language - Istituto Magistrale "Isabella Gonzaga"

Report
Istituto Statale ‘ISABELLA GONZAGA’, Chieti
Liceo Linguistico
Seminar
THE LANGUAGE OF TOURIST DISCOURSE
Prof.ssa Marisa DI LELLO
March 15th 2014
The Language of tourism
 Goal
Its objective is to promote, inform and communicate the
value of tourist attractions, attract, and convince the
greatest number of tourists.
“persuade, lure, woo, and seduce millions of human beings, and, in so
doing, convert them from potential into actual clients” (G.Dann)
 Requirements
Simplicity, precision, accuracy, clarity, accessibility and
usability
Multiplicity of ‘labels’
In the English-speaking world:
 J.R Firth: English for Tourism is included among the
“restricted languages”.
They are designated as LSP (Languages for Specific
Purposes) or more specifically (ESP English for Specific
Purposes).
In Italy:
 De Mauro: ‘scientific language’
 Berruto, Cortellazzo, Sobrero: ‘special language’
 Gotti: ‘specialized language’
 Gotti
“Specialized languages are defined as those subsystems
of the common language that are used in professional,
technical or scientific fields for descriptive or
communicative purposes ."
The language of tourism is therefore included among the
special languages because:
 is a 'subsystem of the common language',
 makes use of own lexical and morpho-syntactic rules and
own textual structures,
 is used in a 'particular professional field' ‘for descriptive or
communicative purposes' by both experts and the general
public.
 Balboni observes that the language of tourism is to be
seen as a bundle of micro-languages to be broken into
its various functional and thematic parts. Each part
has its own features.
 Calvi observes that the language of tourism has an
‘elusive 'physiognomy ' since it:
 absorbs/borrows words from various fields (geography,
economy, sociology, psychology, history, art history,
gastronomy,
sport,
architecture,
archeology,
environment, religion, business, customs and tradition,
music and dance);
 embodies several functions (persuasive, informative,
argumentative);
 is multidisciplinary, elusive and hybrid
LEXICAL,
MORPHO-SYNTACTIC
AND TEXTUAL
ASPECTS
LEXICAL ASPECTS
 Technical terms
- […] a beautifully balanced painting in which the poses of Gabriel and Mary
carefully mirror one another, while the hand of God releasing the dove of the
Holy Spirit provides the vanishing point (Rough Guide, 2003:43).
- The most eye-catching canvas in room 2 is the anamorphic portrait of the
same, syphilitic Edward VI, […] (Rough Guide, 2003:51).
- Next door is the Queen’s Robing chamber, which boasts a superb coffered
ceiling and lacklustre Arthurian frescoes (Rough Guide, 2003:69).
- The Henry VII Chapel, in the easternmost part of the abbey, is an outstanding
example of late-perpendicular architecture, with spectacular circular
vaulting on the ceiling. The wooden choir stalls are carved with exotic
creatures and adorned with colourful heraldic flags […] (Lonely Planet,
2004:126).
Lexical strategies
 keywords, used to “fire the immagination”,
“persuade, lure, woo, and seduce millions of human
beings, and, in so doing, convert them from
potential into actual clients” (G.Dann)
Away
adventure
dream
Imagination
pleasure
escape
 ‘languaging’:
The use of foreign words which are real or invented
induces a feeling of inferiority in tourists who thus let
themselves be influenced and guided by the tourist
message.
For instance:
“If you are lucky, you may also see the world famous Sri
Sri Radha Londonisvara”
(The London Discount Guide – leaflet).
 Figures of speech, in particular metaphors and
similes.
Similes are used to “manage the unfamiliarity of
destination for the tourist” (G.Dann).
“metaphors and hyperboles have never proved to be
suitable for tourism"(Boyer e Viallon), because they do
not meet tourist discourse’s prime requirements of
clarity and simplicity.
 Word formation
 common terms take on a different meaning in special languages:
package > package tour
congestion > air traffic congestion (or traffic jam)
 Acronyms and Initials: B&B (bed and breakfast), DLR
(Docklands Light Railway), TfL (Transport for
London),
LTB
(London
Tourist
Board),
internationally-accepted abbreviations of cities and
airports
 New compound words: Half-board, full-board, hotel
chain; holiday farmhouse; theme park; game reserve;
one way ticket; combined ticket.
