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STOA WORKSHOP, JANUARY 30TH 2013
RISK IN INNOVATION
BALANCING BENEFITS AND HAZARDS
CASE 2: NANOTECHNOLOGIES:
INNOVATION AND RISK IN THE FOOD SECTOR
Quellen: DIALOG BASIS, MLR, Pitopia
Dr. Antje Grobe, Prof. Dr. Milena Riede DIALOG BASIS
Universität Stuttgart, Universität St. Gallen
Dr. Antje Grobe DIALOG BASIS
Every–Day-Use Items
Health
Energy
•
•
•
•
Water
Quellen: InnoCNT, BASF, Dialogbasis.de, Vegetal & Mineral Water, Michelin, MLR
WHAT WE DREAMED OF
Easy-To-Clean / Coatings / New Materials • Pharmaceutis / Cancer Therapie
• Water treatment / Environmental Techn.
Functional Textiles / Sports goods
• Energieefficiency / Energy Production
Cosmetics & Health Care
Energy Storage
Food
Dr. Antje Grobe
2
NANO FOOD: DREAM OR NIGHTMARE?
aspekte 18 th December
2004
Science fiction applications in the
media?
Nano Escalope (DE)
Nano Pizza (CH)
Nano coated chocolate
Nano Ketchup
Colour Changing Drinks
PATTERNS OF FEAR ... EASY TO TRANSFER
Quelle:
C. Meili / J. Pritchett (2006)
TWO PREMISES HAVE TO BE CLARIFIED …
1. Are there new products on the market with an unknown
risk potential?
2. Is the public really affraid?
APPLICATIONS OF NANOTECHNOLOGIES IN FOOD?
FAO & WHO (2010): Twelve categories of
applications for nanotechnologies in food
Nanostructured food ingredients
Nanodelivery systems for nutrients and supplements
Organic nanosized additives for food, health food
supplements and animal feed applications
Inorganic nanosized additives for food, health food
supplements and animal feed applications
Food packaging applications
Nanocoatings on food contact surfaces
Surface functionalized nanomaterials
Nanofiltration
Nanosized agrochemicals
Nanosensors for food labelling
Water decontamination
Other applications (animal feed)
6
Dr. Antje Grobe DIALOG BASIS
NANO IN FOOD?
FAO & WHO (2010): Twelve categories of
applications for nanotechnologies in food
Nanostructured food ingredients
Nanodelivery systems for nutrients and supplements
Organic nanosized additives for food, health food
supplements and animal feed applications
Inorganic nanosized additives for food, health food
supplements and animal feed applications
Food packaging applications
Nanocoatings on food contact surfaces
Surface functionalized nanomaterials
Nanofiltration
Nanosized agrochemicals
Nanosensors for food labelling
Water decontamination
Other applications (animal feed)
STRATEGIC RESEARCH AGENDA 2007-2020, European
Platform on Food for Life:
Nanotechnologies as key technologies for tailor-made food
and intelligent packaging.
7
Dr. Antje Grobe DIALOG BASIS
CLEAR DISCREPANCY BETWEEN R&D ACTIVITY AND
CONSUMER COMMUNICATION
„To my knowledge there are no nanoproducts on the German market“,
BLL (Association of the German Food Industry), in Consumer Congress
Nano-Dialog Baden-Wuerttemberg December 2012
FoodDrinkEurope: “Nanotechnology in the food industry is at an early
stage and, in the future, it could be used to deliver new food products
and improve existing ones. It also has potential in processing and
packaging, bringing benefits to consumers and industry”
 Nanotechnology is only something for the future
 Nothing on the market – no nanomaterials to assess
 No Risk !
8
Dr. Antje Grobe DIALOG BASIS
… ON THE OTHER HAND …
Grobe & Rissanen 2012
A query in the Patentscope database of the World Intellectual Property
Organization (keywords „nano* AND food* OR agricultur*“):
22,759 patents for nanotechnological solutions in the food sector from
the years 2002-2012
Expert Interviews: How to explain this:
• Unknown number of patents mentioning the size to describe technical
details e.g. of measurement
• In the agrobusiness some companies tend to unfold a „patent carpet“,
patenting every detailed step of a development
• Food companies in Europe are nerveous about the bad perception and
regulatory observation: at the moment no marked approval of
nanoproducts intended.
9
Grobe, Antje &
Rissanen, Mikko (2012):
Nanotechnologies in
Agriculture and Food: An
Overview of Different Fields
of Application, Risk
Assessment and Public
Perception.
In: Recent Patents on Food,
Nutrition & Agriculture 2012
(4).
Dr. Antje Grobe DIALOG BASIS
… ON THE OTHER HAND …
Grobe & Rissanen 2012
A query in the Patentscope database of the World Intellectual Property
Organization (keywords „nano* AND food* OR agricultur*“):
22,759 patents for nanotechnological solutions in the food sector from
the years 2002-2012
NO
on the use of
ExpertCOMPREHENSIVE
Interviews: How to explainDATABASE
this:
• Unknown number of patents
mentioning
size to describe
technical
nanotechnologies
in the
foodthesector
available
for
details e.g. of measurement
regulators,
scientists
or consumers.
