figure From Mohenjo-daro, Pakistan, ca. 2000-1900 BCE Shows ability to show human form, but subject is unclear What are the similarities to Sumerian sculptures? Indus Seals Used to identify owner Official Signature Trade relationship with Mesopotamia established ◦ Creatures, both recognized and mythological Merging of Cultures: The Aryans and Hinduism Origins disputed 1500 BCE- Vedas were written ◦ Sanskrit ◦ 4 texts define religious doctrine No Aryan god images are present ◦ Gods related to the elements ◦ All are male Hinduism Cont’d 800-500 BCE Upanishads ◦ Define reincarnation (samsara); karma; moksha (ending reincarnation by merging into the cosmos Dancing Shiva, rock-cut relief in cave temple, Badami, India. Shiva as Nataraja, ca. 1000. Bronze. Naltunai Ishvaram Temple, Punjai. 1) What do the differences depicted in the relief and statue signify? 2) What is the significance between the stone sculpture’s permanent place and the statues mobility in the Hindu religion? Vishvanatha Temple Rajarajeshvara Temple Hindu Temples… a review Buddhism Siddhartha Gautama ◦ Birth @ 400 BCE at Lumbini ◦ His achievement of Buddhahood while meditating under the Bodhi tree ◦ First sermon as the Buddha Sarnath ◦ Attainment of Nirvana at death Self discipline/selfdenial Maurya Dynasty (4th-2nd century BCE) Buddhism (modified) used to govern India Implemented by Ashoka Laws written on monolithic columns Elaborate capitals ◦ Lion Gate Pillar carved for Samath Great Stupa Stupa= symbol of the cosmos ◦ World mtn. w/cardinal points delineated by the gates (toranas) ◦ Square fenced in area (hamika) atop the dome symbolizes one of Buddha’s paradises ◦ Middle of (hamika) is a pole (yasti)that symbolizes the axis of the universe Circumambulation: worshipper must walk clockwise around the stupa them climb to the next level ◦ Reflects rational, coherent, symmetrical world Bodhisattva Serves as an intermediary for the worshipper to petition aide and assistance Why are so few of these images left? Buddha in human form Indian gods weren’t depicted at the time of the first figural image of Buddha Why were images of Buddha created? Buddha in Human Form Two Main Styles Gandhara- Seated Buddha Mathura- Seated Buddha Which seated Buddha shows a Hellenistic influence? Gandhara Seated Buddha Hellenistic work similarity ◦ Wavy hair ◦ Ribbon around the topknot ◦ Stylized draperies of the robe Mathura Seated Buddha Closer to Indian aesthetic ◦ More massive chest ◦ Columnar legs Closer to male form of yakshi Becomes the #1 style choice of Buddha representation Gupta work from Cave V, Udayagiri Boar Avatar of Vishnu Commissioned by Chandragupta Mathura style Symbolism? Political overtones? Application: Putting your knowledge to the test! Using the images given, create a visual aid with a partner that completes the following: ◦ Identify the works as Hindu or Buddhist art ◦ Finally, select a theme and explain how Hindu and Buddhist art can fulfill that theme. BE SPECIFIC! You may have a separate statement for each religion. Exit Slip: Angor Wat 1) How tall is the pinnacle and how is its height achieved? 2) What is a naga and how is it used in Angkor Wat? 3) What artistic preference is seen in Khmer architecture? 4) How many square feet of reliefs cover the walls of the Gallery of Bas-Reliefs? To what does the author liken these reliefs? 5) Pretend that you are leading a tour of Angkor Wat. What parts of the complex would you visit? Why? 6) Consider the themes presented at the beginning of this presentation: Is Angor Wat a Buddhist or Hindu temple or a shrine for a multitude of dieties? Why?