MORPHO-SYNTACTIC ASPECTS
 Verb  Noun
 Passive voice
Superlatives
-Britain’s oldest Catholic church […] (Time Out, 2003:101)
-Among the most striking armour displayed […] (Rough Guide,
2003:217)
-For old Westminster is London at its grandest (The Original
London Walks – brochure)
-Some of the tower’s most famous prisoners were held around
Tower Green (The Tower of London – brochure)
Verb tenses
 Present simple
- Standing alone in the vast empty tract of the Salisbury
plains and with origins dating back nearly 5,000 years,
Stonehenge remains a place of wonder and mystery.
(Bath, Windsor & Stonehenge – brochure).
- The past is cast in stone and we take it all in: ancient
Westminster Hall, the House of Parliament, the Jewel
Tower, and Westminster Abbey. And to see it with a
great guide is to have that past suddenly rise to the
surface…like seeing a photographic print come up in a
darkroom. (The Original London Walks – brochure)
 Imperative
1.
Invites the tourist to participate to the attraction
Gain a fascinating insight into the role of the Crown
Jewels in royal pageantry with our introductory films,
which include rare colour footage of HM Queen
Elizabeth II’s coronation. Once inside the Treasury,
marvel at the Imperial State Crown worn at the
Opening of Parliament and be dazzled by the world’s
largest, top quality cut diamond, Cullinan I, set in the
Sovereign’s Sceptre. (The Tower of London – brochure)
2. Is used to give instructions
Start with your back to the entrance of Hampstead
Heath train station. Turn right up South Road, with the
heath looming before you on the right. (Time Out,
2003:148)
Modal verbs
will, would, can, could, may, might, should, must
In the language of tourism
modal verbs do not indicate the future (will), probability
and possibility (would, can, could, may, might),
obligation (should, must),
but express “a way of behaviour, a mode of action to be
taken by the tourist who is being addressed” (P.Edwards e
C.Carrettero).
On the way to Westminster Abbey you will hear about
Leonardo Da Vinci, and get a chance to see a work of him.
At Westminster Abbey you can hear more stories about
other important people in the book like Isaac Newton, who
is buried in the Abbey. (Quality Walking Tours, Golden
Tours – leaflet)
‘Ego-targetting’ strategy
WE, OUR, US - tourist business
YOU, YOUR - receiver/s
We’ve also created a brief directory to help you find
some of the area’s non-shoe & clothing offerings such
as lingerie, whiskey, tea and books. Don’t miss our visit
to Mon Plaisir where we enjoyed London’s best French
cuisine in a wonderfully charming Gallic ambience,
while our article on Traditional pubs will encourage
you to join in Britain’s longstanding favourite pastime.
(Covent Garden Guide, July 2005:1).
TEXTUAL ASPECTS
 Tourist texts for experts in tourism:
essays and articles on economics, marketing and
sociology of tourism
 Tourist texts oriented to the general public:
leaflets, brochures, flyers, posters, descriptive panels,
visitor guides, magazines, travelogues
Tourist texts are produced by:
 Tourist Boards
 City councils
 Private enterprises
Their goal is to promote a given locality, its tourist
attractions, services and facilities.
Tourist texts may be distributed abroad or made
available in the host countries.
Leaflets
 giving information about cultural events and describing
places of historical, artistic and geographical interest
Brochures
 giving information about cultural events and describing
places of historical, artistic and geographical interest
Flyers
 advertising trips and events
Posters
 advertising events and artistic performances
Descriptive panels
 placed near monuments, areas of geographical interest or
places of worship
Visitor guides and travel guides
 available in booklet and brochure format
e.g. Time Out, Lonely Planet, Rough Guide, Insight
Compact Guide, Mondadori, De Agostini.
Magazines
 Multilingual and monolingual magazines
Travelogues
 Tourism-related
columns in newspapers and
magazines where ads and descriptive texts alternate.
