Chartism PP - History @ St Benets

Report
Chartism
• What was Chartism and
what was the cause of
Chartism?
• What progress did
Chartism make?
• Who were the leaders of
Chartism?
• What reasons
contributed to the
failure of Chartism?
Sit in the following groups
Care Bears
Thomas, Jacob Arkell,
Warren, Sophie
Moomins
Hannah, Shirley, Jacob
Atwell, Catherine
Flintstones
Elizabeth, Katie, Fabian
Smurfs
Jas, Rosie, Matthew,
Bethany
Power Rangers
Dan, Charlotte, Millie,
Kieran
Why did people still want change?
What might they want?
What was Chartism and what was the cause of
Chartism?
Learning Objectives:
• To begin to understand the
different interpretations of
why Chartism began?
• To learn new key
terms/concepts
Chartism Anthem
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=waRwJZFoJmw&feature=
BF&list=PL86647A3540C4FC35&index=27
• What is the message of this anthem?
Chartism
Chapter 7 “The Chartist Movement”, page 115
• Who started it?
• When did it begin?
• What did they want?
• What methods were to be used?
• What model of change is this?
Chartism
Chapter 7 “The Chartist Movement”, page 115
Who started it?
Six members of the LWMA and six radical MPs.
When did it begin?
1837 – People’s Charter was published in May 1838
What did they want?
People’s Charter – 6 points – Universal Suffrage, secret ballot, annual parliaments, equal electoral
districts, abolition of the property qualification for MPs, payment for MPs
What methods were to be used?
National Mass Movement, National Petition, National Convention, strikes, printing press,
Moral Force V Physical Force
What model of change is this?
Low Politics – pressure from the population for change
Key Terms
• Look at these points of
the Charter. Which one
is missing?
• Which one do you think
is the most important?
Be prepared to justify
your answer.
Chartism - Causes
• What do you already know about the Reform
Act that might explain the Causes of
Chartism?
• Identify from pages 112-114 the possible
causes of Chartism and display them on a
Bubble Map.
• Classify them as political or economic causes.
Which do you have more of?
What was the cause of Chartism?
What was the
cause of
Chartism?
What was the cause of Chartism?
The Factory Act 1833. Huge
disappointment to reformers
who campaigned for 10 hour
day. All it achieved was
restrictions in hours on
children, showed little interest
in conditions
Disappointment of 1832 – less
working class voters
Municipal Corporations Act
1835 – excluded working class
from participation in local gov
Continuing radical movement
– Henry Hunt, William
Cobbett and Major Cartwright
continued to demand political
change. New leaders such as
Feargus O’Connor.
What was the
cause of
Chartism?
Economic Origins – “knife and
fork question” – close associated
with periods of economic
hardship, Chartism reached its
height during periods of
economic depression late 1830s,
1842, 1837-48. Handloom
weavers were hardest hit approx.
400,000
Unstamped Press – The Six Acts
or “Gagging Act” 1819 meant
stamp duty had to be paid on
newspapers – attempt to deprive
radical press of working class
readers. The Poor Man’s
guardian was sold for a penny
and sold 15,000 copies a week.
(Henry Hetherington)
Trade Union 1834 – when trade
improved between 183335 unions were
in a better position to bargain for
better pay. Feb 1834 GNCTU was
launched – 16,000 members, March
1834 six farm labourers arrested for
taking illegal oaths – sentenced 7 years
transportation (Tolpuddle Martyrs)
Key Terms
Universal Suffrage
• What does this mean?
Homework
• Ensure you have read all
of Chapter 7 ‘What was
the Chartist movement?’
The Smurfs
Jacob Arkell, Kieran, Katie, Rosie
The Rugrats
Thomas, Shirley, Jacob Atwell, Sophie
The Carebears
Hannah, Dan, Bethany, Millie
The Moomins
Catherine, Charlotte, Fabian,
The Flintstones
Elizabeth, Jas, Matthew, Warren
Why did Chartism begin?
Learning Objectives:
• To begin to understand the
different interpretations
of why Chartism began?
• To learn new key
terms/concepts
Chartism Quiz
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
What do the initials LWMA stand for?
Name any 3 of the Charter`s 6 points
What model of politics does Chartism represent?
Which organisation did Chartism model their movement on?
Which famous MP helped to draw up the Charter?
Give 2 reasons why Chartism developed.
Name 2 pieces of legislation passed under the Whigs that the working
classes resented.
What happened in 1837 to fuel the discontent of the working classes?
Name 2 ways the Chartists aimed to influence the government.
Chartism split into 2; name the 2 types of Chartism that existed.
What was the Sacred Month that was suggested?
In which Welsh town were 20 Chartist marchers killed in 1839?
Name the Irish landowner who set up the National Charter Association
What name was given to the industrial sabotage that involved steam boilers
in cotton mills?
What was the name of the Chartist newspaper?
Which leader advocated education for the working classes?
Can you explain these terms?
A “Knife and Fork Question”
Class Consciousness”
Political Awareness
Low Politics model
Radical Tradition
Unstamped Press
Popular pressure
Task
• Read the sheet on “Why did the Whigs
fall from power in 1841”.
• Does it support any reasons already
identified as the causes of Chartism?
• Do you think there is more evidence of
the political or economic argument?
What progress did Chartism make?
Lesson Objectives
• To introduce more key
terms and concepts
• To learn what progress
Chartism made
• To understand the reasons
why people supported
Chartism
• To understand the
concept of an “umbrella
movement”
Causes of Chartism
• Look at the sheet called The Umbrella Movement. Do
you understand each one?
