Istituto Statale ‘ISABELLA GONZAGA’, Chieti Liceo Linguistico Seminar THE LANGUAGE OF TOURIST DISCOURSE Prof.ssa Marisa DI LELLO March 15th 2014 The Language of tourism Goal Its objective is to promote, inform and communicate the value of tourist attractions, attract, and convince the greatest number of tourists. “persuade, lure, woo, and seduce millions of human beings, and, in so doing, convert them from potential into actual clients” (G.Dann) Requirements Simplicity, precision, accuracy, clarity, accessibility and usability Multiplicity of ‘labels’ In the English-speaking world: J.R Firth: English for Tourism is included among the “restricted languages”. They are designated as LSP (Languages for Specific Purposes) or more specifically (ESP English for Specific Purposes). In Italy: De Mauro: ‘scientific language’ Berruto, Cortellazzo, Sobrero: ‘special language’ Gotti: ‘specialized language’ Gotti “Specialized languages are defined as those subsystems of the common language that are used in professional, technical or scientific fields for descriptive or communicative purposes ." The language of tourism is therefore included among the special languages because: is a 'subsystem of the common language', makes use of own lexical and morpho-syntactic rules and own textual structures, is used in a 'particular professional field' ‘for descriptive or communicative purposes' by both experts and the general public. Balboni observes that the language of tourism is to be seen as a bundle of micro-languages to be broken into its various functional and thematic parts. Each part has its own features. Calvi observes that the language of tourism has an ‘elusive 'physiognomy ' since it: absorbs/borrows words from various fields (geography, economy, sociology, psychology, history, art history, gastronomy, sport, architecture, archeology, environment, religion, business, customs and tradition, music and dance); embodies several functions (persuasive, informative, argumentative); is multidisciplinary, elusive and hybrid LEXICAL, MORPHO-SYNTACTIC AND TEXTUAL ASPECTS LEXICAL ASPECTS Technical terms - […] a beautifully balanced painting in which the poses of Gabriel and Mary carefully mirror one another, while the hand of God releasing the dove of the Holy Spirit provides the vanishing point (Rough Guide, 2003:43). - The most eye-catching canvas in room 2 is the anamorphic portrait of the same, syphilitic Edward VI, […] (Rough Guide, 2003:51). - Next door is the Queen’s Robing chamber, which boasts a superb coffered ceiling and lacklustre Arthurian frescoes (Rough Guide, 2003:69). - The Henry VII Chapel, in the easternmost part of the abbey, is an outstanding example of late-perpendicular architecture, with spectacular circular vaulting on the ceiling. The wooden choir stalls are carved with exotic creatures and adorned with colourful heraldic flags […] (Lonely Planet, 2004:126). Lexical strategies keywords, used to “fire the immagination”, “persuade, lure, woo, and seduce millions of human beings, and, in so doing, convert them from potential into actual clients” (G.Dann) Away adventure dream Imagination pleasure escape ‘languaging’: The use of foreign words which are real or invented induces a feeling of inferiority in tourists who thus let themselves be influenced and guided by the tourist message. For instance: “If you are lucky, you may also see the world famous Sri Sri Radha Londonisvara” (The London Discount Guide – leaflet). Figures of speech, in particular metaphors and similes. Similes are used to “manage the unfamiliarity of destination for the tourist” (G.Dann). “metaphors and hyperboles have never proved to be suitable for tourism"(Boyer e Viallon), because they do not meet tourist discourse’s prime requirements of clarity and simplicity. Word formation common terms take on a different meaning in special languages: package > package tour congestion > air traffic congestion (or traffic jam) Acronyms and Initials: B&B (bed and breakfast), DLR (Docklands Light Railway), TfL (Transport for London), LTB (London Tourist Board), internationally-accepted abbreviations of cities and airports New compound words: Half-board, full-board, hotel chain; holiday farmhouse; theme park; game reserve; one way ticket; combined ticket. MORPHO-SYNTACTIC ASPECTS Verb Noun Passive voice Superlatives -Britain’s oldest Catholic church […] (Time Out, 2003:101) -Among the most striking armour displayed […] (Rough Guide, 2003:217) -For old Westminster is London at its grandest (The Original London Walks – brochure) -Some of the tower’s most famous prisoners were held around Tower Green (The Tower of London – brochure) Verb tenses Present simple - Standing alone in the vast empty tract of the Salisbury plains and with origins dating back nearly 5,000 years, Stonehenge remains a place of wonder and mystery. (Bath, Windsor & Stonehenge – brochure). - The past is cast in stone and we take it all in: ancient Westminster Hall, the House of Parliament, the Jewel Tower, and Westminster Abbey. And to see it with a great guide is to have that past suddenly rise to the surface…like seeing a photographic print come up in a darkroom. (The Original London Walks – brochure) Imperative 1. Invites the tourist to participate to the attraction Gain a fascinating insight