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HIV/AIDS, BLOODBORNE
PATHOGENS, AND TUBERCULOSIS
Introduction to
Bloodborne Pathogens
WHAT ARE BLOODBORNE PATHOGENS?
•
•
Infectious microorganisms
in human blood that can
cause disease in humans.
Include, but are not
limited to, hepatitis B
(HBV), hepatitis C and
human immunodeficiency
virus (HIV).
Adapted from www.osha.gov
WHO IS AT RISK?
•
Workers in many
occupations, including
caregivers, housekeeping
personnel, nurses and
other healthcare personnel
may be at risk of exposure
to bloodborne pathogens.
Adapted from www.osha.gov
EXPOSURE CONTROL PLAN
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Must implement an exposure control plan
Describe how an employer will use a combination
of engineering and work practice controls
Ensure the use of personal protective clothing and
equipment
Provide training
Medical surveillance
Hepatitis B vaccinations
Signs and labels
Among other provisions…
Adapted from www.osha.gov
HIV and AIDS
WHAT IS HIV?
•
•
Human immunodeficiency
virus.
The virus that can lead to
acquired immune deficiency
syndrome, or AIDS.
WHAT IS HIV?
•
HIV damage a person’s
body by destroying specific
blood cells, called CD4+ T
cells, which are crucial to
helping the body fight
diseases
SYMPTOMS
•
•
•
Within a few weeks of being infected with HIV,
some people develop flu-like symptoms that last for
a week or two, but others have no symptoms at all.
People living with HIV may appear and feel healthy
for several years.
However, even if they feel healthy, HIV is still
affecting their bodies.
SYMPTOMS
May experience flu-like symptoms 2-6 weeks after
becoming infected
•
•
•
•
Chills
Rash
Night sweats
Muscle aches
•
•
•
•
Sore throat
Fatigue
Swollen lymph nodes
Ulcers in the mouth
STATISTICS
•
•
•
The CDC estimates that about 56,000 people in the
United States contracted HIV in 2006.
Around 34 million people worldwide living with HIV
Over 25 million have died
since the first cases were
reported in 1981
AIDS
•
•
AIDS is the late stage of HIV
infection
The person’s immune system
is severely damaged and has
difficulty fighting diseases and
certain cancers.
PROGRESSION TO AIDS
•
•
Before the development of certain medications,
people with HIV could progress to AIDS in just a
few years.
Currently, people can live much longer - even
decades - with HIV before they develop AIDS. This
is because of “highly active” combinations of
medications that were introduced in the mid 1990s.
HIV complications
• Cardiovascular Health
• Hepatitis
• Opportunistic Infections
• Oral Health Issues
HIV complications
• Cancer
• Dementia
• Kidney disease
• Other complications
HIV Transmission
TRANSMISSION
•
•
•
HIV can be detected in several fluids and tissues of
a person living with HIV.
Finding a small amount of HIV in a body fluid or
tissue does not mean that HIV is transmitted by
that body fluid or tissue.
These specific fluids must come in contact with a
mucous membrane or damaged tissue or be
directly injected into the blood-stream for
transmission to occur.
WHICH BODY FLUIDS?
These body fluids have been
shown to contain high
concentrations of HIV:
• Blood
• Semen
• Vaginal fluid
• Breast milk
• Other body fluids containing
blood
WHICH BODY FLUIDS?
The following are additional body fluids that may
transmit the virus that health care workers may
come into contact with:
• Fluid surrounding the brain and the spinal cord
• Fluid surrounding bone joints
• Fluid surrounding an unborn baby
TRANSMISSION
•
•
In the United States, HIV is most commonly
transmitted through specific sexual behaviors (anal
or vaginal sex) or sharing needles with an infected
person.
It is less common for HIV to be transmitted through
oral sex or for an HIV-infected woman to pass the
virus to her baby before or during childbirth or after
birth through breastfeeding or by prechewing food
for her infant.
TRANSMISSION
•
•
It is possible to acquire HIV through exposure to infected
blood, transfusions of infected blood, blood products, or
organ transplantation
This risk is extremely remote due to rigorous testing of the
U.S. blood supply and
donated organs.