• What does “implicit social programme” mean?
• Highlight the terms / events you do not understand.
• What does this tell us about the causes of Chartism?
• If there are lots of different motives for joining a
movement does it make it stronger or weaker?
Causes of Chartism
• What does “implicit social programme” mean?
– Outline of state activity which follows and
implements specific social welfare policy
Causes of Chartism
• Look at the chapter called, “The Working- Class
Challenge”.
• Use pages 112-114 to find out about each of the
items under the umbrella.
• Do these items prove it was an economic or a
political movement?
Chartism: an Umbrella Movement
• Political Radicalism 1815-20
Political principals focussed on altering social structures through revolutionary means (low politics)
• Reform Bill Campaign 1831-32
1831-2 hundreds of thousands of working people had marched and demonstrated in support of reform.
They had joined the middle classes in hope of further reform. This was a successful example of a national
movement for reform.
• Owenism 1829-45
Robert Owen and his followers (Owenites) 19th Century reformers who aimed for radical reform.
• Trade Unions 1833-4
Were legalised with the repeal of the combination acts in 1824. Unions were stronger position to bargain
for pay/conditions when trade improved 1833-35. There were a number of small strikes but the gov was
most worried about large general unions (GNCTU etc) – Feb 1834 – example of support for Tolpuddle
Martyrs.
• War of the Unstamped Press 1830-5
Gagging Acts of 1819 meant newspapers had to pay stamp duty deprived radical press of its readers. Some
continued “the poor mans guardian” sold 15,000 a weeks owned by Henry Hetherington. 1836 tax was
lowered so newspapers sold for 1.5p. Allowed radical ideas to spread but also showed a well-organised and
determined campaign could force change.
• Factory Movement 1830-47 and Anti-Poor Law Campaign 1837-9
Factory Act was hugely disappointing – only restricted children's working hours. Parliament was showing
little interest in conditions of workers. 1837 campaign launched against new Poor Law was significant.
Looked like it was designed to rob them of their right to poor relief as it sent them to the work house in
hard times. Women began to play an important role in this (and Chartism). Radicals like Oastler, Fielden,
Fergus O’Conner and J.R.Stephens toured the country. When Fielden put the repeal of new Poor Law to
parliament HofC voted against it 309-17 showing that if change was going to occur working men needed to
Political or economic?
• Read page 105 from the
1st chapter.
• What are the key
arguments made?
• Which evidence
supports the political
argument and which the
economic argument?
Political or Economic?
Economic
• Chartism grew out of economic and
social discontent.
• Mass support was at its greatest during
times of depression 1838-9, 1842,
1848
• Appealed mostly to those suffering
economic hardship e.g. handloom
weavers and framework knitters.
• Had little appeal in times of economic
growth or to workers in booming
industries e.g. engineering.
Political
• Chartism made a connection between
economic hardship and ‘misgovernment’
in the same way radical leaders like
William Cobbett had done.
• Political change in 1832 had not gone far
enough in ‘rooting out old corruption’
• They believed democratically elected gov
would not tax poor or govern in interests
of the narrow elite
• Political reform was therefore a
prerequisite to economic advancement
for the majority of people
• The six points (if implemented) would
have overhauled the political system.
• Chartism therefore could be considered
a radical political movement.
Political or economic
• Read pages 118-9 in “The Working- Class
Challenge”.
• What is meant by “hunger politics”?
• What united working people?
• What conclusion does the writer come to?
Political or economic
• Read pages 118-9 in “The Working- Class Challenge”.
• What is meant by “hunger politics”?
The view that Chartism was mainly an economic movement as the
maximum support for Chartism were in the years of economic
depression when trade was poor and many were thrown out of work.
• What united working people?
Anger and frustration that working class people felt in the years after the
reform act.
• What conclusion does the writer come to?
To take control and bring economic change, they would need to gain
political power first. Chartism is best seen as both an economic and
political movement as it was composed of political activists who wanted
to use politics to improve their living and working conditions.
How can Chartism be interpreted?
Learning Objectives:
• To practise our source
analysis skills
• To compare the sources
• To prepare for a 20
marks question on
causes of Chartism
Learning Outcomes:
• To successfully complete
a 20 mark question
Sit in the following groups
Care Bears
Thomas, Jacob Arkell,
Warren
Moomins
Hannah, Shirley, Jacob
Atwell,
Catherine, Rosie, Dan
Flintstones
Elizabeth, Katie, Fabian
Smurfs
Jas, Matthew, Bethany
Power Rangers
Charlotte, Millie, Kieran
How can Chartism be interpreted?
What question are we working towards?
Study Sources 1, 2 and 3.
How far do Sources 2 and 3 support the reasons given for the
causes of Chartism in Source 1?
Explain your answer using the evidence of Sources 1, 2 and 3.
(20 marks)
Task 1: As a group annotate, analyse
and evaluate the source on your table.
What do these words mean?
Annotate
Analyse
Evaluate
Questions you need to answer:
1. What reason does the source give for
the causes of Chartism?
2. What evidence do you have to support
this?
3. How significant is the NOP?
4. How does this link to what we have
been learning?
5. Is there anything in this source you do
not understand?
What are we aiming to be able to do?
1. Understand the source
2. Be able to pass on your understanding
to the next group
3. Answer a 20 mark question successfully
How can Chartism be interpreted?
What evidence are we working with?