 A written account in which tourists describe both
positive and negative experiences of their vacation and
give advice and information to potential tourists.
ANALYSIS OF THREE ENGLISH GUIDE-BOOKS
Scope of analysis: CULTURAL TOURISM
Means of analysis: KEYWORDS
Keyword semantic groups
 HISTORY





century/ies royal James’s Tudor Henry William
George Roman medieval Victoria Edward
queen king’s Charles history Victorian Mary court
wren war eighteenth John James Thomas Georgian
gothic fire nineteenth
GEOGRAPHY
east Thames south north map west UK
ARTS
artists contemporary art/s style modern
statue paintings portrait exhibition/s works
architecture collection
PUBLIC BUILDINGS AND CITY PLANNING
street/s museum gallery/ies tower city’s square
house/s room/s building/s entrance bridge hall
marble chapel road temple cathedral stone floor
place side abbey corner jane church brick centre
theatre site dome palace public wing glass
LONDON
central green area/’s Chelsea city Paul’s Greenwich
Westminter Hampstead soho Kensington mile bank
London/’s tate Richmond Londoners hill heath
SERVICES tube park garden/s pub station rail tour/s shops
restaurant/s café traffic market visit walk admission
bus
Keywords describe the city from different
points of view (artistic, historical,
geographical, architectural, urban).
All semantic fields relate to aspects of the
English culture.
Therefore, these keywords are classified as
culture-bound words (or culture-specific
items): words that are deeply rooted in the
culture of origin
INTERCULTURAL ASPECTS
In Tourism, language and culture are closely
linked.
As well as being regulated by a code of grammar
and syntax rules, the language is above all the
means by which a community expresses their
thoughts and values, their beliefs, their
culture.
The special language of travel guides presents a
high frequency of cultural expressions.
Therefore, translating
continuous
reference
background.
tourism requires a
to
the
cultural
Every intercultural aspect has to be taken into
thorough consideration.
‘Domesticating’ translation
 Lawrence Venuti:
“Domestication is the strategy of making text closely
conform to the culture of the language being
translated to”.
The aim is to prevent the culture of origin from
appearing 'exotic' and 'distant' but make the tourist
feel himself/herself in a cosier and more familiar
context.
Some English and Italian
tourist sub-genres differ significantly
with regard to CONTENT and STYLE
CONTENT
ENGLISH VISITOR
GUIDES
include information on:
 places of cultural and
historical interest
 shopping facilities
 car and street parking
 bus, coach and train
services
ITALIAN VISITOR
GUIDES
focus mainly on:
 art
 architecture
 history
 gastronomy
STYLE
ENGLISH TOURIST
LANGUAGE
 personal and informal style:
imperative, used to invite the
reader to visit, explore and
enjoy the attractions of a given
town, city or village
 Impersonal: passive
constructions
ITALIAN TOURIST
LANGUAGE
 impersonal and formal style,
often rendered by passive
constructions.
 The personal style is reserved to
texts with a dominant appellative
function and even then, the reader
is usually addressed in the formal
second person plural pronoun
‘VOI’.
 Vivid, florid descriptions in
evocative, figurative language
Tourist texts fulfil
two communicative functions:
 Informative:
- provides information
- oriented towards the context
 Appellative:
-for persuasive purposes
 -oriented towards the addressee
Examples of appellative imperatives
taken from English tourist brochures and leaflets
 Visit the Roman City at Wroxeter.
 See the remarkable Iron Bridge itself and explore
seven museums (…)
 Discover the delicate art and mistery (…)
 Enjoy the unique experience of Granada Studios tour.
(…)
Examples of appellative imperatives taken
from an Italian tourist brochure:
 Preparatevi ad una sensazione di benessere (…).
 Lasciatevi catturare dall’essenza di questa terra (…).
 Pensate alle Terre di Siena e dimenticatevi tutto il
resto.
 Apprestiamoci a visitare quei monumenti e quei
palazzi che custodiscono il segreto dei secoli passati.
