Real Estate Joint Ventures

Tax Issues in Connection with Non-U.S.
Companies Doing Business in the Gulf
Presented by
Joseph Gulant, Jennifer Bell, Manuela Morais, and Tara Leiter
March 27, 2012
Our Speakers
Joseph T. Gulant
Partner & Practice Group Leader, Tax Practice
Jennifer Lynn Bell
Associate, Tax Practice
Manuela M. Morais
Of Counsel, Employment, Benefits & Labor Practice
Tara L. Leiter
Associate, Blank Rome Maritime
Our Discussion
 Circumstances in which foreign companies will become subject to U.S.
federal income taxes (and tax return filing obligations) when doing
business in the Gulf of Mexico;
 When payments made to these foreign companies become subject to
U.S. federal income tax withholding;
 When employees/ship crew become subject to employment taxes in
the U.S. (income, social security, etc.); and
 Update on hot legal (non-tax) issues in connection with doing business
in the Gulf.
Supplemental Materials
 Industry Director’s Directive #1 – United States Outer Continental
Shelf Activity (October 28, 2009, “IDD 1”)
 Industry Director’s Directive #2 – Employment Tax and the Employees
on the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf (March 30, 2011)
 Chief Counsel Advice 201027046 (July 9, 2010)
 “The OCS Tax Trap: U.S. and Foreign Companies Beware!” The
Maritime Executive (March/April 2011)
Overview of U.S. Federal Income and
Withholding Tax Considerations
 Definition of “United States” includes the OCS for U.S. federal income tax
 Generally two types of taxes may be applicable to U.S.-source income of a
foreign corporation:
 Income effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business; and
 U.S.-source passive income (e.g., rents from bareboat charter, compensation,
 Certain additional U.S. federal income taxes and/or exemptions may apply:
 Branch Profits Tax;
 Tax on income from the sale of a U.S. real property interest;
 The reciprocal exemption; and
 Tax on U.S. source gross transportation income.
 Considerations and strategies applicable to the oil and gas industry
Definition of U.S. Includes OCS
 Definition of “United States” includes the OCS for U.S. federal income tax
sourcing rules.
 Source of services, transportation, and rental income depend on where the
services are performed, where the transportation begins and ends, and where
the rental property is used.
 Means that a foreign contractor that provide services on the OCS is generally
considered to perform those services in the United States and derive U.S.
source income.
 Misconception that 12 mile limit is relevant.
 Section 638(1): Defines the OCS as the “seabed and subsoil of those
submarine areas which are adjacent to the territorial waters of the U.S. and
over which the U.S. has exclusive rights, in accordance with international law,
“with respect to the exploration and exploitation of natural resources.”
 Treasury Regulations broadly interpret “with respect to the exploration and
exploitation of natural resources.”
Definition of U.S. Includes OCS Cont. –
Treasury Regulations
 Includes all persons, property, or activities which are engaged in or “related to”
the exploration for or exploitation of mines, oil and gas wells, and other natural
deposits, whether or not physically upon, connected, or attached to the seabed
or subsoil.
 Examples in Treasury Regulation Section 1.638-1(f):
 Lawyer that is physically present on offshore oil drilling platform for the sole
purpose of interviewing his client for a domestic relations matter  NOT
engaged in the exploration/exploitation of natural deposits
 Doctor examining employees that are engaged in the exploitation of oil while
on the platform to determine for employer if employees should continue to
work on the platform  IS engaged in the exploration/exploitation of natural
 Engineer designs equipment for use on oil drilling platforms affixed to OCS and
engaged in exploitation of oil  NOT subject to Section 638
Definition of U.S. Includes OCS Cont. –
Additional Examples
 Corp A (non-U.S.) enters into a contract with Corp B (U.S.) to engage in
exploratory oil drilling activities on a leasehold held by Corp B located on OCS
 Corp A IS engaged in and has property and activities subject to Section 638,
amounts paid to Corp A under contract are U.S. source
 PLR 200823005 (6/6/08): Vessel operators who receive payments made
under time charter arrangements which involve the transportation of divers
and equipment on the OCS are performing services related to the exploration
and exploitation of natural resources.
 Revenue Ruling 80-64: Section 638 applies to a drill ship operating in the OCS
even though the ship does not rest on, and is not anchored to, the seabed
and does not penetrate the subsoil except to remove core samples.
 PLR 7590039 (9/13/79): Operation of a foreign corporation’s dynamic
positioning drilling ship in the drilling of a Continental Offshore Stratigraphic
Test in the OCS falls within Section 638.