• In the agrobusiness
some companies
tend to unfold a „patent carpet“, Grobe, Antje &
patenting every detailed step of a development
• Food companies in Europe are nerveous about the bad perception and
regulatory observation: at the moment no marked approval of
nanoproducts intended.
10
Rissanen, Mikko (2012):
Nanotechnologies in
Agriculture and Food: An
Overview of Different Fields
of Application, Risk
Assessment and Public
Perception.
In: Recent Patents on Food,
Nutrition & Agriculture 2012
(4).
Dr. Antje Grobe DIALOG BASIS
THAT MEANS…
We do not have a clear picture either of the innovation nor of the risks.
More transparency is urgently needed!
11
Dr. Antje Grobe DIALOG BASIS
INBETWEEN …
Scientific organisations and NGOs try to close the
gap left by the industry:
Friends of the Earth (2008): Out of the Laboratory
and on to Our Plates. Nanotechnology in Food &
Agriculture.
104 products applying manufactured nanoparticles,
nano-emulsions or nano-capsules identified, however
assumed to be „just a small fraction of the total
number of products now available worldwide“
The Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies,
Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars:
Consumer Products Inventory (ongoing)
105 products or product lines in the category
„Food & Beverage“
According to the information available, the number
of nanotechnological products in the food sector
would not have increased in the last 4-5 years
12
Dr. Antje Grobe DIALOG BASIS
… OR WE DISCUSS ABOUT OLD, WELL
KNOWN PRODUCTS
Amorphous Silica as anti caking agents (E551):
•
•
Proven as safe by ECETOC
Discussion if this material has to be called a
„Nanomaterial“, „nanostructured material“…
Titanium Dioxide (E171)(micro)
•
•
Not in the nanoscale approved or marketed!
Fractions of nanoscaled material are a side effect of
each production
Source: Dr. Monika Meier, Evonik, Synthetic Amorphous Silica as Anticaking
Agent, March 2010; Mathepedia
13
ENCAPSULATED SYSTEMS
• Some well known to shelter vitamins
(Carotinoide, Vitamin A, E, D, K)
• Some biodegradable releasesystems (starchsugar-protein)
• Some lipid droplets (dieatary products)
0.3 Millimeter*
(300,000 Nanometer)
Source: L. End, BASF SE, FDA, Public
Hearing 2006
14
300 Nanometer*
(0.0003 Millimeter)
AND THE PUBLIC?
Quelle:
C. Meili / J. Pritchett (2006)
3. PUBLIC PERCEPTION
EUROBAROMETER-STUDY 2010
(Gaskel, G., et al. 2010)
Europeans and Biotechnology in 2010 – Winds of change?
Have you ever heard of nanotechnology before?
100.0%
80.0%
75.7%
64.7%
60.0%
53.7%
46.3%
Switzerland
Germany
35.3%
40.0%
EU
22.3%
20.0%
0.0%
Heard
not heard
Gaskell, George, et al., 2010: Europeans and Biotechnology in 2010 – Winds of change?, Brussels European Commission
Downloadable at: http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/ebs/ebs_341_winds_en.pdf
3. PUBLIC PERCEPTION
EUROBAROMETER-STUDY 2010
(Gaskel, G., et al. 2010)
Europeans and Biotechnology in 2010 – Winds of change?
Do you think [Nanotechnology] will have a positive, a negative or no effect
on our way of live in the next 20 years?
100.0%
80.0%
60.0%
47.3%
43.4% 41.1%
37.0% 40.3%
40.0%
29.7%
20.0%
12.7% 7.1%
8.6%
10.3% 12.6%
10.0%
0.0%
Positive effect
No effect
Negative effect
DK
Gaskell, George, et al., 2010: Europeans and Biotechnology in 2010 – Winds of change?, Brussels European Commission
Downloadable at: http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/ebs/ebs_341_winds_en.pdf
Switzerland
Germany
EU
NANOTECHNOLOGIES FROM THE CONSUMERS‘ POINT OF VIEW:
WHAT THEY KNOW AND WHAT THEY WOULD LIKE TO KNOW
Grobe et al. 2012: Qualitative Consumer Interviews
Key findings
The knowledge fades out: Consumers know less about
applications and benefits than a few years ago
At the same time, risk debates (health and
environmental effects) echo in their evaluations
Ambivalence is increasing
40 % say that nanotechnologies are not present in
the stores, in politics or in the media.
