Ch. 14

Report
Chapter 14
Culture
CONSUMER
BEHAVIOR, 10e
Michael R. Solomon
14-1
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Chapter Objectives
When you finish this chapter, you should
understand why:
1. A culture is a society’s personality; it
shapes our identities as individuals.
2. Myths are stories that express a culture’s
values, and in modern times marketing
messages convey these values.
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Chapter Objectives (continued)
3. Many of our consumption activities
including holiday observances, grooming,
and gift giving are rituals.
4. We describe products as either sacred or
profane, and it’s not unusual for some
products to move back and forth between
the two categories.
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Chapter Objectives
5. Styles act as a mirror to reflect underlying
cultural conditions.
6. We distinguish between high and low
culture.
7. Many modern marketers are reality
engineers.
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Chapter Objectives (continued)
8. New products, services, and ideas
spread through a population. Different
types of people are more or less likely to
adopt them.
9. Many people and organizations play a
role in the fashion system that creates
and communicates symbolic meaning to
consumers.
10.Fashions follow cycles.
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Learning Objective 1
• A culture is a society’s personality; it
shapes our identities as individuals.
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What is Culture?
• Culture is the accumulation of shared
meanings, rituals, norms, and traditions
• Culture is a society’s personality
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Understanding Culture
• Products can reflect underlying cultural
processes of a particular period:
• The TV dinner for the United States
• Cosmetics made of natural materials
without animal testing
• Pastel carrying cases for condoms
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Functional Areas in a Cultural System
Ecology
Social structure
Ideology
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For Reflection
• If your culture were a person, how would
you describe its personality traits?
• Now, select another culture you’re familiar
with. How would those personality traits
differ from your own?
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Learning Objective 2
• Myths are stories that express a culture’s
values, and in modern times marketing
messages convey these values.
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Myths
• Myths are stories with symbolic elements
that represent the shared emotions/ideals
of a culture
• Story characteristics
• Conflict between opposing forces
• Outcome is moral guide for people
• Myth reduces anxiety by providing
guidelines
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Functions of Myths
Metaphysical
Help explain origins of existence
Cosmological
Emphasize that all components of the
universe are part of a single picture
Sociological
Maintain social order by authorizing a
social code to be followed by members of a
culture
Psychological
Provide models for personal conduct
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Myths Abound in Modern Popular Culture
• Myths are often found in comic books,
movies, holidays, and commercials
• Monomyths: a myth that is common to
many cultures (e.g., Spiderman and
Superman)
• Many movies/commercials present
characters and plot structures that follow
mythic patterns
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For Reflection
• Identify modern day myths that
corporations create.
• How do they communicate these stories to
consumers?
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Learning Objective 3
• Many of our consumption activities
including holiday observances, grooming,
and gift giving are rituals.
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Rituals
• Rituals are sets of multiple, symbolic
behaviors that occur in a fixed sequence
and that tend to be repeated periodically
• Many consumer activities are ritualistic
• Trips to Starbucks
• Sunday brunch
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Common Rituals
•
•
•
•
Grooming
Gift-giving
Holiday
Rites of passage
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For Reflection
• Explain some of your own family holiday
traditions. How do they affect your
behavior as consumers?
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Learning Objective 4
• We describe products as either sacred or
profane, and it’s not unusual for some
products to move back and forth between
the two categories.
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Sacred and Profane Consumption
• Sacred consumption:
involves objects and
events that are set apart
from normal activities that
are treated with respect or
awe
• Profane consumption:
involves consumer objects
and events that are
ordinary and not special
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Sacralization
• Sacralization occurs when ordinary
objects, events, and even people take on
sacred meaning
• Objectification occurs when we attribute
sacred qualities to mundane items,
through processes like contamination
• Collecting is the systematic acquisition of
a particular object or set of objects
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Domains of Sacred Consumption
• Sacred places: religious/mystical and
country heritage, such as Stonehenge,
Mecca, Ground Zero in New York City
• Sacred people: celebrities, royalty
• Sacred events: athletic events, religious
ceremonies
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Sacred Souvenir Icons
•
•
•
•
•
Local products (e.g., regional wine)
Pictorial images (e.g., postcards, photos)
‘Piece of the rock’ (e.g., seashells)
Literal representations (e.g., mini icons)
Markers (e.g., logo-oriented t-shirts)
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Desacralization
• Desacralization: when a sacred
item/symbol is removed from its special
place or is duplicated in mass quantities
(becomes profane)
• Religion has somewhat become
desacralized
• Christmas and Ramadan as secular,
materialistic occasions
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For Reflection
• Give examples of items that were once
sacred but are now materialized and
marketed. What are the implications in the
shift in reverence to the items in question?
