Bethany Covenant Church Fall 2014 Chapters 3 and 4 • The Words of Faith • • • • • Officers’ message to the People Joshua’s message to the People Joshua’s message to the Priests God’s message to Joshua Joshua’s message to the People • The Walk of Faith • Crossing the Jordan • The Witness of Faith • Memorial stones • So That You May Know • Which way to go • That God is with you • That God will go before you Chapter 3 So That You May Know Why wait rising 3 days? • Joshua Time factors are •early TheisJordan at mentioned identified twiceis in flood stage (v. 15) 4 times in Joshua: these verses. for (1+ 7:16 million) 3:1,all 6:12, & Israel 8:10. to see. •• No way We obvious know from to crossthis the is a Exodus Jordan. work ethic Joshua •learned Raftingfrom leaves people Moses. crossing vulnerable to attack. • Timing is important, as we see after crossing they celebrate Passover. “Early in the morning Joshua and all the Israelites set out from Shittim and went to the Jordan, where they camped before crossing over. After three days the officers went throughout the camp, giving orders to the people: “When you see the ark of the covenant of the LORD your God, and the Levitical priests carrying it, you are to move out from your positions and follow it.” (Joshua 3:1–3, NIV) Officers: Notice the military officers did not send the soldiers first, as one might expect when invading occupied land. Instead the priests and the ark were sent first. “Then you will know which way to go, since you have never been this way before. But keep a distance of about two thousand cubits between you and the ark; do not go near it.” Joshua told the people, “Consecrate yourselves, for tomorrow the LORD will do amazing things among you.”” (Joshua 3:4–5, NIV) This is about half mile distance. Theisinstruction • This phrasea “you/they will know” repeated 3is both practical spiritual: Allows everyone to see times in thisand chapter. the arkwill because are at distance and it is athis • You knowthey the way to ago. Recall that until The Mount Sinai reminder of God’s fearsome protective time they had the pillar ofpower cloud and fire to guide must have experience presence. them in the wilderness. been the pattern: “And the LORD said to Moses, “Behold, I am coming to you in a thick cloud, that the people may hear when I speak with you, and may also believe you forever.” When Moses told the words of the people to the LORD, the LORD said to Moses, “Go to the people and consecrate them today and tomorrow, and let them wash their garments and be ready for the third day. For on the third day the LORD will come down on Mount Sinai in the sight of all the people. And you shall set limits for the people all around, saying, ‘Take care not to go up into the mountain or touch the edge of it. Whoever touches the mountain shall be put to death.” (Exodus 19:9–12, ESV) Notice the elements here that are repeated in Joshua 3:1-5 “Joshua said to the priests, “Take up the ark of the covenant and pass on ahead of the people.” So they took it up and went ahead of them.” (Joshua 3:6, NIV) No questions asked; the priests exercised faith ahead of the people. “And whenever the ark set out, Moses said, “Arise, O LORD, and let your enemies be scattered, and let those who hate you flee before you.”” (Numbers 10:35, ESV) “And the LORD said to Joshua, “Today I will begin to exalt you in the eyes of all Israel, so they may know that I am with you as I was with Moses. Tell the priests who carry the ark of the covenant: ‘When you reach the edge of the Jordan’s waters, go and stand in the river.’ ”” (Joshua 3:7–8, NIV) God begins to exalt or magnify atisthe Jordan “So they may know” that Joshua the Lord with you. River. Mark 1:9-11 “In those days Jesus came from Nazareth of Galilee and was baptized by John in the Jordan. And when he came up out of the water, immediately he saw the heavens being torn open and the Spirit descending on him like a dove. And a voice came from heaven, “You are my beloved Son; with you I am well pleased.”” (Mark 1:9–11, ESV) “Joshua said to the Israelites, “Come here and listen to the words of the LORD your God. This is how you will know that the living God is among you and that he will certainly drive out before you the Canaanites, Hittites, Hivites, Perizzites, Girgashites, Amorites and Jebusites. See, the ark of the covenant of the Lord of all the earth will go into the Jordan ahead of you.” (Joshua 3:9–11, NIV) Joshua making several points: • The Lord is going ahead of you so you will know of His visible proximity to you; • The Lord is not just Israel’s God, He is Lord of the entire earth; • Israel is moving from the law of Moses into the promised land under a new leader, taking the law with them. “Now then, choose twelve men from the tribes of Israel, one from each tribe. And as soon as the priests who carry the ark of the LORD—the Lord of all the earth—set foot in the Jordan, its waters flowing downstream will be cut off and stand up in a heap.” So when the people broke camp to cross the Jordan, the priests carrying the ark of the covenant went ahead of them.” (Joshua 3:12–14, NIV) This verse is a parenthetical phrase that will become important in chapter 4. “Now the Jordan is at flood stage all during harvest. Yet