SOURCE 1
What reason does the source give for the causes of Chartism?
(From Bronterre O`Brien, writing on the
“Rotten House of Commons” in McDouall`s
Chartist and Republican Journal in 1841)
What have we gained by the
increase in the constituency made
by the Reform Bill ? – I answer
worse than nothing. We have
merely augmented the number of
our enemies … The men who made
the Reform Bill were not fools;
neither were the middle classes for
whom it was made. – the Whigs
saw, and the middle classes saw, that
the effect of the Bill would be to
unite all property against all poverty.
What evidence do you have to support this?
How significant is the NOP?
How does this link to what we have been learning?
Is there anything in this source you do not understand?
How can Chartism be interpreted?
What evidence are we working with?
SOURCE 2
(John Mason, A Tyneside
shoemaker warned Chartists
in Leicester …)
Don`t be deceived by the
middle classes again. You
helped them to get their
votes … But where are the
fine promises they made
you ? Do not listen to their
humbug. Stick to your
Charter. You are veritable
slaves without your votes.
What reason does the source give for the causes of Chartism?
What evidence do you have to support this?
How significant is the NOP?
How does this link to what we have been learning?
Is there anything in this source you do not understand?
How can Chartism be interpreted?
What evidence are we working with?
SOURCE 3
What reason does the source give for the causes of Chartism?
(Taken from the columns of the Star in
January 1842)
Why is it that, in the midst of plenty,
we are in such a condition ? Why is
it that those who are willing to work,
that those who have produced
everything in society, without whom
the factories would not have been
built, the machinery made, the
railroads constructed, the canals cut,
who build and man the ships, who
fight the battles, make the hats shoes
and coats, and till the land –cannot
get enough to quell the ravings of
hunger?
What evidence do you have to support this?
How significant is the NOP?
How does this link to what we have been learning?
Is there anything in this source you do not understand?
Task 2: Move to with 2 other students
who have studied the other sources.
Make notes on your source
sheet to allow you to answer the
following questions:
1. What reason does the source
give for the causes of
Chartism?
2. What evidence do you have
to support this?
3. How significant is the NOP?
What are we aiming to be able to do?
1. Understand the source
2. Be able to pass on your understanding
to the next group
3. Answer a 20 mark question successfully
Study Sources 1, 2 and 3.
How far do Sources 2 and 3 support the reasons given for the causes of Chartism in Source 1?
Explain your answer using the evidence of Sources 1, 2 and 3. (20 marks)
1.
What reason does the source give for the causes of
Chartism?
2.
What evidence do you have to support this?
3.
How significant is the NOP?
SOURCE 2
(John Mason, A Tyneside shoemaker warned Chartists in Leicester …)
Don`t be deceived by the middle classes again. You helped them to
get their votes … But where are the fine promises they made you ? Do
not listen to their humbug. Stick to your Charter. You are veritable
slaves without your votes.
1.
What reason does the source give for the causes of
Chartism?
2.
What evidence do you have to support this?
3.
How significant is the NOP?
SOURCE 3
1.
What reason does the source give for the causes of
Chartism?
2.
What evidence do you have to support this?
3.
How significant is the NOP?
SOURCE 1
(From Bronterre O`Brien, writing on the “Rotten House of Commons” in McDouall`s
Chartist and Republican Journal in 1841)
What have we gained by the increase in the constituency made by the
Reform Bill ? – I answer worse than nothing. We have merely
augmented the number of our enemies … The men who made the
Reform Bill were not fools; neither were the middle classes for whom
it was made. – the Whigs saw, and the middle classes saw, that the
effect of the Bill would be to unite all property against all poverty.
(Taken from the columns of the Star in January 1842)
Why is it that, in the midst of plenty, we are in such a condition ?
Why is it that those who are willing to work, that those who have
produced everything in society, without whom the factories would not
have been built, the machinery made, the railroads constructed, the
canals cut, who build and man the ships, who fight the battles, make
the hats shoes and coats, and till the land –cannot get enough to quell
the ravings of hunger?
Study Sources 1, 2 and 3.
How far do Sources 2 and 3 support the reasons given for the causes of Chartism in Source 1?
Explain your answer using the evidence of Sources 1, 2 and 3. (20 marks)
Source 1
1.
What reason does the source give for
the causes of Chartism?
The failure of the 1832 Reform Bill and the
disappointment/betrayal of the middle
classes.
The working classes had supported the Bill
to gain the Middle Classes the vote and now
they felt they had been betrayed as the
Middle Classes had sided with the landed
classes and were not supporting further
reform.
2.
What evidence do you have to support
this?
“what have we gained…worse than nothing”
showing they feel the reform act has taken a
step back from democracy for the working
classes not further.
“augmented the number of our enemies” the
number of “enemies” of the working classes
has increased – there are more people
standing in their way.
“were not fools” it was done on purpose
Source 2
1.
What reason does the source give for
the causes of Chartism?
The middle classes have robbed the
working classes of their votes. The working
classes now need to focus on the Charter
and political change in order to gain back
control.
2.
What evidence do you have to
support this?
“deceived by the middle classes. Again” –
“again” suggest they have before
“fine promises” – refers back to 1832
“humbug” nonsense
“Charter” – political aims of Chartism
“slaves” – tied to the other classes, no
control
Source 3
1.
What reason does the source give for
the causes of Chartism?
Causes of Chartism were economic. Despite
the working classes being the ones who
make the country wealthy they are
struggling to feed themselves.