From ‘Acqueantiche.Terre di Siena’
TRANSLATING TOURIST TEXTS
FROM ENGLISH INTO ITALIAN
The convention is to adhere to the target language
style:
 English imperatives tend to be translated with
impersonal expressions, unless the target text has a
prominent appellative function.
 Different regulatory conventions concerning
translation of culture-bound words.
the
English
Italian
PERSONAL STYLE
(imperatives)
IMPERSONAL STYLE
 Visit a truly unique
Scottish destination.
 Share with us the legacy of
ancient peoples.
 Absorb dramatic and
breath-taking scenery.
 La Scozia è una meta
veramente unica.
 Qui è possibile condividere
l’eredità degli antichi popoli.
 In Scozia è possibile
ammirare scenari maestosi e
mozzafiato.
Share with us the legacy of ancient peoples.
 Qui è possibile condividere l’eredità degli antichi
popoli.
 (…) Potrete condividere…
 (…) Condividerete…
 Condividete…
Peculiar usage of imperatives
 Walk along the main street and you’ll see
some magnificent monuments.
 Passeggiando lungo la via principale della città,
potrete ammirare alcuni maestosi monumenti.
 Live the history and solve the mistery
within this medieval attraction.
 Rivivendo la storia, potrete svelare i misteri
racchiusi in questa attrazione medievale.
CULTURE-BOUND WORDS (1)
Monuments, museums,
places of worship and historical interest
 Westminster Bridge
 Il Ponte di Westminster
 The Tower of London
 La Torre di Londra
 National Museum of Scotland
 Museo Nazionale Scozzese
 St Paul’s Cathedral
 La Cattedrale di St Paul
 St Alfege’s Church
 La Chiesa di St Alfege
 Glamis Castle
 Il Castello di Glamis
CULTURE-BOUND WORDS (2)
Associations, clubs, ships, colleges, observatories, shopping
centre, theatres, halls, galleries, markets
 Old Royal Observatory
 Old Royal Observatory
 Royal Naval College
 Royal Naval College
 Mayflower
 La Mayflower
 Mermaid Theatre
 Mermaid Theatre
 Royal Festival Hall
 La Royal Festival Hall
 Hayward Gallery
 Hayward Gallery
 Old Billingsgate Market
 Old Billingsgate Market
 Royal Society for the
 Royal Society for the
Protection of the Birds
 Overgate Shopping Centre
Protection of the Birds
 L’Overgate Shopping
Centre
Visitbritain.com 2011
Source Text
Target Text
You’re intrigued
Per intrigarti
You’re invigorated
Per darti nuova energia
You’re invited
Ti invitiamo
You’re intrepid
Per farti vivere l’avventura
You’re inspired
Per ispirarti
You’re in tune
Per sintonizzarti
You’re involved
Per farti sentire parte di noi
You’re in awe
Per impressionarti
You will find your invitation to
Great Britain to visitbritain.com
Il tuo invito in Gran Bretagna è
su visitbritain.com
Lexical resources
for tourist translation
Monolingual Dictionaries
 Beaver A. (2005), English Monolingual Dictionaries: A Dictionary of
Travel and Tourism Terminology, Oxford, CAB International
 Harris R. and Howard J. (2001), Dictionary of Travel, Tourism and
Hospitality Terms, Global Books & Subscriptions Services
 Medlik S. (2003), Dictionary of Travel, Tourism and Hospitality,
Butterworth-Heinemann A & C Black Publishers
 Collins V. R. (2008), The Tourism Society's Dictionary for Tourism
Industry, Oxford, CAB International
 Chandra Nigam S. (2007), Dictionary of Tourism, Rajat Publications
 Russell J.(2005), Dictionary of Leisure, Travel and Tourism, A&C Black
Bilingual Dictionaries
 Bait, M. and Vergallo, L. (2002), Dictionary of tourism:
inglese-italiano, italiano-inglese, Milano, Modern
Languages.
On-line Monolingual Dictionaries
 Tourism Dictionary online
http://www.tourismdictionary.com
 Travel Industry Dictionary
http://www.hometravelagency.com/dictionary
Thank you for your attention!

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