Taxation of Income Effectively Connected
with a U.S. Trade or Business
 The U.S. generally imposes a tax on the net income of a foreign
corporation that is engaged in a U.S trade or business and has income
that is effectively connected with that trade or business (“ECI”).
 Facts and circumstances test; and
 Activities in the U.S. must be considerable, continuous and regular.
 Graduated rates apply (corporate rate is currently 35%).
 May be reduced by Treaty under the business profits provision unless
permanent establishment (may include a mine, oil well, etc.).
 Deductions are allowed against ECI (provided return is timely filed).
 Required to file IRS Form 1120-F with respect to its U.S. operations.
Taxation of Income Effectively Connected
with a U.S. Trade or Business Cont.
 Additional 30% tax (subject to reduction by Treaty) imposed on the
foreign corporation’s effectively connected after-tax earnings that are
not reinvested in the U.S. trade or business (the so-called “Branch
Profits Tax”).
 May be reduced by Treaty
 Last year rule
 Time v. Bareboat Charterers
 According to IDD #1, foreign time charterers may be engaged in a U.S.
trade or business because their employees continue to navigate and
manage the vessel during the time charter period.
 Arguably no BPT for bareboat charters
Taxation of Income Effectively Connected
with a U.S. Trade or Business Cont.
 Example: Foreign contractor receives $100 of income that is treated
as ECI. Foreign contractor takes $60 vessel depreciation/other
deductions that year.
 The amount of tax due is calculated as follows: Net income is $100
minus $60, or $40, multiplied by 35% (assuming no Treaty reduction),
or $14. Deductions are permitted because the foreign contractor
timely files its U.S. income tax return.
 In addition, the Branch Profits Tax is imposed on the $40 net income,
resulting in a $12 Branch Profits Tax.
 The total U.S. federal income tax due is $26.
Taxation of U.S.-Source Passive Income
 Flat 30% tax on the gross amount of the foreign corporation’s U.S.-
source passive income that is not ECI. No deductions are permitted.
 Applies to certain passive income including interest, dividends, rents,
royalties, compensation, etc.
 Bareboat and time charter income: treated as rents, key is where vessel
is used
 Generally requires withholding at the source (unless provided W-8ECI,
W-8BEN or W-8IMY).
 U.S. company is required to withhold tax on payments made to foreign
corporations otherwise U.S. company may be liable for taxes.
 May be reduced or eliminated by Treaty.
 Comparison of ECI versus passive income – depends on the facts
Taxation of U.S.-Source Passive Income
 Example: Foreign corporation bareboat charters a vessel to U.S.
corporation for $100 rental payments that are not ECI.
 U.S. corporation is required to withhold and remit to IRS 30% of the
gross rental payments, or $30, assuming no Treaty
Taxation of Income from the Sale of
U.S. Real Property Interests
 Gains or losses of a foreign corporation from the disposition of a U.S. real
property interest (“USRPI”) are treated as ECI and, therefore, subject to
tax on a net basis at graduated rates.
 A USRPI includes:
 An interest in real property (including an interest in a mine, well or other
natural deposit) located in the U.S.;
 Fee ownership and co-ownership of land or improvements; and
 Leaseholds of land or improvements thereon.
 “Real property” includes land and unsevered natural products of the land,
improvements, and personal property associated with the use of real
 Includes land with mines, wells, and other natural deposits.
 “Personal property” may include mining equipment.
Taxation of Income from the Sale of
U.S. Real Property Interests Cont.
 “Disposition” of real property:
 Includes a sale of a USRPI or an interest in an entity owning a USRPI;
 Does NOT include the extraction of minerals.
 Examples
 Sale of an Operating Interest  USRPI
 Operating Interest = Direct ownership interest in oil and gas that is burdened with the
cost of developing and operating the property (e.g., a license to operate and exploit an oil
 Sale of an interest in a Production Payment  generally NOT a USRPI
 Production Payment = A right with respect to oil and gas in place that entitles the owner
to a specified fraction, in kind or in value, of the total production from the property, free
of development and operating expenses. The interest is for a limited period of time or
until a specified sum of money or a specified amount of oil and gas has been received.
 Sale of an interest in a Production Payment if it conveys a right to share in
the appreciation in value of the mineral property  MAY be a USRPI
Taxation of Income from the Sale of
U.S. Real Property Interests Cont.