2.
What evidence do you have to
support this?
“midst of plenty” – the country is wealthy
and doing well and the working classes are
surrounded by those doing well
“Why is it that…we are in such a
condition?” why are the working classes
struggling?
“factories”, “machinery”, “railroads”, “fight
in battles”, “make hats and shoes” – refers
specifically to the working class professions
“cannot get enough to quell the ravings of
hunger” – despite the wealth of the country
some are still starving –
Study Sources 1, 2 and 3.
How far do Sources 2 and 3 support the reasons given for the causes of Chartism in Source 1?
Explain your answer using the evidence of Sources 1, 2 and 3. (20 marks)
SOURCE 1
(From Bronterre O`Brien, writing on the “Rotten House of Commons” in McDouall`s Chartist and
Republican Journal in 1841)
What have we gained by the increase in the constituency made by the Reform
Bill? – I answer worse than nothing. We have merely augmented the number of
our enemies … The men who made the Reform Bill were not fools; neither were
the middle classes for whom it was made. – the Whigs saw, and the middle
classes saw, that the effect of the Bill would be to unite all property against all
poverty.
SOURCE 2
(John Mason, A Tyneside shoemaker warned Chartists in Leicester …)
Don`t be deceived by the middle classes again. You helped them to get their
votes … But where are the fine promises they made you ? Do not listen to their
humbug. Stick to your Charter. You are veritable slaves without your votes.
SOURCE 3
(Taken from the columns of the Star in January 1842)
Why is it that, in the midst of plenty, we are in such a condition? Why is it that
those who are willing to work, that those who have produced everything in
society, without whom the factories would not have been built, the machinery
made, the railroads constructed, the canals cut, who build and man the ships,
who fight the battles, make the hats shoes and coats, and till the land –cannot
get enough to quell the ravings of hunger?
Causes
• Anger with the reform act
• Anger towards the betrayal of the
middle classes
• Situation of the working classes
Points of similarity
• Source 1 – links to 2 over
betrayal of middle classes – this
can be further linked to the
Reform Act
• Source 2 – (as above) + link to
condition of the working classes
• Source 1 + 2 refer to mainly
political causes
• Source 3 – links to “slavery”
comment in 2 but is mainly
discussing economic causes
Points of challenge
Source 1 + 2 focus on political causes
where as 3 focusses on economic
causes – it says the working classes
are the source of the countries wealth
and yet they are starving.
Student Example
Source 3 both agrees and disagrees with Sources 1 and 2. It does this as it gives both
political and economic reasons for Chartism being made. The political reasons given are
that of the government using the working classes for their industrial skills – ‘those who
are willing to work, that those who have produced everything in society’ and in turn are
not rewarded, hence agreeing with Source 2, however, Source 3 is mainly a source dealing
with economic motives of Chartism. This can be seen with ‘cannot get enough to quell
the ravings of hunger’ and is indeed a main motive of Chartism. In 1837, the Trade
Depression began, lasting till 1842. Within this, the government could have intervened
to fix the economy however they did nothing; this will have caused great upset among the
working classes as they suffered from this, barely having enough money to put dinner
upon the table. It is from this, that Chartism formed as there was the belief that if the
Working Classes gained the vote, then being the majority of the population the
government would then listen and respect to what is needed for them. Hence, as Source
3 gives both political and economic reasoning, it was a political movement to fix the
economy. It is hard to draw a line between the two as in a sense they go hand in hand.
The hunger the working classes felt will have influenced them to take action, it is an
example of the Knife and Fork question – they have no money for food and therefore
campaign. Also, William Cobbett said ‘I defy you to agitate a man on a full stomach’ once
again indicating that the reason so many took action within Chartism was due to the fact
that they had no means to support themselves and their family. Hence, it is due to the
economic reasons that Source 3 gives it disagrees with Source 1 and 2. The Source was
produced in 1842; the ending of the Trade Depression and therefore Chartism will have
gained great support due to the lack of food the working classes faced. It originates from
the newspaper The Star and therefore will most likely be exaggerated, however since the
war of the unstamped press was won in 1836, the Star could print what it deemed fit,
even if that is in favour of Chartism – the Northern Star was a newspaper devoted to
Chartism founded by on Fergus O’Connor in 1837 (O’Connor was a key member within
Chartism and was one of the founders).
Comparison
Quotes
Clear answer to
the question
NOP
How can Chartism be interpreted?
Homework: complete the 20 mark question?
Study Sources 1, 2 and 3.
How far do Sources 2 and 3 support the reasons given for the
causes of Chartism in Source 1?
Explain your answer using the evidence of Sources 1, 2 and 3.
(20 marks)
How can Chartism be interpreted?
FEEDBACK
Study Sources 1, 2 and 3.
How far do Sources 2 and 3 support the reasons given for the
causes of Chartism in Source 1?
Explain your answer using the evidence of Sources 1, 2 and 3.
(20 marks)
How far do Sources 2 and 3 support the reasons given for the causes
of Chartism in Source 1?
Source 2 agrees with source 1 as it also blames the middle classes.