TRANSMISSION
•
Some healthcare workers
have become infected
after being stuck with
needles containing HIVinfected blood or, less
frequently, when infected
blood comes in contact
with a worker's open cut or
is splashed into a worker's
eyes or inside their nose.
HIV IS NOT SPREAD BY
•
•
•
•
•
Air or water
Insects, including mosquitoes
Saliva, tears, or sweat
Casual contact like shaking
hands or sharing dishes
Closed-mouth or “social”
kissing
THE RISK TO DIRECT CARE PROVIDERS
•
•
•
The risk of direct care provider being exposed to
HIV on the job is very low
Especially if they carefully follow standard
precautions
Casual, everyday contact with an HIV-infected
person does not expose direct care providers or
anyone else to HIV.
THE RISK TO DIRECT CARE PROVIDERS
•
•
•
For direct care providers on the job, the main risk
of HIV transmission is through accidental injuries
from needles and other sharp instruments that may
be contaminated with the virus
Even this risk is small.
The risk of infection from a
needle-stick is less
than 1%.
HIV Screening and Testing
ANTIBODY SCREENING TEST
•
•
•
Most common HIV test is the
antibody screening test. This test
can be performed with blood sample
or oral fluid.
This tests the antibodies your body
produces to fight against HIV.
Blood tests can detect HIV as soon
as 3 weeks after being infected.
FOLLOW-UP DIAGNOSTIC TESTS
•
•
Follow-up diagnostic test – these tests are
performed after someone tests positive on his/her
first test.
HIV tests are usually very accurate, but a follow-up
test is typically performed to confirm the results of
the first test mostly for insurance/health care
provider purposes.
Treatment and Support
TREATMENTS
•
•
Many people with HIV, including
those who feel healthy, can
benefit greatly from current
medications used to treat HIV
infection.
These medications can limit or
slow down the destruction of
the immune system, improve
the health of people living with
HIV, and may reduce their
ability to transmit HIV.
MEDICATIONS
•
•
•
•
Can be expensive
Can be very effective
Complicated dosing
schedules
In some cases, virus
develops a resistance
to the medication
HAART
Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy
MEDICATIONS
Class
Description
Examples
Non-nucleoside
reverse
transcriptase
inhibitors (NNRTIs)
NNRTIs disable a protein
needed by HIV to make
copies of itself.
efavirenz (Sustiva), etravirine
(Intelence) and nevirapine (Viramune)
NRTIs are faulty versions
Nucleoside reverse
of building blocks that HIV
transcriptase
needs to make copies of
inhibitors (NRTIs)
itself.
Protease inhibitors
(PIs)
PIs disable protease,
another protein that HIV
needs to make copies of
itself.
Abacavir (Ziagen), and the combination
drugs emtricitabine and tenofovir
(Truvada), and lamivudine and
zidovudine (Combivir)
atazanavir (Reyataz), darunavir
(Prezista), fosamprenavir (Lexiva) and
ritonavir (Norvir)
MEDICATIONS
Class
Description
Examples
Entry or fusion
inhibitors
These drugs block HIV's
entry into CD4 cells
enfuvirtide (Fuzeon) and maraviroc
(Selzentry)
Integrase
inhibitors
Works by disabling
integrase, a protein that
HIV uses to insert its
genetic material into CD4
cells
raltegravir (Isentress)
THERE IS NO CURE
•
•
•
No one should become complacent about HIV and
AIDS.
While current medications can dramatically
improve the health of people living with HIV and
slow progression from HIV infection to AIDS,
existing treatments need to be taken daily for the
rest of a person’s life, need to be carefully
monitored, and come with costs and potential side
effects.
At this time, there is no cure for HIV infection.
TREATMENT AND SUPPORT
Hepatitis B
HEPATITIS B
•
•
Hepatitis B is a contagious
liver disease that results
from infection with the
Hepatitis B virus.
It can range in severity
from a mild illness lasting a
few weeks to a serious,
lifelong illness.