 Sale of a Production Payment that is limited to a quantum of mineral (e.g.,
percentage of reserves) or a period of time  MAY be a USRPI
 Sale of mining equipment used to extract natural resources from the
ground  MAY be “personal property” and, therefore, a USRPI
 Sale of “personal property” used to process or transport minerals after
they are severed from the land  generally NOT “personal property” or a
 Transferee is generally required to withhold 10% of the amount realized
on the disposition of a USRPI by a foreign corporation.
 Treaties generally do not reduce withholding.
 Foreign corporation may also be required to file a U.S. income tax return.
 Foreign corporation may elect to treat income derived from a USRPI as
Taxation of Income from the Sale of
U.S. Real Property Interests Cont.
 Example: Sale by Corp A (non-U.S.) to Corp B (non-U.S.) of Operating
Interest in oil and gas on the OCS for $500.
 Corp A is required to pay taxes on $500 multiplied by 35%, or $175.
Corp A may also be required to file a U.S. income tax return.
 Corp B is required to withhold and remit to the IRS 10% of the amount
realized, or $50.
The Reciprocal Exemption
 Generally excludes income related to the international operation of
vessels from gross income.
 Jurisdiction in which foreign corporation is formed must provide
(through domestic law or Treaty) an exemption from income for
substantially similar types of income (e.g., bareboat charter income,
time charter income, capital gains, etc.).
 Applies only with respect to the “international operation of ships” and
is, therefore, NOT applicable to purely domestic transport:
 Transport on OCS  NOT applicable
 Transport from OCS to U.S. port  NOT applicable
 Transport from Mexico to OCS  MAY be applicable
 One long voyage argument
 Consider the amount of time the vessel spends in each location.
U.S. Source Gross Transportation Income
 Generally imposes a 4% tax on a foreign corporation’s U.S. source
gross income derived from or in connection with:
 the use, hiring or leasing of a vessel, or
 the performance of services directly related to the use of the vessel.
 50% of all transportation income beginning or ending in the U.S. (but
not both) is generally treated as U.S. source income for these
purposes  really a 2% tax
 This income is not subject to the 30% withholding tax or the tax on
 NOT applicable to purely domestic transport (see examples on prior
slide regarding The Reciprocal Exemption).
IRS Industry Director’s Directive #1
 October 28, 2009 – IRS announces that it will target foreign vessels
that are engaged in activities related to the exploration and
exploitation of natural resources on the OCS that may not (in its view)
be complying with U.S. tax filing requirements.
 OCS task force established “to determine the compliance impact of
these activities, and help identify, develop, resolve, and improve
Service coordination of issues related to these activities.”
 Technical advisors identified with respect to shipping, natural
resources and section 638, withholding and employment tax issues.
IRS Industry Director’s Directive #1 Cont.
 Identifies three categories of foreign taxpayers that engage in
activities related to the exploration for, or exploitation of, natural
resources in the OCS:
 Contractors that perform services on the OCS (e.g., seismographic
testing, drilling, repair and salvage work);
 Vessel operators that transport supplies and personnel between U.S.
ports and locations on the OCS; and
 Owners and/or operators of foreign-registered vessels that bareboat or
time charter to persons that are engaged in activities related to the
exploration for, or exploitation of, natural resources on the OCS.
 Intended to protect U.S.-owned vessels from being subject to a
competitive disadvantage.
Important Considerations and Traps
Applicable to the Oil and Gas Industry
 Increased Enforcement: Increased tax enforcement activities as a
result of formation of OCS task force.
 U.S. Coast Guard and U.S. State Department records provide U.S.
government with extensive information regarding foreign vessels and
foreign employees working on the OCS.
 Withholding:
 The IRS will generally look to the U.S. person to withhold.
 Obtain the appropriate Form W-8 so that no withholding is required.
 U.S. Payors: U.S. has jurisdiction over, and will go after, U.S. payors
 Failure to file tax returns: Foreign entities that should have, but did
not, file returns may be able to apply to the IRS for a late filing waiver
and may still be eligible to take applicable deductions.
Important Considerations and Traps
Applicable to the Oil and Gas Industry Cont.
 ECI v. Passive Income
 Ability to take depreciation and other applicable deductions
 Consider future years
 Dispute resolution mechanism
 Time and bareboat charter agreement considerations – Consider
U.S. income taxes when negotiating terms of charters:
 Lessor: Negotiate indemnity and/or gross-up to cover the potential
incidence of U.S tax to preserve anticipated after-tax economic return.