It claims that the working classes have been “deceived” by the
middle classes, as they encouraged the working classes to back a
bill which failed to get them the vote, and only achieved a
strengthening of the middle class. It hints at betrayal, as the
middle class have broken their “fine promises” which would
anger the working classes, further encouraging them to “stick to
[their] charter”, which is similar to source 1 as it also mentions
that the bill united “property against all poverty” which would
anger that working classes into fighting back., as they would have
felt hard done by the middle classes. Source 2 is a speech given by
a Tyneside shoemaker, which shows that the Charter did
represent the feelings of the working classes, as he is from an
industrial, working class area, so stating they “are veritable slaves
without [their] votes”, he suggests people in his area have no
political power or freedom. This is also similar to source 1, as 1
gives the impression that the united property owning upper
classes are against the working classes. Both suggest that the rise
in Chartism was a result of political unrest, as the middle classes
strove for political power, which had a negative effect on the
power of the working classes.
Student Example
Main body
Compare this extract to
your mark scheme.
What key skills can you
recognise?
How far do Sources 2 and 3 support the reasons given for the causes
of Chartism in Source 1?
In conclusion, I think sources 2 and 3 are quite
supportive of the reasons for Chartism given in
source 1, as source 2 agrees with the view that the
higher classes are to blame, and the reform bill was
ineffective for the working classes needs. Although
source 3 seems to disagree with this view, the
economic hardship it mentions could be viewed as
a result of the upper classes, as they take all of the
profits and products that the working classes have
worked hard to achieve, and keep it to themselves,
leaving the working classes with nothing but
poverty. Therefore the complaints voiced in source
3 could be seen as a result of the failings of the
reform act pointed out in source 1 and 2.
Student Example
Conclusion
Compare this extract to
your mark scheme.
What key skills can you
recognise?
The Progress of Chartism
What happened?
What progress did Chartism make?
Learning Objectives:
• To understand the
progress of Chartism
• To identify high points
and low points in the
movement
• To begin to understand
why Chartism does not
succeed
The Juvenile Chartist
Such a capital lark signing my name to this Chartist Petition. I always sign it when I goes over the bridge and
when I comes back. (Errand boy`s statement quoted in the Times, April 13th).
It appears that the name of the Duke of Wellington was appended no less than 19 times to the petition
Cartoons
• Look at the cartoon – The Juvenile Chartist;
what type of Chartism does it represent ?
• Who is the “Juvenile Chartist?
• Does it give you any hint as to why Chartism
would fail?
A Special Constable getting ready
Special Constable drying his gunpowder in the frying pan
Cartoons
• Look at the cartoon, The Special Constable;
what does it reveal about why Chartism would
fail ?
• Who is the “Special Constable”?
Presenting the Charter to Parliament
Not so very unreasonable – eh ?
Cartoons
• Look at the cartoon showing the presentation
of the Charter to Parliament.
• What does it show about why Chartism should
have succeeded?
A Physical Force Chartist arming for the fight
Cartoons
• Look at the cartoon about Physical Force
Chartists; what does it tell you about why
Chartism would fail?
Chartism Timeline
• The aim of this task is to identify the main events in
Chartism and to analyse their importance.
• You will need the chapter from last lesson (Chapter 7).
• Use this to identify the main events in Chartism from 1838
to 1848; it is up to you which events you choose. You can
work in twos or threes to do this.
• Then plot these events on a timeline.
• Then decide which are the highs and lows of Chartism on
your timeline; be prepared to justify your answer.
Highs and Lows
Pick out the main events between 1838 and 1840
from your timeline:
• Which ones are HIGHS ?
• Which ones are LOWS ?
Highs and Lows
Now look at the years 1840 to 1848:
• What are the HIGHS ?
• What are the LOWS ?
• Which period of time is more positive or
negative for Chartism ?
Highs and Lows
• Mark on your timeline when the Whigs lost power and
Peel became PM
• Mark on when there was a trade depression
• Mark on when the Mines Act was passed
• Does this help us to explain whether it was a political
or an economic movement?
Progress
• Use the task sheet to find out about specific
events.
What progress did Chartism make?
Learning Objectives:
• To consolidate your
learning about the key
areas of Chartism by
demonstrating what key
ideas you have grasped.
• To apply what you have
learned to the possible
reasons for the failure of
the movement.
What progress did Chartism make?
• Using the 2 chapters you have and the task
sheet find out about some aspects of Chartism
that may have led to it`s failure.
• Work in pairs but then exchange information
to ensure that everyone in your group has the
correct answers.
Support for Chartism
• Find a reason to argue that Chartism was a
national movement.
• Find some evidence to back-up the view that
Chartism was not fully supported by the
working classes.
Support for Chartism
• Find a reason to argue that Chartism was a national movement.
•
•
•
•
Over 200,000 people attended meetings in Birmingham, Manchester and Leeds
Northern Star selling 50,000 copies in 1839
Convention 1839 1.5 million signatures collected – “calimed to represent all people”
Industrial districts of the North, South Lancashire and West Riding of Yorkshire – main
power bases
• Find some evidence to back-up the view that Chartism was not fully
supported by the working classes.
•
•
•
•
Patchy nature of support has led some historians to believe it was not a National
movement
Movement began as a campaign of resistance to policies of the Whigs and protest of
distress in industrial districts
Newport Rising – most middle classes withdrew
Since working class communities varied considerably from place to place a degree of
fragmentations was inevitable
The importance of class
• Find a piece of evidence that proves that the
Chartists were focussed on class conflict.
• Find a reason that explains why the middle
classes might support the Anti-Corn Law
League.
The importance of class
• Find a piece of evidence that proves that the Chartists were
focussed on class conflict.
•
•
•
By 1838 George Julian Harney formed the London Democratic Association and
adopted a policy of class conflict.