as soon as the priests who carried the ark reached the Jordan and their feet touched the water’s edge, the water from upstream stopped flowing. It piled up in a heap a great distance away, at a town called Adam in the vicinity of Zarethan, while the water flowing down to the Sea of the Arabah (that is, the Dead Sea) was completely cut off. So the people crossed over opposite Jericho.” (Joshua 3:15–16, NIV) Adam is about 1-16 miles upstream, which makes sense if the people are to stay a half mile away from the ark. People likely passed on either side of the ark when crossing. “The priests who carried the ark of the covenant of the LORD stopped in the middle of the Jordan and stood on dry ground, while all Israel passed by until the whole nation had completed the crossing on dry ground.” (Joshua 3:17, NIV) Dry ground mentioned twice the making the point this was not a natural phenomenon. Literary Structure Chiasmus, Parallelism, Repetition Chiasmus (ky-AZ-mus) n . a reversal in the order of words in two otherwise parallel phrases. chiastic adj Home is where the great are small, and the small are great. Chiastic Parallel • “And so, my fellow Americans, ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country.” Chiastic Parallel • "Nations do not mistrust each other because they are armed; they are armed because they mistrust each other.“ Chiastic Parallel • "America did not invent human rights. In a very real sense, it is the other way round. Human rights invented America." Chiastic Parallel • "Our defeats are but stepping-stones to victory, and his victories are but stepping-stones to ruin." Chiastic Parallel – Matthew 23:12 “Whoever exalts himself will be humbled, and whoever humbles himself will be exalted.” Double Chiasmus Painting is poetry that is seen rather than felt, and poetry is painting that is felt rather than seen Leonardo da Vinci ABC Chiasmus A Whoever sheds B the blood C of man C’ by man shall B’ his blood A’ be shed Genesis 9:6 ABC Chiasmus in Joshua 3:1-17 A Moving to the Jordan (3:1) B “the ark of the covenant which the Levitical priests will carry” (3:3) C Words of Joshua (3:5-6) D Word of the Lord (3:7-8) C’ Words of Joshua (3:9-13) B’ “the priests carry the ark of the covenant ahead of them” (3:14) A’ Crossing the Jordan (3:17) ABC Chiasmus in Joshua 3:8-17 (Standing) A Priests are told to “stand still” in the Jordan (3:8) B The water will “stand in one heap” (3:13) C Ark of the covenant goes before the people (3:14) C’ Ark of the covenant at brink of Joshua (3:15) B’ The water “stood and rose up in a heap” (3:16) A’ Priests “stood firmly” in the Jordan (3:17) Chapter 4 Memorial Stones “When the whole nation had finished crossing the Jordan, the LORD said to Joshua, “Choose twelve men from among the people, one from each tribe, and tell them to take up twelve stones from the middle of the Jordan, from right where the priests are standing, and carry them over with you and put them down at the place where you stay tonight.”” (Joshua 4:1–3, NIV) Notice that God waited until the entire nation has passed over the Jordan before telling Joshua the purpose of selecting the 12 men in chapter 3. “So Joshua called together the twelve men he had appointed from the Israelites, one from each tribe, and said to them, “Go over before the ark of the LORD your God into the middle of the Jordan. Each of you is to take up a stone on his shoulder, according to the number of the tribes of the Israelites, to serve as a sign among you.” (Joshua 4:4–6, NIV) We now have 1+ million people waiting on 12 men. Couldn’t we just have had them pick up the stones on the first crossing? “In the future, when your children ask you, ‘What do these stones mean?’ tell them that the flow of the Jordan was cut off before the ark of the covenant of the LORD. When it crossed the Jordan, the waters of the Jordan were cut off. These stones are to be a memorial to the people of Israel forever.”” (Joshua 4:6–7, NIV) We will see this reference to “when your children ask” again later in this chapter. Comparison between NIV & ESV (NASB, KJV) NIV ESV “So the Israelites did as Joshua commanded them. They took twelve stones from the middle of the Jordan, according to the number of the tribes of the Israelites, as the LORD had told Joshua; and they carried them over with them to their camp, where they put them down. Joshua set up the twelve stones that had been in the middle of the Jordan at the spot where the priests who carried the ark of the covenant had stood. And they are there to this day.” (Joshua 4:8–9, NIV) “And the people of Israel did just as Joshua commanded and took up twelve stones out of the midst of the Jordan, according to the number of the tribes of the people of Israel, just as the LORD told Joshua. And they carried them over with them to the place where they lodged and laid them down there. And Joshua set up twelve stones in the midst of the Jordan, in the place where the feet of the priests bearing the ark of the covenant had stood; and they are there to this day.” (Joshua 4:8–9, ESV) Then Joshua set up twelve stones in the middle of the Jordan at the place where the feet of the priests who carried the ark of the covenant were standing, and they are there to this day. (Joshua 