into the role of the Crown Jewels in royal pageantry with our introductory films, which include rare colour footage of HM Queen Elizabeth II’s coronation. Once inside the Treasury, marvel at the Imperial State Crown worn at the Opening of Parliament and be dazzled by the world’s largest, top quality cut diamond, Cullinan I, set in the Sovereign’s Sceptre. (The Tower of London – brochure) 2. Is used to give instructions Start with your back to the entrance of Hampstead Heath train station. Turn right up South Road, with the heath looming before you on the right. (Time Out, 2003:148) Modal verbs will, would, can, could, may, might, should, must In the language of tourism modal verbs do not indicate the future (will), probability and possibility (would, can, could, may, might), obligation (should, must), but express “a way of behaviour, a mode of action to be taken by the tourist who is being addressed” (P.Edwards e C.Carrettero). On the way to Westminster Abbey you will hear about Leonardo Da Vinci, and get a chance to see a work of him. At Westminster Abbey you can hear more stories about other important people in the book like Isaac Newton, who is buried in the Abbey. (Quality Walking Tours, Golden Tours – leaflet) ‘Ego-targetting’ strategy WE, OUR, US - tourist business YOU, YOUR - receiver/s We’ve also created a brief directory to help you find some of the area’s non-shoe & clothing offerings such as lingerie, whiskey, tea and books. Don’t miss our visit to Mon Plaisir where we enjoyed London’s best French cuisine in a wonderfully charming Gallic ambience, while our article on Traditional pubs will encourage you to join in Britain’s longstanding favourite pastime. (Covent Garden Guide, July 2005:1). TEXTUAL ASPECTS Tourist texts for experts in tourism: essays and articles on economics, marketing and sociology of tourism Tourist texts oriented to the general public: leaflets, brochures, flyers, posters, descriptive panels, visitor guides, magazines, travelogues Tourist texts are produced by: Tourist Boards City councils Private enterprises Their goal is to promote a given locality, its tourist attractions, services and facilities. Tourist texts may be distributed abroad or made available in the host countries. Leaflets giving information about cultural events and describing places of historical, artistic and geographical interest Brochures giving information about cultural events and describing places of historical, artistic and geographical interest Flyers advertising trips and events Posters advertising events and artistic performances Descriptive panels placed near monuments, areas of geographical interest or places of worship Visitor guides and travel guides available in booklet and brochure format e.g. Time Out, Lonely Planet, Rough Guide, Insight Compact Guide, Mondadori, De Agostini. Magazines Multilingual and monolingual magazines Travelogues Tourism-related columns in newspapers and magazines where ads and descriptive texts alternate. A written account in which tourists describe both positive and negative experiences of their vacation and give advice and information to potential tourists. ANALYSIS OF THREE ENGLISH GUIDE-BOOKS Scope of analysis: CULTURAL TOURISM Means of analysis: KEYWORDS Keyword semantic groups HISTORY century/ies royal James’s Tudor Henry William George Roman medieval Victoria Edward queen king’s Charles history Victorian Mary court wren war eighteenth John James Thomas Georgian gothic fire nineteenth GEOGRAPHY east Thames south north map west UK ARTS artists contemporary art/s style modern statue paintings portrait exhibition/s works architecture collection PUBLIC BUILDINGS AND CITY PLANNING street/s museum gallery/ies tower city’s square house/s room/s building/s entrance bridge hall marble chapel road temple cathedral stone floor place side abbey corner jane church brick centre theatre site dome palace public wing glass LONDON central green area/’s Chelsea city Paul’s Greenwich Westminter Hampstead soho Kensington mile bank London/’s tate Richmond Londoners hill heath SERVICES tube park garden/s pub station rail tour/s shops restaurant/s café traffic market visit walk admission bus Keywords describe the city from different points of view (artistic, historical, geographical, architectural, urban). All semantic fields relate to aspects of the English culture. Therefore, these keywords are classified as culture-bound words (or culture-specific items): words that are deeply rooted in the culture of origin INTERCULTURAL ASPECTS In Tourism, language and culture are closely linked. As well as being regulated by a code of grammar and syntax rules, the language is above all the means by which a community expresses their thoughts and values, their beliefs, their culture. The special language of travel guides presents a high frequency of cultural expressions. Therefore, translating continuous reference background. tourism requires a to the cultural Every intercultural aspect has to be taken into thorough consideration. ‘Domesticating’ translation Lawrence Venuti: “Domestication is the strategy of making text closely conform to the culture of the language being translated to”. The aim is to prevent the culture of origin from appearing 'exotic' and 'distant' but make the tourist feel himself/herself