In N of England Chartists showed particular hostility to Middle Classes and ACLL –
which they accused of campaigning for ‘Cheap Bread’ in order to reduce wages
Among ordinary Chartists there were variations in degree of antagonism towards
middle classes
• Find a reason that explains why the middle classes might
support the Anti-Corn Law League.
• See above
Strategies
• Identify 2 Moral Force tactics that failed.
• Identify 1 Physical Force tactic that failed.
• How could you argue that the decision not to stage the
Sacred month was
• A) Pragmatic or
• B) Cowardly
Strategies
• Identify 2 Moral Force tactics that failed.
•
•
•
•
1839 – Sacred Month – was called off
1842 – NCA – by end of 1842 the economy was reviving, leadership collapsing and popular
support declining
1848 – Land Plan – shut down by gov when found legal technicality
1839,42,48 – National Convention – e.g. Feb 1839 immediately splits occurred over moral v
physical force – failed to meet aims
• Identify 1 Physical Force tactic that failed.
•
•
1842 – Plug Plots and Riots – industrial sabotage
1839 – Newport Rising – November – 20 marchers killed – 500 arrested
How could you argue that the decision not to stage the Sacred month was
• A) Pragmatic or idea scared away several Chartist delegates (esp Middle classes), potential to
wreck economy (direct attack on employers/gov), probably would have led to physical confrontation
and troops being used, possible deaths, Attwood declared he “washed his hands of any idea, of any
appeal to physical force”
• B) Cowardly gave in to government pressures – angered physical force chartists
Tactics
• Give an example of where the “language of
menace” might be used.
• Give an example of “defensive violence”
• How could both of these be justified by the
Chartists?
Tactics
• Give an example of where the “language of menace” might be
used.
•
•
Many meetings held before Chartist Convention had used the language of menace
Birmingham meeting May 1839 – “No blood shall be shed by us: but if our enemies shed
blood – if they attack the people – they must take the consequences upon their heads”
• Give an example of “defensive violence”
•
•
Adopted by many Chartist leaders summed up by the slogan “peacefully if we can,
forcefully if we must”
1839 London Metropolitan Police were used to break up a peaceful Chartist
Meeting in Birmingham it led to 2 weeks of rioting. William Lovett produced a
placard accusing authorities of a “flagrant and unjust using of bloody and
unconstitutional force” he was arrested for seditious libel and sentenced to 1 year in
prison
• How could both of these be justified by the Chartists?
•
Not a clear cut division between moral and physical force. O’Connor is often associated
with physical force and yet he primarily advocated a peaceful approach
Failure
Find 3 things from this research that might have contributed to the failure of
Chartism.
• Disputes between leaders
–
–
–
O’Connor was main inspiration behind NCA and Northern Star – dominated movement in 1840s
O’Connor denounced Lovetts moderation and attacked ‘new move’
He alienated most other Chartist leaders
• Divisions over tactics
–
–
–
Basic division between moral and physical force Chartists
Moral Chartists – mainly from skilled artisans and they had to be careful not to alienate middle classes
Physical force – believed threat or use of violence were only way to gain success
• Repression
–
–
–
–
Gove made full use of powers to arrest and detain Chartists (especially in 1839/40, 42, 48)
Chartist leaders were under almost constant threat of imprisonment
Demonstrations were dispersed by regular army and new professional police force
Kennington Common demonstration (April 1848) – Chartists tried to over awe in numbers met by police,
special constables and soldiers
• Reform
– Chartist message stemmed from peoples troubles and government tried to undermine this. Peel’s
policies (1841-6) and Whig gov of Russell (1846-52)
– Mines Act (1842), Factory Acts (1844 and 7), Repeal of Corn Laws (1846)
– These all indicated that the gov were beginning to rule in the interests of the people as a whole
Christmas Homework: Strategies and
Tactics
Resources: Both Chapter 7s
1. Single Sheet on Chartist Strategies
2. Read ‘The Ideology of Chartism’ and complete
questions
Due: 6/1/14
What progress did Chartism make?
From both texts find out:1. Why the NCA was so important
2. What the New Move was, why it began and
why it was opposed by some Chartists.
3. What the Land Plan was, why you think it was
popular and why it failed.
4. Read the biography of O`Connor and
highlight the things that contributed to
Chartism`s success and any that might have
contributed to failure.
What progress did Chartism make?
From both texts find out:-
1.
2.
3.
4.
Why the NCA was so important? (set up after it was recognised that stronger central organisation was
needed. O’Connor continued to write for Northern Star despite being in prison and he encouraged
establishment of NCA. Set up in 1840 it became the most important Chartist organisation and by
1842 had 50,000 members and 400 branches)
What the New Move was, why it began and why it was opposed by some Chartists. (promoted the
education of working classes, William Lovett, he devised a scheme with schools, libraries and teacher
training colleges, He argued that working classes had to prove, by self improvement, that they were
responsible citizens which would then calm the fears of the propertied classes – “moral force”.
O’Connor attacked the ‘new moves’ because he saw them as distracting attention from petitioning
backed by weight of numbers)
What the Land Plan was, why you think it was popular and why it failed. (1845 Chartist Land Plan.
O'Connor's Chartist Land Company was a scheme set up in rural Chartist communities. Chartists
were invited to buy shares in the company and if their names were drawn by the lot they would receive
plots of land to cultivate. Among the Industrial working classes this was popular. By 1848 100,000
people had subscribed and 5 communities set up each with homes, schools and parks. But the
authorities hounded O’Connor and his company. They failed to discover malpractice but did find a
legal technicality which enabled them to wind up the company.)
