Dr. Lance Richey Department of Theology University of Saint Francis [email protected] OUR PAST I. A Very Short History of Catholic Schools in the United Stated II. A Very Quick Look at Modern Church Teaching on Catholic Education OUR PRESENT III. Catholic Schools or Private Schools? ~ Intermission ~ IV. Knowing Our Identity, Communicating Our Mission OUR FUTURE Getting There From Here – An Open Discussion on Challenges and Strategies OUR PAST A VERY SHORT HISTORY OF CATHOLIC SCHOOLS IN THE UNITED STATES Catholic Education in America– Early Roots In 1606, Spanish Franciscans open a school in what is now St. Augustine, Florida “...to teach children Christian doctrine, reading and writing.” In the 1660’s, French Jesuits instruct among Native American people through-out the St. Lawrence River & Great Lakes region In 1677, English Jesuits establish a preparatory school in Newtown, Maryland In 1718, Franciscans open a school for boys in New Orleans In 1727, the Ursuline Sisters open first all girls academy in New Orleans Catholic Education in America– A New Nation In 1776, there are only 25,000 Catholics in America – 1% of population! In 1782, St. Mary’s Parish School is opened in Philadelphia In 1789, Georgetown Academy established for boys aged 10-16 in Washington, DC In 1790, Jesuit John Carroll becomes first Catholic bishop of US (Baltimore) Catholic Education in America– Growing with the Nation In 1809, Elizabeth Anne Bayley Seton establishes a school for poor children in Emmitsburg, MD and founded the Sisters of Charity of St. Joseph In 1812, the Friends of Mary (later Sisters of Loretto) began to teach poor children in rural Kentucky By 1820, there were 10 Catholic academies in the US In 1831, the Oblate Sisters of Providence are founded by Elizabeth Lange (Mother Mary Elizabeth) then open a school for poor & black children in Baltimore Catholic Education in America– Growing Pains In 1837 Horace Mann and the “Common Schools” established with protestant King James Bible taught By 1850, there are 6 Million Catholics in the US By 1852, there were 100 Catholic academies on US east coast and southern states Anti-Catholic backlash and violence intensifies as more schools and religious orders evolve Catholic Education in America– Fighting Back In 1852, the First Plenary Council of Baltimore responds to anti-Catholic social issues and common school curriculum, “urges” every Catholic parish in US to establish a school In 1866, the Second Plenary Council of Baltimore repeats the “plea” for all parishes to establish a Catholic school 1875 The BLAINE AMENDMENT... In 1884, the Third Plenary Council of Baltimore “REQUIRES” all parishes to establish schools and approves a catechism to be used in schools Catholic Education in America– Growing Strong In 1900, there were 3,500 Catholic elementary and 100 Catholic high schools in the US In 1904, Catholic Education Association (now NCEA) is established In 1920, there were 6,551 Catholic elementary schools and 1,500 Catholic high schools in the US with total enrollment of 1.8 Million students Catholic Education in America– The Golden Age?? 1965 marked the peak of US Catholic school enrollment: 5.5 Million total enrollment in 13,000 schools In 1965, teachers and staff at Catholic schools are 65% religious/clergy and 35% lay faculty OUR PAST A VERY QUICK LOOK AT MODERN CHURCH TEACHING ON CATHOLIC EDUCATION The Baltimore Catechism In 1884, the Third Plenary Council of Baltimore “REQUIRES” all parishes to establish schools and approves a catechism to be used in schools The “Baltimore Catechism” became the basis for Religious instruction in US Catholic Schools until the Second Vatican Council (1962-65) Vatican II Declaration on Christian Education (Gravissimum Educationis) asks bishops to issue detailed statements on the educational ministry in their nations. Guiding rationale includes: Consider the unique context of each nation’s Church & society “...implement in ways suited to their times and circumstances” Involve broad consultation with key and interested educational constituencies Not to be the “final word” - rather more of a “catalyst” for clarifying problems of “polarization and confusion now confronting the educational ministry” “...the mission to teach as Jesus did is a dynamic mandate for Christians of all times, places, and conditions.” To Teach as Jesus Did (1972) 1972 NCCB (now the USCCB) Document on implementing Gravissimum Educationis in the USA Identifies Three Key Dimensions of Catholic Education The MESSAGE... revealed by God & proclaimed by the Church FELLOWSHIP in the life of the Holy Spirit SERVICE to the Christian community and the human community 1981, the 2nd edition added a Fourth Dimension: WORSHIP To Teach …the Message Through Catholic education “...the Church seeks to prepare its members to proclaim the Good News and to translate this proclamation into action” Catholic education must enable personal and social transformation in light of Christian values To Teach...Fellowship “The success of the Church’s educational mission will also be judged by how well it helps the