HEPATITIS B TRANSMISSION
•
Hepatitis B is spread
when blood, semen, or
other body fluid infected
with the Hepatitis B virus
enters the body of a
person who is not
infected.
HEPATITIS B TRANSMISSION
•
•
•
•
•
•
From an infected mother to her baby during birth
Sex with an infected partner
Sharing needles, syringes, or other drug-injection
equipment
Sharing items such as razors or toothbrushes with
an infected person
Direct contact with the blood or open sores of an
infected person
Exposure to blood from needlesticks or other sharp
instruments
ACUTE OR CHRONIC
Acute Hepatitis B
• Short-term illness that
occurs within the first 6
months after
exposure.
• Can—but does not
always—lead to
chronic infection.
Chronic Hepatitis B
• Long-term illness that
occurs when the virus
remains in a person’s
body.
• Estimated 800,000 to
1.4 million persons
have chronic Hepatitis
B virus infection in the
U.S.
HEPATITIS B VACCINE
•
•
•
The Hepatitis B vaccine series is a sequence of
shots that stimulate a person’s natural immune
system to protect against HBV.
After the vaccine is given, the body makes
antibodies that protect a person against the virus.
These antibodies are then stored in the body and
will fight off the infection if a person is exposed to
the Hepatitis B virus in the future.
HEPATITIS B VACCINE
•
•
•
•
Safe and effective
Usually given as 3-4 shots over a 6-month period
Recommended for health care workers (including
caregivers) at risk for exposure to blood or bloodcontaminated body fluids on the job
Employers must offer at not cost if a job puts you at
risk for exposure to blood or blood-contaminated
body fluids on the job
Hepatitis C
HEPATITIS C
•
•
A contagious liver disease
that results from infection
with the Hepatitis C virus.
It can range in severity
from a mild illness lasting a
few weeks to a serious,
lifelong illness.
CAN BE ACUTE OR CHRONIC
•
•
•
Acute Hepatitis C virus infection is a short-term
illness that occurs within the first 6 months after
someone is exposed to the Hepatitis C virus.
For most people, acute infection leads to chronic
infection.
Chronic Hepatitis C is a serious disease than can
result in long-term health problems, or even death.
HOW IS HEPATITIS C SPREAD?
•
•
•
Spread when blood from a person infected with the
Hepatitis C virus enters the body of someone who
is not infected.
Today, most people become infected with the
Hepatitis C virus by sharing needles or other
equipment to inject drugs.
Before 1992, when widespread screening of the
blood supply began in the United States, Hepatitis
C was also commonly spread through blood
transfusions and organ transplants.
HOW IS HEPATITIS C SPREAD?
People can become infected with the Hepatitis C
virus during such activities as:
• Sharing needles, syringes, or other equipment to
inject drugs
• Needlestick injuries in health care settings
• Being born to a mother who has Hepatitis C
HOW IS HEPATITIS C SPREAD?
Less commonly, a person can also get Hepatitis C
virus infection through:
• Sharing personal care items that may have come in
contact with another person’s blood, such as razors
or toothbrushes
• Having sexual contact with a person infected with
the Hepatitis C virus
IS THERE A VACCINE?
•
•
•
At this time there is not a vaccine for hepatitis C.
Vaccines are available only for Hepatitis A and
Hepatitis B.
Research into the development of a vaccine is
under way.
Diabetes and Hepatitis
DIABETES AND HEPATITIS
•
•
CDC has investigated multiple outbreaks of viral
hepatitis among residents in long-term-care (LTC)
communities
Attributed to shared devices and other breaks in
infection-control practices related to blood glucose
monitoring
DIABETES AND HEPATITIS
Insulin pens and insulin cartridges
• Do not use to administer to multiple residents
• Not designed for, and are not safe for, use on more than
one person
DIABETES AND HEPATITIS
Glucometers
• Assigned to individual residents
• Decontaminate regularly and
any time contamination is
suspected
• Maintain supplies and
equipment within individual
resident rooms if possible
DIABETES AND HEPATITIS
•
•
•
•
Unused supplies and
medications taken to the
bedside should not be
used for another resident
Never share fingerstick
sampling
Select single-use lancets
that permanently retract
upon puncture
Dispose of in sharps
container
DIABETES AND HEPATITIS
•
•
Any trays or carts used
to deliver medications
or supplies to
individual residents
should remain outside
resident rooms.