Read the biography of O`Connor and highlight the things that contributed to Chartism`s success
and any that might have contributed to failure. (SUCCESS – MP for County Cork in Ireland, set up
Chartist Land Plan, MP for Nottingham, trained lawyer, set up Northern Star – most widely read
chartist Newspaper, he appointed and paid agents to work in parts of county – act as full time
organisers, profits from paper were used to pay expenses of Chartists on trial or help families of those
imprisoned, powerful speaker, 20,000 attended his funeral. FAILURE – Irish landowning family,
arrogant, “rabble-rouser”, Lovett and other Chartist leaders criticised violence of his language and his
unrealistic expectations.)
Chartism Leadership
Who were the leaders?
Learning Objectives:
• To evaluate the
leadership of O`Connor
• To learn about other
leaders
• To try and decide
whether leadership could
be a reason for the failure
of Chartism
Chartism – Physical Force?
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y49xjm7e6
Q0&feature=fvw
• What is the message of this anthem?
What have you learned?
• What were the Plug Plots ?
• Name 2 different types of Chartism that were
part of the “New Moves”
• What was the thinking behind the Land Plan ?
Feargus O` Connor
• Looking at Source C – what are the key points
that Gammage makes?
• How reliable is this source?
• Using Source E – how does the author defend
O`Connor?
O`Connor
Evil genius
A troublemaker
Brilliant Leader
A national leader
Leadership
• Use the chapter on
Chartist Leaders to
complete a table
about what they
believed.
• In your group take
1 leader each and
fill in the table
about them.
Group 1
Thomas, Charlotte, Jas, Sophie, Katie
Group 2
Catherine, Daniel, Jacob Arkell, Warren,
Fabian
Group 3
Hannah, Shirley, Rosie, Matthew
Group 4
Elizabeth, Kieran, Millie, Jacob Atwell,
Bethany
Leaders compared
Attitude to Moral /
Physical
force
The vote
was a right /
had to be
earned
Involved in
violence
links to
other
groups
Lovett
O`Connor
Harney
Bronterre o`
Brien
Leaders
• How much agreement was there between the
leaders?
• How effective do you think the leadership of
Chartism was?
Leadership
• Watch this short film about Chartism and one of
the local leaders – Thomas Cooper
• What can you learn about why Chartism fails?
William Lovett
Feargus O` Connor
Thomas Cooper
Thomas Attwood
George Harney
Bronterre O’Brien
Leadership
• Lovett and O`Connor were quite different.
• Is this a good thing or a bad thing for
Chartism?
What do sources say about Chartist
Leadership?
• SOURCE 1
• (From Feargus O`Connor Irishman and Chartist, 1961, by Donald
Read and Eric Glasgow)
• O`Connor`s egocentricity (self-centredness) can be conceded at
once. He wanted to be unquestioned leader. Yet as soon as the
Charter was launched a demagogue leader was needed. Lovett
could not play the part: O`Connor was excellently equipped to do
so …
• In creating the Chartist movement as a popular agitation,
O`Connor contributed little original philosophy … But he was not
he first, nor the last, politician to advocate foolish policies.
• Another charge against O`Connor has been that his language was
exaggerated. Three lines of defence are open here. Firstly, all
popular movements require loud language to keep them going.
Secondly, we must not forget the terrible conditions of the time.
Finally, up to a point at least, it was deliberate bluff. O`Connor
knew, as Lovett did not, that Government would never concede
the Charter to a quiet movement. He hoped to frighten them.
SOURCE 2
(From 1848 by John Saville, 1987)
• No-one matched O`Connor in the qualities
demanded of a national leader. He was a superb
platform speaker with a splendid presence,
wonderfully racy and vivid in his language, and
wildly funny both on the platform and in his
writings. Many historians have seen only his
braggadocio (boasting), the … expressions of
prophecies and claims that could never be fulfilled.
But much more important was the confidence that
(he) generated among the poor and downtrodden.
It was this crucial belief in the righteousness of
the cause, and his ability to communicate it in
unequalled terms, that allowed O`Connor to tower
above his fellow Chartists.
• SOURCE 3
• (From The Life and Struggles of William
Lovett by William Lovett, 1876)
•
• I regard Feargus O`Connor as the chief
marplot (troublemaker) of our movement … By
his great professions, by trickery and deceit,
he got the aid of the working classes to
establish an organ to promulgate (make
known) their principles, which he soon
converted into an instrument for destroying
everything intellectual and moral in our
movement … the Star, a mere reflex of the
nature of its master.
Chartism
Reasons for Failure
What reasons contributed to the failure
of Chartism?
Learning Objectives:
• To learn about the
reasons for the failure of
Chartism
Reason for Failure: Leadership
• How effective do you think the leadership of
Chartism was ?
• Watch this short film about Chartism and one
of the local leaders – Thomas Cooper
• What can you learn about why Chartism fails?
Other reasons for failure
• The failure of Chartism might not just be because of
poor leadership; it could be because of economic or
political reasons.
• Your task is to research some key factors and present
them to the rest of the class next week.
• This research will enable you all to answer a (b) type
essay question on the reasons for the failure of
Chartism.