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Learning Objective 5
• Styles act as a mirror to reflect underlying
cultural conditions.
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The Movement of Meaning
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Culture Production Process
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Culture Production System
• A culture production system is the set of
individuals and organizations that create
and market a cultural product
• It has three major subsystems
• Creative
• Managerial
• Communications
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For Reflection
• How have cultural values influenced the
items that you feel have value?
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Learning Objective 6
• We distinguish between high and low
culture.
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Where Does Culture Come From?
• Influence of inner-city teens
• Hip-hop/black urban culture
• Outsider heroes, anti-oppression
messages, and alienation of blacks
• “Flavor” on the streets
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High Culture and Popular Culture
• An art product is an object we admire for
its beauty and our emotional response
• A craft product is admired because of the
beauty with which it forms a function
• Mass culture creates products for a mass
market
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Learning Objective 7
• Many modern marketers are reality
engineers.
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Product Placement
and Branded Entertainment
• Insertion of specific products and use of
brand names in movie/TV scripts.
• Directors incorporate branded props for
realism.
• Is product placement a positive or
negative when it comes to consumer
decision-making?
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Advergaming
• Advergaming refers to online games
merged with interactive advertisements
• Advertisers gain many benefits with
advergames
• Plinking is the act of embedding a product
in a video
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Learning Objective 8
• New products, services, and ideas spread
through a population. Different types of
people are more or less likely to adopt
them.
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The Diffusion of Innovations
• Innovation: any product that consumers
perceive to be new
• New manufacturing technique
• New product variation
• New way to deliver product
• New way to package product
• Diffusion of innovation
• Successful innovations spread through
the population at various rates
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Types of Adopters
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Behavioral Demands of Innovations
• Continuous innovation
• Evolutionary rather than revolutionary
• Dynamically continuous innovation
• More pronounced change to existing
product
• Discontinuous innovation
• Creates major changes in the way we
live
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Prerequisites for Successful Adoption
Compatibility
Innovation should be compatible with
consumers’ lifestyles
Trialability
People are more likely to adopt an innovation if
they can experiment with it prior to purchase
Complexity
A product that is easy to understand will be
chosen over competitors
Observability
Innovations that are easily observable are more
likely to spread
Relative
Advantage
Product should offer relative advantage over
other alternatives
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Learning Objective 9
• Many people and organizations play a role
in the fashion system that creates and
communicates symbolic meaning to
consumers.
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The Fashion System
• The fashion system includes all those
people and organizations involved in
creating symbolic meanings and
transferring these meanings to cultural
goods
• Fashion is code
• Fashion is context-dependent
• Fashion is undercoded
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Behavioral Science Perspectives
and Models of Fashion
•
•
•
•
Psychological
Economic
Sociological
Medical
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Motives and
Psychological Models of Fashion
• Conformity
• Desire for variety seeking
• Need to express personal
creativity
• Sexual attraction
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Learning Objective 10
• Fashions follow cycles.
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Fashion Life Cycle Example
• Introduction stage: small number of music
innovators hear a song
• Acceptance stage: song enjoys increased
visibility
• Regression stage: song reaches stage of
social saturation as it becomes overplayed
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For Reflection
• What is and what should be the role of
fashion in our society? How important is it
for people to be in style? What are the
pros and cons of keeping up with the latest
fashions?
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Chapter Summary
• A culture is a society’s personality.
• Myths are stories that express a culture’s
values.
• Many of our consumption activities include
rituals associated with holidays, grooming,
rites of passage, and other events.
Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
14-50
Chapter Summary
• Products may be sacred or profane and
some may shift between the two
categories.
• Styles are like a mirror that reflect culture.
• We can distinguish between high and low
forms of culture.
• Marketers are also reality engineers.
Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
14-51
Chapter Summary
• New products spread through the
population. Certain characteristics make it
more likely that they will be adopted.
• The fashion system creates and
communicates symbolic meaning for
consumers.
• Fashion follows cycles.
Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
14-52

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