 Two theses about the reason comsumers provide:
1. Nanoproducts never worked and are drawn
form the market
2. Concrete applications are not there yet,
nanotechnology is only R&D it may comes in
future
18
Dr. Antje Grobe DIALOG BASIS
NANOTECHNOLOGIES FROM THE CONSUMERS‘ POINT OF VIEW:
WHAT THEY KNOW AND WHAT THEY WOULD LIKE TO KNOW
Known Fields of Application
Medicine
Automotive
Surface coatings
Food
Textiles
IT / Elektronics
Paint / Varnish
Detergents
Cosmetics
Chemistry
Construction
Space Travel
Engineering
Science Fiction
Sports
Military
Aviation
Plastics
Metal Processing
Environmental technologies
Shipping
None
Lubricants
2011 (n = 102) / 2008 (n = 100)
19
71%
85%
60%
62%
50%
49%
63%
45% 55%
44%
61%
40% 49%
32% 41%
29%34%
17% 25%
23%
41%
16%
18%
10% 19%
9% 14%
9% 16%
9%
20%
8%
10%
5%
16%
4%
13%
3%
19%
2%5%
1%
6%
2011
78%
Consumer knowledge declines in all areas
The five best-known fields of application:
Medicine: 85 -> 71%
Automotive: 62 -> 60%
Surface Coatings: 78 -> 50%
Food: 63 -> 49%
Textiles: 55 -> 45%
2008
Dr. Antje Grobe DIALOG BASIS
NANOTECHNOLOGIES FROM THE CONSUMERS‘ POINT OF VIEW:
WHAT THEY KNOW AND WHAT THEY WOULD LIKE TO KNOW
Basic attitudes to nanotechnologies
42%
64%
49%
31%
4%
positiv
positive
6%
5%
negativ
negative
ambivalent
ambivalent
2011
0%
k. A.
D.K.
2008
2011 (n = 103) / 2008 (n = 100)
Personal courses of action
64% 71%
22% 21%
8%
abwarten
wait
and see
ausprobieren
try it
2011 (n = 103) / 2008 (n = 100)
20
2011
2%
ablehnen
aversion
2008
6%
6%
D.K.k. A.
42 % view nanotechnologies
as something positive
However, this represents
a decline of 22% in the
last three years
Half of the consumers are
not able to form a clear
opinion
Still, two thirds would like to
try nano-products out
22 % would personally
wait until more
information is available;
only 8 % are completely
reluctant
Dr. Antje Grobe DIALOG BASIS
ATTITUTDES TOWARDS NANO IN FOOD
Attitudes towards nanotechnologies in the food area
51%
37%
30%
24%
16%
15%
5%
positiv
erwähnt
positive
11%
9%
2%
negativ
erwähnt
negative
2011 (n = 103) / 2008 (n = 100)
ambivalent
ambivalent
2011
2008
ohne
Wertung
without
judgement
k.D.K.
A.
THERE IS NO ALTERNATIVE…
First Axiom of Communication:
„You cannot not communicate“
(Paul Watzlawick et al 1967)
22
Fotos: dialogbasis.de, Pitopia, Asbestways Service Corp
 If you do not communicate, people develop their own
frames of reference, associations and communicational
patterns
 If no new information is available, people transfer patterns
from other debates (GMO…)
 If people do not trust in acteurs and processes, mistrust
increases
 Innovation will fail
Dr. Antje Grobe DIALOG BASIS
THREE PILLARS OF TRUST IN TECHNOLOGY DEBATES
23
Players
Processes
Products
TRUST
Dr. Antje Grobe DIALOG BASIS
THREE PILLARS OF TRUST IN TECHNOLOGY DEBATES
Products
TRUST
24
Dr. Antje Grobe DIALOG BASIS
CONCLUSIONS
1. More transparency has to be demanded
 Without a better communication industry will lose the market equal if or if not
they are engaged in nano yet
2. Patents should be investigated about what is going on
• Differentiation between food and agriculture (not in the
focus yet)
 Industry should explain how these results fit to the ”nothing on the market”
statements
3. Concentration on real innovative products
 Food is for good reasons not the focus of nanotechnology innovation in Europe.
That has to be communicated! Good examples are out there!
Every–Day-Use Items
Health
Energy
•
•
•
•
Water
Quellen: InnoCNT, BASF, Dialogbasis.de, Vegetal & Mineral Water, Michelin, MLR
WHAT WE DREAMED OF: SUSTAINABLE FUTURE
Easy-To-Clean / Coatings / New Materials • Pharmaceutis / Cancer Therapie
• Water treatment / Environmental Techn.
Functional Textiles / Sports goods
• Energieefficiency / Energy Production
Cosmetics & Health Care
Energy Storage
Food
26
Dr. Antje Grobe DIALOG BASIS
THERE IS NO ALTERNATIVE BUT TO GO ON
Contact:
Dr. Antje Grobe M.A.
Managing Director
Prof. Dr. Milena Riede
DIALOG BASIS
Breitwasenring 15
DE - 72135 Dettenhausen / Tuebingen
Tel: ++49 (0)7157 721 331 -0
Fax: ++49 (0)7157 721 185 0
Mobil: ++49 (0)171 45 18 18 6
[email protected]
[email protected]
www.dialogbasis.de
Bild: Risk Dialogue Foundation
27
Dr. Antje Grobe DIALOG BASIS

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