in a cosier and more familiar context. Some English and Italian tourist sub-genres differ significantly with regard to CONTENT and STYLE CONTENT ENGLISH VISITOR GUIDES include information on: places of cultural and historical interest shopping facilities car and street parking bus, coach and train services ITALIAN VISITOR GUIDES focus mainly on: art architecture history gastronomy STYLE ENGLISH TOURIST LANGUAGE personal and informal style: imperative, used to invite the reader to visit, explore and enjoy the attractions of a given town, city or village Impersonal: passive constructions ITALIAN TOURIST LANGUAGE impersonal and formal style, often rendered by passive constructions. The personal style is reserved to texts with a dominant appellative function and even then, the reader is usually addressed in the formal second person plural pronoun ‘VOI’. Vivid, florid descriptions in evocative, figurative language Tourist texts fulfil two communicative functions: Informative: - provides information - oriented towards the context Appellative: -for persuasive purposes -oriented towards the addressee Examples of appellative imperatives taken from English tourist brochures and leaflets Visit the Roman City at Wroxeter. See the remarkable Iron Bridge itself and explore seven museums (…) Discover the delicate art and mistery (…) Enjoy the unique experience of Granada Studios tour. (…) Examples of appellative imperatives taken from an Italian tourist brochure: Preparatevi ad una sensazione di benessere (…). Lasciatevi catturare dall’essenza di questa terra (…). Pensate alle Terre di Siena e dimenticatevi tutto il resto. Apprestiamoci a visitare quei monumenti e quei palazzi che custodiscono il segreto dei secoli passati. From ‘Acqueantiche.Terre di Siena’ TRANSLATING TOURIST TEXTS FROM ENGLISH INTO ITALIAN The convention is to adhere to the target language style: English imperatives tend to be translated with impersonal expressions, unless the target text has a prominent appellative function. Different regulatory conventions concerning translation of culture-bound words. the English Italian PERSONAL STYLE (imperatives) IMPERSONAL STYLE Visit a truly unique Scottish destination. Share with us the legacy of ancient peoples. Absorb dramatic and breath-taking scenery. La Scozia è una meta veramente unica. Qui è possibile condividere l’eredità degli antichi popoli. In Scozia è possibile ammirare scenari maestosi e mozzafiato. Share with us the legacy of ancient peoples. Qui è possibile condividere l’eredità degli antichi popoli. (…) Potrete condividere… (…) Condividerete… Condividete… Peculiar usage of imperatives Walk along the main street and you’ll see some magnificent monuments. Passeggiando lungo la via principale della città, potrete ammirare alcuni maestosi monumenti. Live the history and solve the mistery within this medieval attraction. Rivivendo la storia, potrete svelare i misteri racchiusi in questa attrazione medievale. CULTURE-BOUND WORDS (1) Monuments, museums, places of worship and historical interest Westminster Bridge Il Ponte di Westminster The Tower of London La Torre di Londra National Museum of Scotland Museo Nazionale Scozzese St Paul’s Cathedral La Cattedrale di St Paul St Alfege’s Church La Chiesa di St Alfege Glamis Castle Il Castello di Glamis CULTURE-BOUND WORDS (2) Associations, clubs, ships, colleges, observatories, shopping centre, theatres, halls, galleries, markets Old Royal Observatory Old Royal Observatory Royal Naval College Royal Naval College Mayflower La Mayflower Mermaid Theatre Mermaid Theatre Royal Festival Hall La Royal Festival Hall Hayward Gallery Hayward Gallery Old Billingsgate Market Old Billingsgate Market Royal Society for the Royal Society for the Protection of the Birds Overgate Shopping Centre Protection of the Birds L’Overgate Shopping Centre Visitbritain.com 2011 Source Text Target Text You’re intrigued Per intrigarti You’re invigorated Per darti nuova energia You’re invited Ti invitiamo You’re intrepid Per farti vivere l’avventura You’re inspired Per ispirarti You’re in tune Per sintonizzarti You’re involved Per farti sentire parte di noi You’re in awe Per impressionarti You will find your invitation to Great Britain to visitbritain.com Il tuo invito in Gran Bretagna è su visitbritain.com Lexical resources for tourist translation Monolingual Dictionaries Beaver A. (2005), English Monolingual Dictionaries: A Dictionary of Travel and Tourism Terminology, Oxford, CAB International Harris R. and Howard J. (2001), Dictionary of Travel, Tourism and Hospitality Terms, Global Books & Subscriptions Services Medlik S. (2003), Dictionary of Travel, Tourism and Hospitality, Butterworth-Heinemann A & C Black Publishers Collins V. R. (2008), The Tourism Society's Dictionary for Tourism Industry, Oxford, CAB International Chandra Nigam S. (2007), Dictionary of Tourism, Rajat Publications Russell J.(2005), Dictionary of Leisure, Travel and Tourism, A&C Black Bilingual Dictionaries Bait, M. and Vergallo, L. (2002), Dictionary of tourism: inglese-italiano, italiano-inglese, Milano, Modern Languages. On-line Monolingual Dictionaries Tourism Dictionary online http://www.tourismdictionary.com Travel Industry Dictionary http://www.hometravelagency.com/dictionary Thank you for your attention!