4:9 New American Standard Bible) What is the purpose of a monument in the middle of a And Joshua upwill twelve stones the midst of riverset that be covered andinunseen? in the where thethat feettheir of the priests •Jordan, To remind theplace children of Israel old life was buried andthe theyark now a new life in a promised which bare oflive theincovenant stood: and land. they are there unto this day. (Joshua 4:9 King •James Demonstration Version) to the spies from Jericho of what the 12 tribes are going to do to the 7 nations in Canaan. “Now the priests who carried the ark remained standing in the middle of the Jordan until everything the LORD had commanded Joshua was done by the people, just as Moses had directed Joshua. The people hurried over, and as soon as all of them had crossed, the ark of the LORD and the priests came to the other side while the people watched.” (Joshua 4:10–11, NIV) Notice how many times the priest coming out of the Jordan is mentioned in this chapter “The men of Reuben, Gad and the half-tribe of Manasseh crossed over, ready for battle, in front of the Israelites, as Moses had directed them. About forty thousand armed for battle crossed over before the LORD to the plains of Jericho for war.” (Joshua 4:12–13, NIV) • This arrangement was noted in Joshua 1 and the history is found in Numbers 32. • The deal they made was these 3 tribes were Transjordanian, but they fought for their brothers Cisjordanian. • They acted as shock troops for the other tribes. “That day the LORD exalted Joshua in the sight of all Israel; and they stood in awe of him all the days of his life, just as they had stood in awe of Moses. Then the LORD said to Joshua, “Command the priests carrying the ark of the covenant law to come up out of the Jordan.” So Joshua commanded the priests, “Come up out of the Jordan.”” (Joshua 4:14–17, NIV) This is the 2d time we are told Joshua was exalted and the priests came up out of the Jordan. “And the priests came up out of the river carrying the ark of the covenant of the LORD. No sooner had they set their feet on the dry ground than the waters of the Jordan returned to their place and ran at flood stage as before.” (Joshua 4:18, NIV) Third mention of the priest coming out of the Jordan They were already on dry ground, so what is the point here? “On the tenth day of the first month the people went up from the Jordan and camped at Gilgal on the eastern border of Jericho.” (Joshua 4:19, NIV) God’s timing is always perfect: Notice the date: Recall God delayed the crossing of the Jordan for 3 days Joshua 3:2. • The first month (Nisan) is our March-April. • Passover begins Nisan 14 which was celebrated the for the first time 40 years prior in Egypt. • On the tenth day of the first month a lamb is selected to prepare for Passover. Exodus 12:3 “And Joshua set up at Gilgal the twelve stones they had taken out of the Jordan. He said to the Israelites, “In the future when your descendants ask their parents, ‘What do these stones mean?’ tell them, ‘Israel crossed the Jordan on dry ground.’” (Joshua 4:20– 22, NIV) Second mention of the purpose of the memorial stones. “For the LORD your God dried up the Jordan before you until you had crossed over. The LORD your God did to the Jordan what he had done to the Red Sea when he dried it up before us until we had crossed over. He did this so that all the peoples of the earth might know that the hand of the LORD is powerful and so that you might always fear the LORD your God.”” (Joshua 4:23–24, NIV) Joshua is explaining the obvious because none of the children of Israel had memory of the Red Sea crossing, excepting Joshua and Caleb. Literary Structure Chiasmus, Parallelism, Repetition Chiasmus in Joshua 4:1-21 A “when your children ask you, ‘What these stones mean?’” (4:6) B “the priests who carried the ark of the covenant were standing” (4:9) C “the Lord exalted Joshua” (4:14) B “Command the priest carrying the ark to come up from the Jordan” (4:16) A “when the children among you ask ‘What these stones mean?’” (4:21) Chiasmus in Joshua 4:6-21 A When your children ask you, ‘What these stones mean?’ (4:6) B They took twelve stones from the middle of the Jordan (4:8) C The priests who carried the ark of the covenant were standing (4:9) D the priests came to the other side (4:11) E The 2½ tribes crossed over, ready for battle (4:12) E’ About 40,000 armed for battle crossed over (4:13) D’ So Joshua commanded the priests, “Come up out of the Jordan (4:17) C’ The priests came up out of the river carrying the ark of the covenant (4:18) B’ And Joshua set up at Gilgal the twelve stones (4:20) A’ When the children among you ask ‘What these stones mean?’ (4:21) Bibliography • Be Strong, Wiersbe, Warren W., Be Commentary Series. • The Bible Knowledge Commentary, Campbell, Donald K. • Opening Up Joshua, Ellsworth, Roger, Opening Up Commentary. • Matthew Henrys Commentary on the Whole Bible: Henry, Matthew. • Warren W. Wiersbe’s Expository Outlines on the Old Testament Wiersbe, Warren, W. • Commentary on the Book of Joshua, Calvin, John, and Henry Beveridge. • The Teachers Bible Commentary, Philbeck, Ben F. • The Books of History, Smith, James E., Old Testament Survey Series. • Joshua’s Spiritual Warfare, Clarke, Thomas B.