Catholic community to see the dignity of human life with the vision of Jesus and involve itself in the search for solutions to the pressing problems of society” To Teach...Service “ Special knowledge and skills are needed for the effective pursuit of justice and peace.” To Teach … Worship “Creating readiness for growth in community through worship … is an integral part of the task of Catholic education” To Teach As Jesus Did – A Vision for Catholic Schools: Catholic Schools “afford the fullest and best opportunity to realize the fourfold purpose of Christian education.” Bishops affirmed the conviction that the Catholic school “retain its immense importance in the circumstances of our times” Urged parents to “entrust their children to Catholic schools” “The Catholic school is the unique setting” within which a person’s “faith becomes living, conscious and active through the light of instruction.” Catholic schools are “distinguished” by their ability to “integrate religious truth and values with life.” OUR PRESENT CATHOLIC SCHOOLS OR PRIVATE SCHOOLS? The Transformation of Catholic Education in America 1965 2010 13,000 total schools 7,094 total schools 5.5 Million students 2.1 Million students 10% non-white students 30% non-white students 3% non-Catholic students 15% non-Catholic students 45% lay faculty 97% lay faculty (75% women) Challenges and Opportunities In 1990’s and beyond, Catholic school enrollments grow in ethnic, racial and religious diversity In 1997, the State-funded Milwaukee Parental Choice Program is extended to include religious schools In 2011, Indiana extends it Voucher Program to include religious schools Seeing into the Future Note the trends of the past 40 years: More non-Catholic students More ethnic and racial diversity More federal and state funding AND regulation More cultural hostility to Catholic values Fewer Catholic school graduates as teachers Fewer dollars from parishes supporting schools Fewer parents demanding Catholic identity Fewer cultural supports for our students’ faith lives All these trends will certainly continue and accelerate Catholic or Private? Catholic schools in 2011 confront a Perfect Storm of cultural, social and market forces undermining their traditional religious identity Are our schools becoming PRIVATE schools that happen to be Catholic, rather than CATHOLIC schools that happen to be private? Are these two identities increasingly seen as being in tension or even at odds with one another? How we respond to this situation will determine the future not just of Catholic schools but of the Catholic Church in America OUR PRESENT KNOWING OUR IDENTITY, COMMUNICATING OUR MISSION Identity and Mission Identity Who We Are & Where We Come From Faith-filled Teachers Proclaiming the Good News From the Heart of the Church Mission What We Do & Where We Are Going Skilled Educators Forming Minds and Hearts Into the Whole World IDENTITY AND MISSION ARE NOT IDENTICAL, BUT FOR FLOURISHING CATHOLIC SCHOOLS, IDENTITY AND MISSION ARE INSEPERABLE Knowing Our Roots Identity always comes from History The Religious who founded and staffed our Schools are the source of your Institutional Charisms Many schools are losing these visible, living signs of the Catholic tradition in education As they pass on the baton to lay teachers, how do we: Keep alive and pass along their distinctive religious charisms? Remember and honor their work in our schools and with our students? Continue their missions in the 21st Century? Catholic: More Than an Adjective In 2011, YOU are the “Nuns with Guns” Catholic Identity begins at the top with YOU – not as an administrator but as a model and a leader If our Catholic Identity is to really shape our Mission and our methods, it has to be embraced by three groups: Teachers and Administrators Parents Students Each group must be invited to LEARN our Identity and to SHARE in our Mission The first group, Teachers, defines how the other two will receive (or reject) this Identity and Mission, and will be our focus for the remainder of the morning Making Mission Matter: Some Basics Principals provide the vision and the energy for a successful Catholic school by: Showcasing the Catholic identity of the school – especially the invitatory nature of the Church Building our curriculum around our values – NOT tacking our values onto our curriculum Communicating to all parties (teachers, parents and students) the vision of the human person that Catholic education aims at realizing in its students Teachers can and must buy into this vision for it to work Inviting Teachers Into Mission Beyond Clock Hours: Rethinking the Meaning of “Professional Development” in Catholic schools Grasping the difference between “a good Math teacher” and “a good Math teacher at a Catholic school” Breaking down academic walls and embracing the Mission of the school Breaking down school walls and embracing the Mission of the Church MODEL of the “Ideal” Catholic School Educator: - Gini Shimabukuro Ed. D. Five Themes: A successful Catholic Teacher is committed to... 1. Community Building 2. Lifelong Personal Spiritual