Do not carry supplies
and medications in
pockets.
DIABETES AND HEPATITIS
•
•
•
•
Prepare medications in a
centralized medication area
Multiple dose insulin vials should
be assigned to individual residents
and labeled appropriately.
Store unused and used diabetes
equipment and supplies separately
Never reuse needles, syringes, or
lancets.
How to Protect Yourself
GET VACCINATED!
•
Get the hepatitis B vaccine
AT HOME…
•
In your personal life the
best way to protect
yourself from bloodborne
pathogens is to avoid
engaging in activities that
lead to their transmission,
such as unprotected sex.
AT WORK…
•
At work you can protect
yourself by applying the
principles of standard
precautions during any activity
that may lead to exposure to
blood or other potentially
infectious body fluids
IF YOU ARE EXPOSED…
•
If you experienced a
needlestick or sharps injury
or were exposed to the blood
or other body fluid of a
resident during the course of
your work, immediately
follow these steps:
IF YOU ARE EXPOSED…
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Wash needlesticks and cuts with soap and water
Flush splashes to the nose, mouth, or skin with
water
Irrigate eyes with clean water, saline, or sterile
irrigants
Report the incident to your supervisor
Immediately seek medical treatment
Standard Precautions
STANDARD PRECAUTIONS
•
•
Replaced Universal Precautions
Includes elements of Universal Precautions and
Body Substance Isolation
STANDARD PRECAUTIONS
Two key elements:
All blood, body fluids,
secretions, excretions
except sweat, nonintact
skin, and mucous
membranes may contain
transmissible infectious
agents
Should be applied to all
residents, regardless of
infectious status
STANDARD PRECAUTIONS
Applies to all:
• Blood
• Body fluids
• Secretions
• Excretions (except sweat)
• Nonintact skin
• Mucous membranes
STANDARD PRECAUTIONS
Two key elements:
All blood, body fluids,
secretions, excretions
except sweat, nonintact
skin, and mucous
membranes may contain
transmissible infectious
agents
Should be applied to all
residents, regardless of
infectious status
STANDARD PRECAUTIONS
Hand Hygiene
• When
• How
STANDARD PRECAUTIONS
Hand Hygiene: When
•
•
•
•
•
•
Before having direct contact with residents
After contact with blood, body fluids or excretions, mucous
membranes, nonintact skin, or wound dressings
After contact with a resident’s intact skin
If hands will be moving from a contaminated-body site to a cleanbody site during resident care
After contact with inanimate objects (including medical
equipment) in the immediate vicinity of the resident
After removing gloves
STANDARD PRECAUTIONS
Hand Hygiene: Visibly Soiled
• When hands are visibly dirty, contaminated with
proteinaceous material, or visibly soiled with blood
or body fluids
• Wash hands with either a nonantimicrobial soap
and water or an antimicrobial soap and water
STANDARD PRECAUTIONS
Hand Hygiene: Not Visibly Soiled
• If hands are not visibly soiled, or after removing
visible material with nonantimicrobial soap and
water, decontaminate hands
• The preferred method of hand decontamination is
with an alcohol-based hand rub
• Alternatively, hands may be washed with an
antimicrobial soap and water.