 Lessee: Responsibility for indemnifying taxes should be predicated on
the timely filing of returns and the assertion that taxes are due within a
specified time period (e.g., the statute of limitations).
 Mayo Foundation Case: Regulatory deference on IRS rules
Crewmember Taxation and Payroll
Reporting – Nonresident Aliens
Crewmember Taxation and Reporting
 Dilemma faced by Inconsistencies in law and policy
 Long held positions of:
 U.S. Citizenship & Immigration Service (USCIS)
 Social Security Administration (SSA)
 Internal Review Service (IRS)
 Issuance of B-1 (OCS) Nonimmigrant
 Process at Consulates in Obtaining OCS (B-1) Visa
 Federal Insurance Contributions Act (FICA)
 Federal Unemployment Tax Act (FUTA)
 Obtaining Social Security Number/ITIN
 Tax Withholding and Reporting
 Tax Treaties
Problems Faced By Employers and Crew Members
in Payroll Reporting of Nonresident Aliens
*Starts with
issuance of
Overview of Nonimmigrant Visas
 Temporary (Limited in Time Period)
 Allows for specific activity consistent with the type of visa that is
 Consular Officers instructed to issue visa based on the “principal
purpose” of the visit
 Employment vs. Non-Employment
 Allows for specific timeframe designated by Customs and Border
Patrol (CBP) at the time of B-1 entry
Overview of Nonimmigrant Visas
Employment Authorized
Employment Not Authorized
with possible extensions
H-1B Visa, Specialty Occupations 1)
– 3 years
H-1B1 Visa, Free Trade
Nonimmigrant (Chile and
Singapore)- 3 years
L-1 Visa- Inter-Company
Managers, Executives, or
Individuals with Specialized
Knowledge- 3 years
TN Visa- Nationals of Canada
and Mexico- 3 years
Waiver Project- 90 days (with
no extensions)
B-1/B-2 Nonimmigrant Visa - 6
months (with possible
C-1/D Crewman (issued for
transit to vessel)
B-1 Nonimmigrant -“Visitor” Defined
 Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) §101 (a)(15)(B) defines “visitor”
 An alien (other than one coming for the purpose of study or for
[the purpose of] performing skilled or unskilled labor or as a
representative of foreign press, radio, or other foreign information
media coming to engage in such a vocation), having a residence in a
foreign country which he has no intention of abandoning, and who
is visiting the US temporarily for business or temporarily for
Waiver Program and B-1/B-2
Nonimmigrant Visa
 Allows for Legitimate “Business Activity”
 Definition of “Business Activity”- FAM and INA
 “Business” is activity of a temporary nature
 Inconsistencies between DOS and USCIS
 U.S. wage reporting and withholding requirements apply to employers
of foreign crewmembers working on the OCS as noted in General
Counsel Memo CCA 201027046- Section 638- Continental Shelf Areas
(position confirmed in Industry Director’s Directive #2- Employment
Tax and the Employees on the Outer Continental Shelf, dated March
30, 2011)
 Additional Support:
 Revenue Ruling 86-108
 General Counsel Memorandum 39552
 Revenue Ruling 80-64
 Private Ruling 7950039
 Notice 2005-76
Federal Insurance Contributions Act (FICA) &
Federal Unemployment Tax Act (FUTA)
 Are OCS Workers Subject to FICA and FUTA?
 Position of IRS:
 Under Code section 871(b), nonresident alien employees are subject to
income tax on compensation connected with the trade or business within the
United States.
 Nonresident alien employees that perform services on structures permanently
or temporarily attached to the OCS, or on vessels or other devices engaged in
activities related to the exploration for, or exploration of, natural resources on
the OCS, are generally engaged in a U.S. trade or business (I.R.C. §§864(b),
638(1); Treas. Reg. §1.638-1(a), (c).
 Exceptions (FICA- Social Security Tax):
 Is there a Totalization Agreement in force?
 U.S. has bilateral agreements with 24 Countries
 Must be evidenced by a Certificate of Coverage to be exempt from FICA
 Crewmember per Sec. 3121(b)(4)
 Foreign vessel, and
 Also employed on vessel while outside of U.S., and
 Either:
Not a U.S. citizen, or
Employed by non-U.S. employer
 Exceptions (FUTA- U.S. Unemployment)
 Agreement with Canada
 Localized concept
 Crewmember per Sec. 3306(4)
 Foreign vessel, and
 Also employed on vessel while outside of U.S.