Growth 3. Professional Development 4. Spiritual Formation of Students 5. Human Development of Students Educating Holistically… Mind Showing how knowledge can reveal the glory of God Body Helping students to unpack their God-given gifts… Soul Seeing students as children of God… Sacred Congregation for Catholic Education, Lay Catholics in Schools: Witness to Faith, 1982 #32 “ The more completely an educator can give concrete witness to the model of the ideal person... the more this ideal will be believed and imitated. For it will then be seen as something reasonable and worthy of being lived, something concrete and realizable.” DOs & DON’Ts of Teaching and Administering for Catholic Mission DO… Help students meet Jesus individually (transformational) Bring God alive communally (sacramental) Provide for local poor & underserved (accessible) DON’T Stifle wonder and awe… Reduce God to a private choice (consumerism) Shut-out the poor/underserved (marginalize) Serve only those who can pay (privatize) The Milwaukee Experience The Archdiocese of Milwaukee, Wisconsin has a very long and vital tradition of Catholic education However, the Catholic schools there confront the same problems as all Catholic schools: Lack of Teacher Training in the Catholic Tradition Money Struggles and Declining Parish Support A Voucher Program that is Changing Religious and Ethnic Demographics of Students and Teachers How to Respond? K-16 Partnerships in Catholic Education: Some Milwaukee Models The Saint Clare Center for Catholic Life, operated by Cardinal Stritch University, has partnered with other Catholic colleges and the Catholic K-12 schools to provide formation for teachers and staff Programming has been developed in close consultation with the Archdiocese of Milwaukee and its Office of Schools to meet the changing needs of the system The need to bring formation to individual schools must be balanced with the need to create venues for building networks and sharing ideas and best practices Culture and Content Building Culture – the STAFF (Schools Theology and Faith Formation) Program offers retreats and gatherings to leadership teams within a school that allow for discernment and brainstorming on developing a Catholic culture for that school. An Our Sunday Visitor Grant helps support this initiative. Teaching Content – in Milwaukee Catholic Schools, all teachers are now required to possess Religious Education Certification. “Sustaining the Mission” has replaced the elective clock hours model with a multi-year/multi-level formation program centered on integrating Catholic Faith, Mission and Classroom Effectiveness, resulting in RE Certification for participants. In its first year (2011-12), 100 out of 112 Archdiocesan Catholic schools have signed up for the program. Working Together Mission and Identity must be the driver behind the work of any Catholic school Rather than being “one more thing” to do, it has to be the reason for everything we do Seeing it as such makes it a source of energy and community, not a drain on them Having Hard Conversations: those who refuse repeated invitations to share the Mission are self-selecting out of Catholic education Not all teachers need to BE Catholic, but all teachers need to KNOW and SUPPORT the Catholic Mission of a school The Milwaukee Experience: Schools that put Mission first have to turn away good teachers because too many want to share in the teaching ministry of the Church OUR FUTURE???? Catholic Schools in the Diocese of Fort Wayne-South Bend are wellpositioned to thrive both as CATHOLIC and as SCHOOLS if they can see their environment as filled with RESOURCES rather than roadblocks: FINANCIAL RESOURCES: A new voucher program which can drive enrollment beyond traditional boundaries INSTITUTIONAL RESOURCES: A long and strong history of Catholic K-12 education ECCLESIAL RESOURCES: Bishop Rhoades, dynamic and strongly committed to Catholic education EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES: A strong network of Catholic colleges with knowledge of the history and tradition of Catholic education HUMAN RESOURCES: An obviously talented and dedicated community of teachers, staff and principals committed to the Mission of the Church So…….. Where do we go from here? Key Questions for Discussion 1. 2. 3. 4. What does the history and tradition of Catholic schools suggest to us about the future of Catholic schools in America (and especially our Diocese)? What are the most pressing difficulties and needs you can identify in identifying and accomplishing your school’s mission? What resources do you need in order to reach this future and bring your teachers, parents and students on board? What would you build if you were given the power to systematically address the challenges confronting our Catholic schools? ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to thanks Mr. Eamonn O’Keeffe of the Saint Clare Center for Catholic Life, at Cardinal Stritch University, Milwaukee, WI, for generously sharing his knowledge of and passion for Catholic education in the preparation of this presentation.