Reasons for failure
Peel`s economic policies / recovery Government control of troops /
railways
Jacob Arkell, Charlotte and Jas
Thomas and Hannah,
Inconsistency of support
Matthew and Catherine
Lack of middle class support / lack
of parliamentary support
Jacob Atwell and Elizabeth
Land Plan / Failure of Petitions
Shirley, Warren and Katie
Peel`s Social Reforms
Daniel and Bethany
Firm Government Policy /arrests
Fabian and Millie
Hunger Politics
Sophie, Rosie and Kieran
Task
• Prepare a Power Point presentation Include an
explanation of what your factor is and give accurate
details about it.
• Include quotes from historians if you can
• Give an opposing view if you can
• Decide how important your factor is as a possible
reason for the failure of Chartism
• Provide handouts for the group and put it on the
shared area for others to download
Failure
• Consider whether the failure of Chartism was
inevitable.
Land Plan / Failure of Petitions
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Revived fortunes of Chartists
Creation of rural communities for Chartists
Set up 1845
Chartists were invited to buy shares in the Chartist Land Company
By 1848 100,000 people were registered subscribers – names drawn by
lot and their families settled in a Chartist Community
5 communities were set up – each with schools, parks, public baths
It was an alternative to waged employment
But poor administration
Government was hostile
O’Connor acted with integrity – no foul play – it owed him £23,000!
But company wound up by an Act of Parliament
O’Connor died in 1855
1848 – used 7000 soldiers, 4000 police and 85,000 special constables
to guard bridges and railway stations
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Inconsistency of support
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Strong in North, weak in South – so no real support in the capital –
yet this is vital for success
No real co-ordinated strategy
North – physical force
Birmingham – Complete Suffrage Union and Moral Force
Scotland – Christian Chartism
So the government are able to divide and rule successfully
Regions were too diverse, work force too divided
Government control of troops / railways
• 1842 – Public disorder – economic downturn
• General strike across Northern England
• Government reacted fearing a conspiracy – they moved towards a state of
emergency
• Troops were dispatched by railway, planned demos were stopped by Police and
the army
• Political state really strong – Police and Army loyal to government
• National Police Force by 1839
• Telegraph was used to warn authorities of danger in advance
Peel`s economic policies / recovery
• 1841 He inherited a deficit of £7.5 million – economy was in deep
depression
• 1842 budget – income tax 3p in the £ on incomes over £150 – special
sacrifice on behalf of the wealthier members of society
• This cleared the deficit – allowed him to lower tariffs
• Import duties (trade) cut – economic recovery and social stability
• He aimed to stimulate domestic industrial production and improve
working class standard of living
Lack of Middle Class Support
Physical Force meant most Middle Class refused to support Chartism
They had their own organisation ACLL (Anti-Corn Law League) and it
was successful
Middle Classes were content as they HAD the vote, so did not want
their property attacked
Whig strategy of linking upper and middle classes had succeeded
The Middle Classes were always tentative
In 1839 before the Charter was presented, 14 of the Middle Class
delegates had resigned from the Convention and were replaced by
Working Class men
Middle Classes frightened by the prospect of working class power
Lack of Parliamentary Support
1839, 1842 and 1848 rejection by Parliament
The establishment felt they had changed the constitution once and did
not want to do it again
Number of candidates stood in General Election of 1847 but only
O’Connor elected for Nottingham
Peel`s Social Reforms
•
•
•
•
•
•
1844 Factory Act passed (not 10 working hours!) – Peel was reluctant to
intervene against preventing profitability of Cotton Factories as this might
stop economic recovery
Mines Act of 1842
1847 Act (Russell’s Government) – 10 hours Act
1846 Corn Laws Repealed
Rising wages, increased food consumption, living standards improved
Showed government was in fact reforming itself in the interests of the
Failure
• Use the Fishbone Diagram to identify why
Chartism failed.
• Start by thinking of all the reasons and write
them on post-it notes.
• Then classify them into 4 main causes of
failure.
• Now display them on the diagram
Reforms
He saw
economic
liberalism as a
means of
maintaining
social and
political order
and he was
affected by
reports of
poverty in 1842
and so felt free
trade was
essential
1839, 1842 and 1848
rejection by
Parliament
The establishment felt
they had changed the
constitution once and
did not want to do it
again. Number of
candidates stood in
General Election of
1847 but only
O’Connor elected for
Nottingham
Government Actions
He aimed to stimulate
domestic industrial
production and improve
working class standard
of living
Ringleaders arrested in 1842
and Chartist leaders under
almost constant risk of
imprisonment
Showed government was
in fact reforming itself in
the interests of the
people – so was Chartism
really needed anymore?
Physical Force meant most
Middle Class refused to
support Chartism
They had their own
organisation ACLL (AntiCorn Law League) and it was
successful. Middle Classes
were content as they HAD
the vote, so did not want
their property attacked.
Lack of Support
Nearly 500 people
put in prison
between 1839 –
1841
Troops were dispatched by railway,
planned demos were stopped by
Police and the army. The political
state was really strong with the
Police and Army loyal to
government.
Special Constables recruited – came
from Middle Classes
Failure of
Chartism
Strong in North, weak in South –
so no real support in the capital
– yet this is vital for success and
there was no real co-ordinated
strategy
Lack of Leadership/direction
There were different
types of Chartism.
Birmingham – Complete
Suffrage Union and Moral
Force, in Scotland –
Christian Chartism.
Regions were too diverse,
work force too divided
Question B
Look at the question and highlight the key words.
(Do you agree that the Chartist Movement was a failure?) Jan 2010
• Highlight N,P, O in the sources.
• Remember to include accurate factual details
from the powerpoints and your own reading.

similar documents