Social Security Administration
 Obtaining SSN
 Complete an Application For a Social Security Card (Form SS-5) and
 Provide original documents establishing
 Immigration status;
 Work eligibility (I-94; Form I-766; or Form I-688B);
 Age; and
 Identity
 Can employment commence before SSN is issued?
 Letter from SSA.
Social Security Administration
 Obtaining an Individual Taxpayer Identification Number (ITIN)
 Will not issue in middle of calendar year
 Employee must apply for ITIN on Form W-7
 Attach to Form 1040NR (Nonresident Alien); Form 1040 (Resident Alien)
 Supporting documentation (copy of passport and visa page) must be:
 Notarized;
 Foreign notary under Hague Convention requires “Apostille”
 Certified by a Certifying Acceptance Agent
Social Security Administration
 Reporting:
 If no SSN,
 Employers should report wages on Form W-2 (reporting all zeros as
employee’s SSN, or the alien’s ITIN)
 Use of ITIN preferable because it allows SSA to credit payments
 Section 205(c)(5)(H) of Social Security Act
Tax Withholding and Reporting
 Withholding taxes reconciled quarterly on Form 941
 FUTA reconciled annually on Form 940
Divergence in Treatment of OCS (B-1)
Crew Members by USCIS, SSA and IRS
 Issuance of visa for
 If employee not work
primary purpose
 Employment (H-1B,
L-1, TN, etc.) vs.
visa categories (B-1,
C-1/D, F-1
 Definition of B-1
(“Business Visitors”)
 Outer Continental Shelf
authorized, SSA will not
of U.S. is considered an
issue SSN. Legal effect:
integral part of the U.S.
Renders the wages
for federal tax purposes.
paid to OCS workers as  Outer Continental Shelf
not “covered wages”
Lands Act of 1978
for purposes of FICA
imposes rule that the
taxes because wages
OCS areas are to be
paid to a person
treated for all federal
without a SSN.
purposes as part of U.S.
 Will not issue ITIN in
 OCS (B-1) liable for FICA
middle of calendar year
and FUTA
Looking Forward
 IRS Efforts to Reconcile Different Approaches of SSA and USCIS
 Update on Efforts
Non-Tax Legal Issues for
Foreign Companies
 Citizenship of Crews Manning Vessels Engaged in OCS Activities
 OCS Notice of Arrival (NOA) Reports
 Lightering Operations
 Customs and Border Protection (CBP) Rulings and the Jones Act
 Proposed Legislation Affecting Foreign-Flag Vessels
Citizenship of Crews
 General Rule U.S. Citizenship
 50% Foreign Ownership Exception
 Demise Charter and 50% Foreign Ownership
 “Specialist” Operations and Normal Complement of the Crew
 Obtaining an OCS Manning Exemption Letter from the Coast Guard
 Application of U.S. Immigration Laws Geographically Limited
 Issues Related to Failure of Crew to Possess Valid Visas upon Entry to
the U.S.
OCS Notice of Arrival
 Final Rule issued January 13, 2011
 Implements Section 109 of the Security and Accountability for Every Port
Act of 2006 (the “SAFE Port Act”)
 Extends and enhances the existing NOA regime to units engaged in OCS
 Previous requirements only applied to Mobile Offshore Drilling Units
 Applicability
 (1) U.S. flag floating facilities, (2) foreign-flag floating facilities, (3) U.S.- and
foreign-flag MODUs, and (4) U.S.- and foreign-flag vessels
 Vessels include standby vessels, attending vessels, offshore supply vessels,
pipelay vessels, derrick ships, dive support vessels, oceanographic research
vessels, towing vessels, and accommodation vessels
OCS Notice of Arrival Cont.
 Content of Reports
 Name of vessel, voyage, cargo, and crew information (including certain
passport information), project details, and the time and location the
vessel will enter or move between any OCS block areas for the purpose
of engaging in OCS activities
 Most of the same information contained in the current NOA
requirements contained in 33 C.F.R. Table 160.206
 U.S.-flag vessels - NOA reports do not have to be made when traveling
directly from a U.S. port to the OCS, but must be made when traveling
from a foreign port to the OCS to engage in OCS activities or when
repositioning between OCS block areas
 Foreign-flag vessels - NOA reports are to be made in the same manner
as U.S.- flag vessels and must also be made when traveling directly from
a U.S. port to the OCS
OCS Notice of Arrival Cont.