STANDARD PRECAUTIONS
Hand Hygiene: Spores
• Wash hands with nonantimicrobial soap and
water or with
antimicrobial soap and
water if contact with
spores (e.g., C. difficile
or Bacillus anthracis) is
likely to have occurred
STANDARD PRECAUTIONS
Respiratory Hygiene
STANDARD PRECAUTIONS
Respiratory Hygiene
• Cover the mouth/nose when
coughing or sneezing
STANDARD PRECAUTIONS
Respiratory Hygiene
• Post signs at entrances
and in strategic places
STANDARD PRECAUTIONS
Respiratory Hygiene
• Provide tissues and notouch receptacles for
disposal of tissues
STANDARD PRECAUTIONS
Respiratory Hygiene
• Provide resources and
instructions for performing
hand hygiene in or near
common areas
STANDARD PRECAUTIONS
Respiratory Hygiene
• During periods of increased
prevalence of respiratory
infections in the community,
offer masks to coughing
residents and other
symptomatic persons
STANDARD PRECAUTIONS
Resident Placement
•
•
Include the potential for
transmission of infectious
agents when selecting a
resident's room/apartment
Place residents who pose a
risk for transmission to others
(e.g., uncontained secretions,
excretions or wound
drainage) in a single-resident
room when available
STANDARD PRECAUTIONS
Care of the
Environment
STANDARD PRECAUTIONS
CLEAN
then
DISINFECT
STANDARD PRECAUTIONS
CLEANING
DISINFECTING
SANITIZING
Removes germs
Kills germs
Lowers # of germs
• Removes germs, dirt, and • Uses chemicals to kill
impurities from surfaces
germs on surfaces or
or objects
objects
• Uses soap (or detergent) • Done after cleaning
and water
• Physically remove germs
from surfaces
• Does not necessarily kill
germs
• Works by either cleaning
or disinfecting surfaces or
objects to lower the risk
of spreading infection
STANDARD PRECAUTIONS
Clean in disinfect properly:
• Always follow label directions
• Wash surfaces with a general household cleaner to
remove germs
• Rinse with water
• Follow with an EPA-registered disinfectant to kill
germs
STANDARD PRECAUTIONS
Bleach is a good alternative:
• Add 1 tablespoon of bleach to 1 quart (4 cups) of
water. For a larger supply of disinfectant, add ¼
cup of bleach to 1 gallon (16 cups) of water
• Apply the solution to the surface with a cloth
• Let it stand for 3 to 5 minutes
• Rinse the surface with clean water
Regulated Waste
REGULATED WASTE
“Liquid or semi-liquid blood or other potentially
infectious materials; contaminated items that would
release blood or other potentially infectious materials
in a liquid or semi-liquid state if compressed; items
that are caked with dried blood or other potentially
infectious materials and are capable of releasing
these materials during handling; contaminated
sharps; and pathological and microbiological wastes
containing blood or other potentially infectious
materials.”
STANDARD PRECAUTIONS
Sharps containers
• Contaminated sharps shall be
discarded immediately or as
soon as feasible in containers
that are:
• Puncture resistant
• Leakproof on sides and bottom
• Labeled or color-coded
STANDARD PRECAUTIONS
Sharps containers, during use:
• Easily accessible to personnel
• Located as close as is feasible
to the immediate area where
sharps are used or can be
reasonably anticipated to be
found (e.g., laundries)
• Maintained upright throughout
use
• Replaced routinely and not be
allowed to overfill.
REGULATED WASTE
Regulated Waste
• Regulated waste shall be placed in
containers which are:
• Closable
• Constructed to contain all contents and
prevent leakage of fluids during
handling, storage, transport or shipping
• Labeled or color-coded
• Closed prior to removal to prevent
spillage or protrusion of contents
Personal Protective Equipment
PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
•
•
"Personal Protective Equipment" is specialized
clothing or equipment worn or used by an
employee for protection against a hazard.
General work clothes (e.g., uniforms, pants, shirts
or blouses) not intended to function as protection
against a hazard are not considered to be personal
protective equipment.
PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
Gloves
• For touching blood,
body fluids,
secretions, excretions,
contaminated items
• For touching mucous
membranes and
nonintact skin
PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
Gown
• When contact of
clothing/exposed skin
with blood/body fluids,
secretions, and
excretions is
anticipated
PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
Mask/Eye Protection
• During procedures
and activities likely to
generate splashes or
sprays of blood, body
fluids, secretions, and
excretions
PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
Resuscitation barrier
device
• When performing
CPR with mouth-tomouth resuscitation
PERSONNEL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
•
•
•
•
Must be provided by the employer
Must be readily available to appropriate personnel
Maintain appropriate sizes, etc.