 Timing of Reports
 If a vessel’s voyage time is more than 96 hours, at least 96 hours before
the vessel’s intended arrival on the OCS or from a different OCS block
 If a vessel’s voyage time is less than 96 hours and more than 24 hours
before departure
 If a vessel’s voyage time is less than 24 hours, at least 24 hours in
advance of the vessel’s arrival on the OCS or from a different OCS block
 Report Updates Required
 Proposed Legislation Would Exempt U.S.-Flag Vessels
CBP Rulings and the Jones Act
 On July 17, 2009, CBP proposed modifying or revoking 20 rulings
issued over a span of more than 30 years
 Related to determinations as to whether certain equipment would be
considered vessel equipment or merchandise, and hence whether the
item could be carried and used aboard non-coastwise-qualified vessels
between coastwise points
 CBP reasoned that it had made errors in issuing the interpretive rulings
and therefore needed to provide more consistency and clarity to the
offshore industry
 On September 15, 2009, CBP withdrew its proposed modification and
revocation notice through CBP’s expedited Bulletin procedure which
would have become effective 60 days after issuance of the final
CBP Rulings and the Jones Act Cont.
 CBP initiated a rulemaking proposal utilizing the Notice and Comment
procedures under the Administrative Procedure Act in March 2010
 Rulemaking was withdrawn on November 15, 2010
 Implications today
 CBP reluctant to issue rulings
 Offshore industry in a state of uncertainty with regard to operations
 Precedent of OCS-related rulings issued over the last 30 years?
Investigations and Proposed Legislation
Affecting Foreign-Flag Vessels
 Deepwater Horizon Legislation
 In 2010 the House passed H.R. 3534, the Consolidated Land, Energy,
and Aquatic Resources Act of 2009 (the “CLEAR Act”)
 Section 220: Manning and Buy-and Build-American Requirements Would apply U.S. immigration laws offshore, and thus require foreign
workers to obtain H2-B visas
 Section 709: Americanization of Offshore Operations in the Exclusive
Economic Zone
 Would require that all vessels involved in oil and gas projects out to 200
miles to be U.S. flagged (and thus U.S. crewed) and 75 % U.S. owned
 Would also require that a vessel engaged in any “other activities” be U.S.
flagged (and thus U.S. crewed) and 75% U.S. owned
Investigations and Proposed Legislation
Affecting Foreign-Flag Vessels Cont.
 Scope would include alternative energy projects, lightering operations,
freight carriage, or cruise lines
 Section 725: BuildAmerica Requirement for Offshore Facilities
 Would require, absent obtaining a waiver, any offshore facility (including a
MODU) to be built in the United States, including construction of any
major component of the hull or superstructure of the facility
 Few MODUs are built in the United States
 No Senate Bill Passed in 2010
Investigations and Proposed Legislation
Affecting Foreign-Flag Vessels Cont.
 Coast Guard Authorization Act of 2012 (H.R. 2838)
 11/15/11: Passed the House
 Section 608 addressed “standby vessels” which would require OSVs to
be positioned near offshore facilities to provide immediate response to
offshore incident
 Deepwater Horizon Spill Legislation
 Congressman Markey (D-MA) introduced H.R. 501: Implementing the
Recommendations of the BP Oil Spill Commission Act of 2011 – same
provisions as under the Clear Act passed in 2010
 Proposal to require all pipelay vessels to be U.S. flagged
Proposed Legislation Affecting
Foreign Flag Vessels Cont.
 Coast Guard Authorization Act of 2012 (S. 1665
 01/06/12: Act introduced
 Reported by Senator Rockefeller with an amendment in the nature of a
substitute and referred to the Committee on Commerce
 No Deepwater Horizon legislation per se but provisions on Oil Spill
Liability Trust Fun and Stand-by Vessels
 2012 Forecast
 Congressional focus shifted to job creation, economic growth, and
election issues
Rumblings that the Senate will move S. 1665
Conference could result and spill related legislation could be included
Implications of the Costa Concordia
Implications of the Deepwater Horizon Multi-District litigation and the
DOJ criminal investigation
Joseph T. Gulant
[email protected]
Jennifer Lynn Bell
[email protected]
Manuela M. Morias
[email protected]
Tara L. Leiter
[email protected]
Circular 230 Notice
To ensure compliance with IRS Circular 230, you are
hereby notified that any discussion of federal tax
issues in this presentation is not intended or
written to be used, and it cannot be used by any
person for the purpose of: (A) avoiding penalties
that may be imposed on them under the Code, and
(B) promoting, marketing or recommending to
another party any transaction or matter addressed
herein. This disclosure is made in accordance with
the rules of Treasury Department Circular 230
governing standards of practice before the Service.

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