Provide training in use, donning, and removing
ACTIVITY:
AGREE or DISAGREE
Agree or Disagree
When assisting a resident in your Community
that you know does NOT have HIV, you still
should take precautions as if they were
infected with HIV.
Agree or Disagree
Every resident should be tested for HIV/AIDS
before they are admitted into your Assisted
Living Community.
Agree or Disagree
Residents in your Community that have HIV or
AIDS should NOT be allowed to have sexual
relationships with another resident within the
Community.
Agree or Disagree
All of your residents and employees MUST be
tested for Tuberculosis.
Tuberculosis
WHAT IS TUBERCULOSIS?
•
Abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or
Tuberculosis.
•
TB bacteria usually attacks the lungs, but can
attack any part of the body including the kidney,
spine, and brain.
WHAT IS TUBERCULOSIS?
•
Research shows that TB
is the second most
common cause of death
worldwide.
•
If untreated, or not
treated effectively,
tuberculosis can be fatal.
CAUSES
•
Tuberculosis is caused by
the infectious agent known
as Mycobacterium
tuberculosis (Mtb).
•
Discovered by Dr. Robert
Koch in 1882.
RISK FACTORS
For someone to develop active TB disease, the
following two events must take place:
• The bacteria enters the body and causes an Mtb
infection.
• The immune system cannot stop the TB bacteria
from growing and spreading after the initial
infection.
ACTIVE VS. LATENT
There are two types or forms of TB:
• Active
• Latent
TRANSMISSION
•
Tuberculosis is primarily an
airborne disease.
•
According to the CDC, “The
TB bacteria are put into the
air when a person with
active TB disease of the
lungs or throat coughs,
sneezes, speaks, or sings.”
TRANSMISSION
A person CANNOT get TB by:
• Touching bed linens or toilet seats
• Shaking someone’s hand
• Sharing food/drink
• Sharing toothbrush
• Kissing
SYMPTOMS
•
The symptoms of TB can range from no symptoms
or very mild illness (latent TB) to significant
symptoms with massive involvement (active TB).
•
TB may also lie dormant for years and reappear
after the initial infection is contained.
SYMPTOMS
Early symptoms of active TB can include:
Cough
Loss of appetite
Shortness of breath
Paleness
Weight loss
Joint pain
Fatigue
Chills
Fever
Swollen glands
Night sweats
Abdominal swelling
General discomfort
DIAGNOSTIC TEST
•
What is PPD and what other test may be
performed to detect or diagnose TB?
PREVENTION
•
What is the BCG
vaccine and who is
recommended to receive
this vaccine?
•
What are the risk factors
involved?
TREATMENTS
What are the common challenges regarding TB
treatments?
• Long-term antibiotic therapy
• Risk of liver damage
• Costs
• Co-morbid conditions such as mental illness
Strategies to Ensure Quality of
Care for Our Residents
117
STRATEGIES TO ENSURE QUALITY OF CARE
Successful treatment of tuberculosis has benefits
both for the individual resident and the community in
which the resident resides.
The goals for treatment are:
• To minimize the transmission of TB to other
persons
• To cure the individual resident of TB
STRATEGIES TO ENSURE QUALITY OF CARE
•
What are some ways we
can ensure quality of care
for our residents?
STRATEGIES TO ENSURE QUALITY OF CARE
Awareness
• It is important that people are aware that TB is not
an ancient disease as it is often considered to be.
TB is killing more people than ever before in
history and remains one of the world’s deadliest
infectious diseases. Healthcare workers,
organizations, community members all need to
assist in raising awareness.
OSHA REQUIREMENTS
Implement effective control programs to minimize
exposure to Tuberculosis which include:
• Early Identification
• Isolation
• Treatment
STOP
TB
POLICIES AND PROCEDURES
•
One essential strategy to ensure quality of care for
our residents is to develop and implement effective
policies and procedures in our assisted living and
residential care communities.
STAFF TRAINING
Effective staff training is the key to providing the
highest quality of care to our residents.
• Educate staff to be aware of the
causes and risks
• The use of protective equipment
• Injury and illness prevention
• Resident rights and confidentiality
Strategies to Ensure Confidentiality
and Personal Rights
124
STRATEGIES TO ENSURE CONFIDENTIALITY
•
Confidentiality is not an option, it’s a requirement!
CONFIDENTIALITY/PERSONAL RIGHTS
Resident
• What are the resident’s personal rights?
• How can we ensure highest quality of care while
maintaining confidentiality and resident rights?
CONFIDENTIALITY/PERSONAL RIGHTS
Care Staff
• Identify how to
respond when care
staff are diagnosed
with HIV or have
latent TB.
Any Questions? Comments?
Quiz
QUESTION #1
HIV is transmitted in ________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Air, water, and some foods
Blood and some bodily fluids
Blood only
None of the above
QUESTION #1
HIV is transmitted in ________________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Air, water, and some foods
Blood and some bodily fluids
Blood only
None of the above
QUESTION #2
Hepatitis B is a non-contagious liver disease that
results from infection with the Hepatitis B virus.
a.
b.
True
False
QUESTION #2
Hepatitis B is a non-contagious liver disease that
results from infection with the Hepatitis B virus.
a.
b.
True
False
QUESTION #3
Personal protective equipment only includes: gloves
and masks.
a.
b.
True
False
QUESTION #3
Personal protective equipment only includes: gloves
and masks.
a.
b.
True
False
QUESTION #4
When a resident’s equipment has been
contaminated with blood or other bodily fluids, you
must first:
a.
b.
c.
d.
Rinse with water
Clean
Disinfect
None of the above
QUESTION #4
When a resident’s equipment has been
contaminated with blood or other bodily fluids, you
must first:
a.
b.
c.
d.
Rinse with water
Clean
Disinfect
None of the above
QUESTION #5
Sharps or Needlesticks injuries can occur
____________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
When a person uses them
During disassembly
Due to improper disposal
All of the above
QUESTION #5
Sharps or Needlesticks injuries can occur
____________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
When a person uses them
During disassembly
Due to improper disposal
All of the above
QUESTION #6
HIV is NOT spread by:
a.
b.
c.
d.
Saliva, tears or sweat
Casual everyday contact with an HIV-infected
person
Casual contact like shaking hands or sharing
dishes
All of the above
QUESTION #6
HIV is NOT spread by:
a.
b.
c.
d.
Saliva, tears or sweat
Casual everyday contact with an HIV-infected
person
Casual contact like shaking hands or sharing
dishes
All of the above
QUESTION #7
An exposure control plan must include information
regarding how an employer will use a combination of
engineering and work practice controls to prevent or
reduce occupational exposure to bloodborne
pathogens.
•
•
True
False
QUESTION #7
An exposure control plan must include information
regarding how an employer will use a combination of
engineering and work practice controls to prevent or
reduce occupational exposure to bloodborne
pathogens.
•
•
True
False
QUESTION #8
TB is a life-threatening infection that primarily affects
the:
a.
b.
c.
d.
Brain
Blood
Lungs
Heart
QUESTION #8
TB is a life-threatening infection that primarily affects
the:
a.
b.
c.
d.
Brain
Blood
Lungs
Heart
QUESTION #9
According to the CDC, “The TB bacteria are put into
the air when a person with active TB disease of the
lungs or throat _______________.”
a.
b.
c.
d.
Coughs
Sneezes
Speaks
All of the above
QUESTION #9
According to the CDC, “The TB bacteria are put into
the air when a person with active TB disease of the
lungs or throat _______________.”
a.
b.
c.
d.
Coughs
Sneezes
Speaks
All of the above
QUESTION #10
Symptoms of active TB include:
a.
b.
c.
d.
Cough
Weight loss
Night sweats
All of the above
QUESTION #10
Symptoms of active TB include:
a.
b.
c.
d.
Cough
Weight loss
Night sweats
All of the above
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